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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 895329, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987471

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to more attentions paid to melanized fungi over the past few decades and under the background of the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) the fact that the virus itself and the immunosuppressive agents such as glucocorticoids can further increase the risk of infections of deep mycoses, the number of patients with phaeohyphomycosis (PHM) has a substantial increase. Their spectrum is broad and the early diagnosis and treatments are extremely sticky. This study aims to more comprehensively understand the clinical features of phaeohyphomycosis in China over 35 years and to establish a more applicable systematical classification and severity grades of lesions to guide treatments and prognosis. Methods: We reviewed 174 cases of proven phaeohyphomycosis reported in Chinese and English language literature from 1987 to 2021 and we also made the accurate classification definitions and detailed information about the epidemiology, species of clinical dematiaceous fungi, minimum inhibitory concentration values, clinical features, treatments, and prognosis. Results: The mortality of cerebral, disseminated and pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis are 55%, 36%, and 25%. Nearly 19% of patients had poor quality of life caused by the complications such as disability, disfigurements, and blindness. The overall misdiagnosis rate of phaeohyphomycosis was 74%. Moderate to severe rashes are accounting for 82% of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. The areas of the head and face are mostly affected accounting for 16% of severe rashes. Nearly 30% of invasive infections of phaeohyphomycosis are triggered by recurrent lesions. Voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-DOC), and terbinafine were most commonly used but diagnosis and treatments of phaeohyphomycosis remain challenging in reality. Conclusions: Our classifications are likely to be more practical and easier to popularize, and there are still also plenty of characteristics in these non-specific lesions. There're no significant variations in cure rates, or death rates between three grades of lesions. But patients with severe rashes have longer courses and lower effective rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phaeohyphomycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Fungi , Humans , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy , Phaeohyphomycosis/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Voriconazole
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with COVID-19 and its control entailing steroids and immunomodulatory medications disrupted normal immune function. The ensuing immunological disorder led to the rise of another infection-Black Fungus (Mucormycosis). However, the spread of Black Fungus can be minimized through proper knowledge, informed attitude, and conscious preventive practice. This study aimed to assess students' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding Black Fungus amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out among Bangladeshi students from June to July 2021. Using Google Forms, an e-questionnaire was developed for this web-based survey, and the participants were selected through a snowball sampling approach. RESULTS: Out of the 2009 participants, more than half were female (53.5%), and the majority were at an age between 18 and 25 years (31.5%) and had received higher secondary (HSC) schooling (77.8%), while around 61% resided in urban areas. Findings revealed that most of the students (63.8%) spent around 2 h on electronic and social media to become informed about COVID-19 and Black Fungus. Approximately 33% of the students showed low KAP scores (32.9%), whereas around 26% had high KAP scores. Our results show a significant association between KAP and sex, schooling, living status, residence, and media exposure. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of Black Fungus considerably varies among Bangladeshi students considering the place of residence, age, sex, living arrangement, and media exposure. Policymakers should emphasize awareness among people focusing on the results of this study to increase deterrent attitudes and protective practices to minimize the risks of being infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fungi , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963999

ABSTRACT

Oral candidiasis has a high rate of development, especially in immunocompromised patients. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic therapies in hospitalized HIV and cancer patients are known to induce the poor management of adverse reactions, where local and systemic candidiasis become highly resistant to conventional antifungal therapy. The development of oral candidiasis is triggered by several mechanisms that determine oral epithelium imbalances, resulting in poor local defense and a delayed immune system response. As a result, pathogenic fungi colonies disseminate and form resistant biofilms, promoting serious challenges in initiating a proper therapeutic protocol. Hence, this study of the literature aimed to discuss possibilities and new trends through antifungal therapy for buccal drug administration. A large number of studies explored the antifungal activity of new agents or synergic components that may enhance the effect of classic drugs. It was of significant interest to find connections between smart biomaterials and their activity, to find molecular responses and mechanisms that can conquer the multidrug resistance of fungi strains, and to transpose them into a molecular map. Overall, attention is focused on the nanocolloids domain, nanoparticles, nanocomposite synthesis, and the design of polymeric platforms to satisfy sustained antifungal activity and high biocompatibility with the oral mucosa.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Oral , Candidiasis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Fungi , Humans
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934124

ABSTRACT

The microbiota refers to the great number of microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) that live on and in humans and has sparked a surge of recent interest [...].


