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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542802

ABSTRACT

Human Norovirus is currently the main viral cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGEs) in most countries worldwide. Nearly 50 years after the discovery of the "Norwalk virus" by Kapikian and colleagues, the scientific and medical community continue to generate new knowledge on the full biological and disease spectrum of Norovirus infection. Nevertheless, several areas remain incompletely understood due to the serious constraints to effectively replicate and propagate the virus. Here, we present a narrated historic perspective and summarize our current knowledge, including insights and reflections on current points of interest for a broad medical community, including clinical and molecular epidemiology, viral-host-microbiota interactions, antivirals, and vaccine prototypes. We also include a reflection on the present and future impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Norovirus infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/prevention & control , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Norovirus/physiology , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caliciviridae Infections/microbiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Norovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463319

ABSTRACT

In France, social distancing measures have been adopted to contain the spread of COVID-19, culminating in national Lockdowns. The use of hand washing, hydro-alcoholic rubs and mask-wearing also increased over time. As these measures are likely to impact the transmission of many communicable diseases, we studied the changes in common infectious diseases incidence in France during the first year of COVID-19 circulation. We examined the weekly incidence of acute gastroenteritis, chickenpox, acute respiratory infections and bronchiolitis reported in general practitioner networks since January 2016. We obtained search engine query volume for French terms related to these diseases and sales data for relevant drugs over the same period. A periodic regression model was fit to disease incidence, drug sales and search query volume before the COVID-19 period and extrapolated afterwards. We compared the expected values with observations made in 2020. During the first lockdown period, incidence dropped by 67% for gastroenteritis, by 79% for bronchiolitis, by 49% for acute respiratory infection and 90% for chickenpox compared to the past years. Reductions with respect to the expected incidence reflected the strength of implemented measures. Incidence in children was impacted the most. Reduction in primary care consultations dropped during a short period at the beginning of the first lockdown period but remained more than 95% of the expected value afterwards. In primary care, the large decrease in reported gastroenteritis, chickenpox or bronchiolitis observed during the period where many barrier measures were implemented imply that the circulation of common viruses was reduced and informs on the overall effect of these measures.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Seasons , Young Adult
4.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 603-607, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266888

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergency department (ED) attendances fell across the UK after the 'lockdown' introduced on 23rd March 2020 to limit the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We hypothesised that reductions would vary by patient age and disease type. We examined pre- and in-lockdown ED attendances for two COVID-19 unrelated diagnoses: one likely to be affected by lockdown measures (gastroenteritis), and one likely to be unaffected (appendicitis). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study across two EDs in one London hospital Trust. We compared all adult and paediatric ED attendances, before (January 2020) and during lockdown (March/April 2020). Key patient demographics, method of arrival, and discharge location were compared. We used Systemised Nomenclature of Medicine codes to define attendances for gastroenteritis and appendicitis. RESULTS: ED attendances fell from 1129 per day before lockdown to 584 in lockdown, 51.7% of pre-lockdown rates. In-lockdown attendances were lowest for under-18s (16.0% of pre-lockdown). The proportion of patients admitted to hospital increased from 17.3% to 24.0%, and the proportion admitted to intensive care increased fourfold. Attendances for gastroenteritis fell from 511 to 103, 20.2% of pre-lockdown rates. Attendances for appendicitis also decreased, from 144 to 41, 28.5% of pre-lockdown rates. CONCLUSION: ED attendances fell substantially following lockdown implementation. The biggest reduction was for under-18s. We observed reductions in attendances for gastroenteritis and appendicitis. This may reflect lower rates of infectious disease transmission, although the fall in appendicitis-related attendances suggests that behavioural factors were also important. Larger studies are urgently needed to understand changing patterns of ED use and access to emergency care during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 550-556, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in 2006 significantly reduced childhood incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. The rotavirus vaccine was included in Poland's national immunization program in 2021. Our study aimed to summarize the epidemiology of AGE in northeastern Poland prior to 2021 and to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary, out-of-pocket rotavirus childhood vaccination on the incidence of rotavirus AGE. METHODS: A review of patients aged 0-17 years with gastroenteritis hospitalized between 2006 and 2020 in northeastern Poland in the context of rotavirus vaccine coverage in the region. RESULTS: Rotavirus was the most common agent of gastroenteritis in hospitalized patients. The seasonality of rotavirus gastroenteritis peaked between February and May in each year of study, except for 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic skewed any viable comparison of seasonality. Rotavirus vaccine coverage in northeastern Poland did not exceed 25% during the study period and had no impact on hospitalization numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus was the primary causative agent of AGE in children hospitalized in northeastern Poland during the study period. Voluntary vaccinations did not affect the number of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE. Our data suggest that universal immunization is key to achieving a significant reduction of rotavirus-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
6.
J Biol Dyn ; 15(1): 195-212, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172612

ABSTRACT

Incidence vs. Cumulative Cases (ICC) curves are introduced and shown to provide a simple framework for parameter identification in the case of the most elementary epidemiological model, consisting of susceptible, infected, and removed compartments. This novel methodology is used to estimate the basic reproduction ratio of recent outbreaks, including those associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Disease Susceptibility , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Models, Statistical , Nonlinear Dynamics , Poisson Distribution , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080878

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Significant reductions in the incidence of enteroviruses and noroviruses, both transmitted primarily by the faecal-oral route, were noted in 2020 compared to the previous decade, in Victoria, Australia. The enterovirus specimen positivity rate was reduced by 84.2% in 2020, while the norovirus outbreak positivity rate declined by 49.0%. The most likely explanation for these reductions is the concurrence of social restrictions, physical distancing, personal hygiene awareness and international and domestic border closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Enterovirus , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Norovirus , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Victoria/epidemiology
8.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2582-2592, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942384

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus infections have become one of the most common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in children. Although rotavirus infections have been intensively studied in infants and young children, the study in adults has been limited. As such, this study assessed the prevalence of rotaviruses and performed the molecular characterization of rotaviruses circulating in Thai adults experiencing acute gastroenteritis between January 2018 and December 2018. Group A human rotaviruses were detected in 100 feces samples by rapid immunochromatography. The peak incidence of infection occurred in February and began to decline in the summer months. From January 2018 to December 2018, there were 1344 acute gastroenteritis adult cases in the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand. Among these, 310 cases were rotavirus-suspected cases. Only 100 samples tested positive for rotavirus via an immunochromatography test. Twentynine out of the 100 rotavirus-positive samples were further characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The G3[P8] strain was identified as the most prevalent (31.0%) followed by G1P[8], G8P[8] and G9P[8], and G2P[8], which accounted for 20.8%, 17.2%, and 13.8%, respectively. Because of the detection of rare rotavirus genotypes, such as G8, the surveillance of rotavirus epidemiology is crucial in monitoring new emergences of rotavirus strains, leading to a better understanding of the effects of strain variation for further vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Feces/virology , Female , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Genotype , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Seasons , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
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