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1.
mBio ; 13(2): e0380121, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731259

ABSTRACT

With the increase in total coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection cases, post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, defined as experiencing ongoing health problems 4 or more weeks after the first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a new arising public health concern. As part of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms might be associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, which has the potential to become a target for intervention. In this study, a patient with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome with long-lasting severe gastrointestinal symptoms was provided 2-month expanded access to a high-fiber formula with investigational new drug (IND) status developed to alleviate COVID-19-related symptoms by modulating the gut microbiota. Symptoms including severe "loss of appetite," palpitation, and anxiety were significantly alleviated by the end of the intervention. The medication dosage for controlling nausea decreased during the intervention. The serum lipid profile, insulin level, and leptin level were improved compared to the baseline values. Significant structural changes of the patient's gut microbiota and reduced microbial fermentation activity in the small intestine were found during the intervention. Eighteen amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene significantly responded to this nutritional intervention. Six out of the 18 ASVs were also found to be negatively correlated with symptom severity/medication dosage. Five of the six ASVs (ASV0AKS_Oscillibacter, ASV009F_Anaerofustis, ASV02YT_Blautia, ASV07LA_Blautia, and ASV0AM6_Eubacterium hallii) were potential short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, which might be associated with the alleviation of symptoms. Our study indicates the feasibility of alleviating gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome by way of nutritional modulation of their gut microbiota. IMPORTANCE It has become evident that the care of patients with COVID-19 does not end at the time of negative SARS-CoV-2 detection, as the number of patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome increases with an ever-increasing total infected patient population. This case report shows the possibility of alleviating the gastrointestinal symptoms of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome via microbiota-targeted nutritional intervention. As a promising strategy, it might not only improve the quality of life of patients but also reduce the burden to the public health system when the end of the COVID-19 pandemic is not in sight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 246-252, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544341

ABSTRACT

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several studies indicate that the digestive system can also be affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, patients with digestive symptoms should have a capsule endoscopy (CE). COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms who underwent CE were recruited from March 2020 to April 2020. We collected patients' data and performed a prospective follow-up study for 6 months. All 11 COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms who underwent CE presented gastritis. Eight cases (72.7%) had intestinal mucosa inflammation. Among them, two cases showed intestinal ulcers or erosions. Moreover, two cases displayed colonic mucositis. One case was lost during follow-up. At 3-6 months after hospital discharge, five patients underwent CE again, presenting gastrointestinal lesions. Five of the 10 cases had GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and others. Among these five cases, the GI symptoms of three patients disappeared at the last follow-up and two patients still presented diarrhea symptoms. Overall, we observed damaged digestive tract mucosa that could be caused by SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, after discharge, some patients still presented intestinal lesions and GI symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Capsule Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastritis/complications , Gastritis/diagnosis , Gastritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
3.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 463-465, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Completing malnutrition assessments when physically distant has been an immediate challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Even during periods of physical distancing, continuing nutrition assessments amongst those without COVID-19 is vital given that high malnutrition prevalence exists in clinical settings. The investigation aim was to assess the reliability of utilising the validated Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool, without compared to with physical examination. METHODOLOGY: Original paper-based SGA documentation from a hospital-wide audit was reassessed by a blinded experienced clinician using history alone without reviewing documented physical examination. Participants included adults admitted to a tertiary hospital with no maternity or obstetric services. Those terminally ill, undergoing end-of-life palliative care, with disordered eating or admitted to emergency or intensive care units were excluded. McNemar's test assessed paired categorical data. Cohen's kappa coefficient assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were completed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in malnutrition identification (p < 0.454) with 97% (473/489) of assessments identical. High sensitivity (87.2%, 68/78), specificity (98.9%, 405/411), positive (91.9%, 68/74) and negative (97.6%, 405/415) predictive values were evident. High inter- and intra-rater reliability was confirmed (kappa values 0.875 and 0.987). CONCLUSION: The Abridged-SGA utilising the four key factors of the SGA history identified many malnourished amongst those without COVID-19 who otherwise would not be identified when physical distancing is required due to the pandemic. It did not overestimate malnutrition. Until alternative means of assessing physical parameters remotely are validated, the pragmatic value of practitioners' judgement when utilising the Abridged-SGA was confirmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Diet/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Malnutrition/complications , Pandemics , Physical Examination , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers , Weight Loss
4.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(10): 705-715, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287810

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing global health crisis causing major challenges for clinical care in patients with gastrointestinal diseases. Although triggering of anti-viral immune responses is essential for clearance of infection, some patients have severe lung inflammation and multiorgan failure due to marked immune cell dysregulation and cytokine storm syndrome. Importantly, the activation of cytotoxic follicular helper T cells and a reduction of regulatory T cells have a crucial, negative prognostic role. These findings lead to the question of whether immunosuppressive and biologic therapies for gastrointestinal diseases affect the incidence or prognosis of COVID-19 and, thus, whether they should be adjusted to prevent or affect the course of the disease. In this Review, data on the use of such therapies are discussed with a primary focus on inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis and liver transplantation. In particular, the roles of corticosteroids, classic immunosuppressive agents (such as thiopurines and mycophenolate mofetil), small molecules (such as Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors), and biologic agents (such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, vedolizumab and ustekinumab) are reviewed. Finally, the use of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines for the prevention of infection in patients with gastrointestinal diseases and concomitant immunosuppressive or biologic therapy will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/immunology , Global Health , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Prognosis
5.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 24(5): 445-449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247536