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Viruses , Bacteria , Fungi , Humans , Immunity
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917472

ABSTRACT

The carriers of nosocomial infections are the hands of medical personnel and inanimate surfaces. Both hands and surfaces may be contaminated as a result of contact with the patient, their body fluids, and touching contaminated surfaces in the patient's surroundings. Visually clean inanimate surfaces are an important source of pathogens. Microorganisms have properties thanks to which they can survive in unfavorable conditions, from a few days to several months. Bacteria, viruses and fungi are able to transmit from inanimate surfaces to the skin of the patient and the medical staff. These pathogens include SARS-CoV-2, which can survive on various types of inanimate surfaces, being a potential source of infection. By following the recommendations related to washing and disinfecting hands and surfaces, and using appropriate washing and disinfecting agents with a broad biocidal spectrum, high material compatibility and the shortest duration of action, we contribute to breaking the chain of nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Viruses , Bacteria , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Fungi , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 863234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903009

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a potentially fatal illness that arises in immunocompromised people due to diabetic ketoacidosis, neutropenia, organ transplantation, and elevated serum levels of accessible iron. The sudden spread of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients engendered massive concern worldwide. Comorbidities including diabetes, cancer, steroid-based medications, long-term ventilation, and increased ferritin serum concentration in COVID-19 patients trigger favorable fungi growth that in turn effectuate mucormycosis. The necessity of FTR1 gene-encoded ferrous permease for host iron acquisition by fungi has been found in different studies recently. Thus, targeting the transit component could be a potential solution. Unfortunately, no appropriate antifungal vaccine has been constructed as of yet. To date, mucormycosis has been treated with antiviral therapy and surgical treatment only. Thus, in this study, the FTR1 protein has been targeted to design a convenient and novel epitope-based vaccine with the help of immunoinformatics against four different virulent fungal species. Furthermore, the vaccine was constructed using 8 CTL, 2 HTL, and 1 LBL epitopes that were found to be highly antigenic, non-allergenic, non-toxic, and fully conserved among the fungi under consideration. The vaccine has very reassuring stability due to its high pI value of 9.97, conclusive of a basic range. The vaccine was then subjected to molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and immune simulation studies to confirm the biological environment's safety, efficacy, and stability. The vaccine constructs were found to be safe in addition to being effective. Finally, we used in-silico cloning to develop an effective strategy for vaccine mass production. The designed vaccine will be a potential therapeutic not only to control mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients but also be effective in general mucormycosis events. However, further in vitro, and in vivo testing is needed to confirm the vaccine's safety and efficacy in controlling fungal infections. If successful, this vaccine could provide a low-cost and effective method of preventing the spread of mucormycosis worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Fungi , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Mucormycosis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , Vaccines, Subunit
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1897183

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 which first raised its deadly head in December 2019, has now engulfed the entire planet with its fire and fury. Mankind has been literally held to ransom by this micro-beast which has caused so much pain, sorrow and suffering, leaving behind scores of people dead and millions sick and gasping for air (quite literally!) The whole world is in disarray since the past 16 months, and now a new deadly superadded fungal infection has appeared in COVID-19 patients, in parts of the Indian subcontinent; namely mucormycosis, the deadly "black fungus." This persistent, unrelenting fungal infection which is relatively resistant to conventional anti-fungal treatment, sometimes requires radical, extensive surgical intervention in order to stem the spread of infection to vital organs such as the heart, brain, orbital spaces and spleen. mucormycosis has been increasingly seen to occur in COVID-19 patients who are immunocompromised and have uncontrolled diabetes mellitus as a comorbidity. Commonly seen forms of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients include, Rhinocerebral mucormycosis and Pulmonary mucormycosis, with some patients also developing the cutaneous form, while some manifesting the more serious disseminated form of mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Brain , Fungi , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(6): 1225-1228, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885006

ABSTRACT

For almost one and a half year the world is facing the pandemic called COVID-19, which is an acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). This disease has already engulfed many lives and has not been tamed so far. Physicians all over the world still, trying to get a hold of this global health issue, are faced with another life-threatening challenge associated with COVID-19, called black fungus-Mucormycosis. Within a span of few weeks, we have encountered three cases of black fungus in our institute which has stirred a serious concern among physicians in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fungi , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884285

