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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266025, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765540

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica is the most common foodborne pathogen worldwide. It causes two types of diseases, a self-limiting gastroenteritis and an invasive, more threatening, infection. Salmonella gastroenteritis is caused by several serotypes and is common worldwide. In contrast, invasive salmonellosis is rare in high-income countries (HIC) while frequent in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS), corresponding to serotypes other than Typhi and Paratyphi, have emerged in sSA and pose a significant risk to public health. We conducted a whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis of 72 strains of Salmonella isolated from diarrheic human patients and chicken meat sold in multipurpose markets in Dakar, Senegal. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing combined with WGS data analysis revealed frequent resistance to fluoroquinolones and the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination that are among the most used treatments for invasive Salmonella. In contrast, resistance to the historical first-line drugs chloramphenicol and ampicillin, and to cephalosporins was rare. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was lower in clinical isolates compared to chicken strains pointing to the concern posed by the excessive use of antimicrobials in farming. Phylogenetic analysis suggested possible transmission of the emerging multidrug resistant (MDR) Kentucky ST198 and serotype Schwarzengrund from chicken to human. These results stress the need for active surveillance of Salmonella and AMR in order to address invasive salmonellosis caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains and other important bacterial diseases in sSA.


Subject(s)
Gastroenteritis , Salmonella Infections , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chickens , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Genomics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Senegal/epidemiology
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542802

ABSTRACT

Human Norovirus is currently the main viral cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGEs) in most countries worldwide. Nearly 50 years after the discovery of the "Norwalk virus" by Kapikian and colleagues, the scientific and medical community continue to generate new knowledge on the full biological and disease spectrum of Norovirus infection. Nevertheless, several areas remain incompletely understood due to the serious constraints to effectively replicate and propagate the virus. Here, we present a narrated historic perspective and summarize our current knowledge, including insights and reflections on current points of interest for a broad medical community, including clinical and molecular epidemiology, viral-host-microbiota interactions, antivirals, and vaccine prototypes. We also include a reflection on the present and future impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Norovirus infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/prevention & control , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Norovirus/physiology , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caliciviridae Infections/microbiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Norovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
3.
Gastroenterology ; 160(1): 39-46, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936157

ABSTRACT

The role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 has expanded from regulating the renin angiotensin system to regulating intestinal amino acid homeostasis and the gut microbiome. Recently, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 was identified as a primary receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 being expressed in multiple tissues including the luminal surface of the gut. In this brief perspective, we examine the role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the impact of coronavirus disease 19 infection on the gut microbiome and on the gut epithelium.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , Gastroenteritis/enzymology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestinal Mucosa/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/virology , Gastroenteritis/drug therapy , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization
4.
Anaerobe ; 64: 102233, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620931

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 dramatically affects the elderly. Due to the large usage of antibiotics during the current pandemic and the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19, the elderly population, hospitalized patients, residents in LTCFs and persons that survived the COVID-19 might be more prone to Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). A renewed attention to CDI is necessary during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Gastroenteritis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile/drug effects , Clostridium Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Gastroenteritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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