ABSTRACT

Novel 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized through the reaction of methyl 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) hydrazine-1-carbodithioate and the appropriate hydrazonoyl halides in the presence of a few drops of diisopropylethylamine. The chemical structure of the newly fabricated compounds was inferred from their microanalytical and spectral data. With the increase in microbial diseases, fungi remain a devastating threat to human health because of the resistance of microorganisms to antifungal drugs. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) have higher mortality rates in many populations. The present study aimed to find new antifungal agents using the disc diffusion method, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were estimated by the microdilution assay. An in vitro experiment of six synthesized chemical compounds exhibited antifungal activity against Rhizopus oryzae; compounds with an imidazole moiety, such as the compound 7, were documented to have energetic antibacterial, antifungal properties. As a result of these findings, this research suggests that the synthesized compounds could be an excellent choice for controlling black fungus diseases. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was achieved on the synthesized compounds, of which compounds 2, 6, and 7 showed the best interactions with the selected protein targets.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Thiadiazoles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Fungi , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiadiazoles/chemistry , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology
11.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 755-762, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879384

ABSTRACT

During the past few months, mucormycosis has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to test nucleotide-based inhibitors against the RdRps of SARS-CoV-2 solved structure and Rhizopus oryzae RdRp model built in silico. The results reveal a comparable binding affinity of sofosbuvir, galidesivir, ribavirin and remdesivir compared with the physiological nucleotide triphosphates against R. oryzae RdRp as well as the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as reported before. Additionally, other compounds such as setrobuvir, YAK, IDX-184 and modified GTP compounds 2, 3 and 4 show potential calculated average binding affinities against R. oryzae RdRp. The present in silico study suggests the dual inhibition potential of the recommended drugs and compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and R. oryzae RdRps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fungi , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259525, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855095

ABSTRACT

This systematic review integrates the data available in the literature regarding the biological activities of the extracts of endophytic fungi isolated from Annona muricata and their secondary metabolites. The search was performed using four electronic databases, and studies' quality was evaluated using an adapted assessment tool. The initial database search yielded 436 results; ten studies were selected for inclusion. The leaf was the most studied part of the plant (in nine studies); Periconia sp. was the most tested fungus (n = 4); the most evaluated biological activity was anticancer (n = 6), followed by antiviral (n = 3). Antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities were also tested. Terpenoids or terpenoid hybrid compounds were the most abundant chemical metabolites. Phenolic compounds, esters, alkaloids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and peptides were also reported. The selected studies highlighted the biotechnological potentiality of the endophytic fungi extracts from A. muricata. Consequently, it can be considered a promising source of biological compounds with antioxidant effects and active against different microorganisms and cancer cells. Further research is needed involving different plant tissues, other microorganisms, such as SARS-CoV-2, and different cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Annona , COVID-19 , Annona/chemistry , Annona/microbiology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Fungi , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Terpenes
13.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841404

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial peptides are a type of small-molecule peptide that widely exist in nature and are components of the innate immunity of almost all living things. They play an important role in resisting foreign invading microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides have a wide range of antibacterial activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses and other microorganisms. They are active against traditional antibiotic-resistant strains and do not easily induce the development of drug resistance. Therefore, they have become a hot spot of medical research and are expected to become a new substitute for fighting microbial infection and represent a new method for treating drug-resistant bacteria. This review briefly introduces the source and structural characteristics of antimicrobial peptides and describes those that have been used against common clinical microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and especially coronaviruses), focusing on their antimicrobial mechanism of action and clinical application prospects.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Viruses , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Peptides , Bacteria , Fungi
14.
Microbiol Res ; 261: 127055, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819572

ABSTRACT

The human oral cavity harbours complex microbial communities with various commensal microorganisms that play pivotal roles in maintaining host health and immunity but can elicit local and systemic diseases. The role of commensal microorganisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease susceptibility and enrichment of opportunistic pathobionts in the oral cavity is poorly understood. The present study aims to understand the altered landscape of the oral microbiome and mycobiome in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (n = 30) and its correlation with risk factors compared to non-infected individuals (n = 24) using targeted amplicon sequencing. Diminution of species richness, an elevated abundance of opportunistic pathogens (Veillonella, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Prevotella, Gemella, and Streptococcus) and impaired metabolic pathways were observed in the COVID-19 patients. Similarly, altered oral mycobiome with enrichment of known respiratory disease causing pathogenic fungi were observed in the infected individuals. The data further suggested that reduction in immunomodulatory microorganisms lowers the protection of individuals from SARS-CoV-2. Linear discriminant analysis identified several differentially abundant taxa associated with risk factors (ageing and co-morbidities). We also observed distinct bacterial and fungal community structures of elderly infected patients compared to the younger age group members making them highly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity. Furthermore, we also assessed the dynamics of the oral microbiome and mycobiome in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, host types, co-morbidities, and viral load in the augmentation of specific pathobionts. Overall, the present study demonstrates the microbiome and mycobiome profiling of the COVID-19 infected individuals, the data further suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the prevalence of specific pathobiont.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobiome , Aged , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Fungi , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Environ Manage ; 314: 115086, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804523

ABSTRACT

Previous studies anticipated that microorganisms and their metabolites in waste will increase as a consequence of a decreased collection frequency and due to differences in what kind of waste is bagged before collection leading to an increased exposure of workers handling the waste. This study aim was to investigate the microbial contamination present in the waste collection trucks (WCT) and in the support facilities (waste collection station - WCS). It was applied a multi-approach protocol using active (air sampling by impingement and impaction) and passive (surface swabs, electrostatic dust cloths and settled dust) sampling methods. The screening of azole-resistance, the investigation of mycotoxins and the assessment of the elicited biological responses in vitro were also carried out aiming recognizing the possible health effects of waste collection drivers. SARS-CoV-2 detection was also performed. In WCS only air samples had contamination in all the four sampling sites (canteen, operational removal core, operational removal center, and administrative service). Among all the analyzed matrices from the WCT a higher percentage of total bacterial counts and Gram-was detected in swabs (66.93%; 99.36%). In WCS the most common species were Penicillium sp. (43.98%) and Cladosporium sp. (24.68%), while on WCT Aspergillus sp. (4.18%) was also one of the most found. In the azole resistance screening Aspergillus genera was not observed in the azole-supplemented media. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any of the environmental samples collected, but Aspergillus section Fumigati was detected in 5 samples. Mycotoxins were not detected in EDC from WCS, while in WCT they were detected in filters (N = 1) and in settled dust samples (N = 16). In conclusion, our study reveals that a comprehensive sampling approach using active and passive sampling (e.g. settled dust sampling for a representative mycotoxin evaluation) and combined analytic methods (i.e., culture-based and molecular) is an important asset in microbial exposure assessments. Concerning the waste collection exposure scenario, the results of this study unveiled a complex exposure, particularly to fungi and their metabolites. Aspergillus section Fumigati highlight the significance of targeting this section in the waste management industry as an indicator of occupational health risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycotoxins , Occupational Exposure , Aspergillus , Azoles , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fungi , Humans , Mycotoxins/analysis , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 567-576, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sudden surge of mucormycosis cases which happened during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic was a significant public health problem in India. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the clinico-epidemicological characteristics of the mucormycosis cases to determine the changes that had occurred due to COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Patients diagnosed with rhino-orbital mucormycosis were categorised into the following groups: Pre-pandemic(May 2019 to April 2020), Pandemic Pre-epidemic (May 2020 to April 2021) and Epidemic (1 May 2021 to 12 July 2021). The epidemiological, clinical and surgical data of all the patients were retrieved from the hospital records and analysed. RESULTS: The epidemic period had 370 cases, compared with 65 during pandemic period and 42 in the pre-pandemic period. Diabetes mellitus was seen in 87% of cases during epidemic period, 92.9% in the pre-pandemic period and 90.8% in the pre-pandemic pre-epidemic period. The proportion of patients suffering from vision loss, restricted extra-ocular movements, palatal ulcer and nasal obstruction was higher in the pre-epidemic groups, and the difference was significant (p, <.01). There was no history of oxygen use in 85.9% of patients and no steroid use in 76.5%. The death rates were the lowest during epidemic (10%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has caused a statistically significant increase in the number of mucormycosis infections. The mortality and morbidity which showed an increase during the first wave of COVID-19 decreased significantly during the epidemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fungi , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 45, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to distinguish from other viral and bacterial etiologies. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are frequently prescribed to patients hospitalized with COVID-19 which potentially acts as a catalyst for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis during the first 18 months of the pandemic to quantify the prevalence and types of resistant co-infecting organisms in patients with COVID-19 and explore differences across hospital and geographic settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (BioSIS), and Scopus from November 1, 2019 to May 28, 2021 to identify relevant articles pertaining to resistant co-infections in patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Patient- and study-level analyses were conducted. We calculated pooled prevalence estimates of co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms using random effects models. Stratified meta-analysis by hospital and geographic setting was also performed to elucidate any differences. RESULTS: Of 1331 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1959 unique isolates were identified with 29% (569) resistant organisms identified. Co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms ranged from 0.2 to 100% among included studies. Pooled prevalence of co-infection with resistant bacterial and fungal organisms was 24% (95% CI 8-40%; n = 25 studies: I2 = 99%) and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.6%; n = 8 studies: I2 = 78%), respectively. Among multi-drug resistant organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multi-drug resistant Candida auris were most commonly reported. Stratified analyses found higher proportions of AMR outside of Europe and in ICU settings, though these results were not statistically significant. Patient-level analysis demonstrated > 50% (n = 58) mortality, whereby all but 6 patients were infected with a resistant organism. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 18 months of the pandemic, AMR prevalence was high in COVID-19 patients and varied by hospital and geography although there was substantial heterogeneity. Given the variation in patient populations within these studies, clinical settings, practice patterns, and definitions of AMR, further research is warranted to quantify AMR in COVID-19 patients to improve surveillance programs, infection prevention and control practices and antimicrobial stewardship programs globally.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705332

ABSTRACT

Coinfection rates with other pathogens in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varied during the pandemic. We assessed the latest prevalence of coinfection with viruses, bacteria, and fungi in COVID-19 patients for more than one year and its impact on mortality. A total of 436 samples were collected between August 2020 and October 2021. Multiplex real-time PCR, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed to detect pathogens. The coinfection rate of respiratory viruses in COVID-19 patients was 1.4%. Meanwhile, the rates of bacteria and fungi were 52.6% and 10.5% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were the most commonly detected pathogens. Ninety percent of isolated A. baumannii was non-susceptible to carbapenem. Based on a multivariate analysis, coinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 6.095), older age (OR = 1.089), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 1.006) were risk factors for mortality as a critical outcome. In particular, coinfection with bacteria (OR = 11.250), resistant pathogens (OR = 11.667), and infection with multiple pathogens (OR = 10.667) were significantly related to death. Screening and monitoring of coinfection in COVID-19 patients, especially for hospitalized patients during the pandemic, are beneficial for better management and survival.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Fungi/classification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Young Adult
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1020-1027, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Microorganisms present a global public health problem and are the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, it is essential to study the prevalence of microorganisms in hospital environments. The conclusion from such a study can contribute to identify the areas most likely to be contaminated in a hospital and appropriate measures that can decrease the exposure risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of microorganisms in hospital air was examined in different departments by obtaining air samples with an impactor before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A total of 2145 microorganisms were identified, and the corresponding data were jointly analyzed by area, sampling period, and concentration. RESULTS: The most frequently detected microorganisms in hospital air were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Neisseria, and fungi, and the more polluted departments were the hemodialysis department, respiratory department, treatment room, and toilet. Significant differences were found between the concentration of bacteria and fungi before and during the pandemic, which could be related to multiple environmental conditions. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all the air samples. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study confirmed the existence and dynamic characteristics of airborne microorganisms in a hospital. The results contribute to the adaptation of specific measures which can decrease the exposure risk of patients, visitors, and staff.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitals , Air Pollution, Indoor , Bacteria/classification , Environmental Monitoring , Epidemiological Monitoring , Fungi/classification , Hospital Departments , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(11): e2100674, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615945

ABSTRACT

Chemical investigation on a Streptomyces sp. strain MS180069 isolated from a sediment sample collected from the South China Sea, yielded the new benzo[f]isoindole-dione alkaloid, bhimamycin J (1). The structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D, 2D NMR, and X-ray diffraction techniques. A molecular docking study revealed 1 as a new molecular motif that binds with human angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE2), recently described as the cell surface receptor responsible for uptake of 2019-CoV-2. Using enzyme assays we confirm that 1 inhibits human ACE2 79.7 % at 25 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Isoindoles/chemistry , Streptomyces/chemistry , Alkaloids/metabolism , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Isoindoles/isolation & purification , Isoindoles/metabolism , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Streptomyces/metabolism
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