ABSTRACT

Millions of patients seek medical attention for diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain. In the current environment, it is important to recognize that these symptoms may be the only manifestation or may precede more serious systemic complications of COVID-19. Herein, we describe the first case of ischemic colitis (IC) in a young adult who presented with diarrhea and highlight the laboratory pitfalls for patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Colitis, Ischemic/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colitis, Ischemic/complications , Colitis, Ischemic/physiopathology , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/virology , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Male
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 665300, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226978

ABSTRACT

The irruption of SARS-CoV-2 during 2020 has been of pandemic proportions due to its rapid spread and virulence. COVID-19 patients experience respiratory, digestive and neurological symptoms. Distinctive symptom as anosmia, suggests a potential neurotropism of this virus. Amongst the several pathways of entry to the nervous system, we propose an alternative pathway from the infection of the gut, involving Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), zonulin, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and zonulin brain receptor. Possible use of zonulin antagonists could be investigated to attenuate neurological manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Haptoglobins/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
7.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029053

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been declared a pandemic, has exhibited a wide range of severity worldwide. Although this global variation is largely affected by socio-medical situations in each country, there is also high individual-level variation attributable to elderliness and certain underlying medical conditions, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. As both elderliness and the aforementioned chronic conditions are often associated with an altered gut microbiota, resulting in disrupted gut barrier integrity, and gut symptoms have consistently been associated with more severe illness in COVID-19 patients, it is possible that dysfunction of the gut as a whole influences COVID-19 severity. This article summarizes the accumulating evidence that supports the hypothesis that an altered gut microbiota and its associated leaky gut may contribute to the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and occasionally to additional multiorgan complications that may lead to severe illness by allowing leakage of the causative coronavirus into the circulatory system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 256, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899906

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection is spreading globally and poses a huge threat to human health. Besides common respiratory symptoms, some patients with COVID-19 experience gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. SARS-CoV-2 might infect the gastrointestinal tract through its viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and there is increasing evidence of a possible fecal-oral transmission route. In addition, there exist multiple abnormalities in liver enzymes. COVID-19-related liver injury may be due to drug-induced liver injury, systemic inflammatory reaction, and hypoxia-ischemia reperfusion injury. The direct toxic attack of SARS-CoV-2 on the liver is still questionable. This review highlights the manifestations and potential mechanisms of gastrointestinal and hepatic injuries in COVID-19 to raise awareness of digestive system injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/genetics , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/injuries , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver/virology , Liver Diseases/genetics , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17846, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-882929

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the clinical manifestations and incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children and discuss the importance of fecal nucleic acid testing.We retrospectively analyzed studies on gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal nucleic acid detection in pediatric COVID-19 patients from January 1, 2020 to August 10, 2020, including prospective clinical studies and case reports. The results of fecal nucleic acid detection were analyzed systematically. Stata12.0 software was used for meta-analysis.The results showed that the most common gastrointestinal symptoms in children with COVID-19 were vomiting and diarrhea, with a total incidence of 17.7% (95% Cl 13.9-21.5%). However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in other countries (21.1%, 95% CI 16.5-25.7%) was higher compared to China (12.9%, 95% CI 8-17.7%). In Wuhan, the pooled prevalence was much higher (41.3%, 95% CI 3.2-79.4%) compared to areas outside Wuhan in China (7.1%, 95% CI 4.0-10.3%). The positive rate of fecal nucleic acid testing in COVID-19 children was relatively high at 85.8% (91/106). Additionally, 71.2% (52/73) were still positive for fecal nucleic acid after respiratory tract specimens turned negative. One and two weeks after the respiratory tract specimens turned nucleic acid-negative, 45.2% (33/73) and 34.2% (25/73) patients, respectively, remained fecal nucleic acid-positive. The longest interval between the respiratory tract specimens turning negative and fecal specimens turning negative exceeded 70 days. Conclusions and relevance: gastrointestinal symptoms in pediatric COVID-19 are relatively common. Attention should be paid to the detection of fecal nucleic acids in children. Fecal nucleic acid-negative status should be considered as one of the desegregation standards.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(9): 2865-2875, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813344

ABSTRACT

The worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both low- and high-income countries. Although COVID-19 is predominantly a respiratory illness, other systems including gastrointestinal (GI) system and liver may be involved because of the ubiquitous nature of ACE-2 receptors in various cell lines that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes to enter host cells. It appears that GI symptoms and liver enzyme abnormalities are common in COVID-19. The involvement of the GI tract and liver correlates with the severity of disease. A minority (10-20%) of patients with COVID-19 may also present initially with only GI complaints. The most common GI symptoms are anorexia, loss of smell, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Viral RNA can be detected in stool in up to 50% of patients, sometimes even after pharyngeal clearance, but it is unclear whether fecal-oral transmission occurs. Liver enzymes are elevated, usually mild (2-3 times), in a substantial proportion of patients. There are many confounding factors that could cause liver enzyme abnormalities including medications, sepsis, and hypoxia. Although infection rates in those with preexisting liver disease are similar to that of general population, once infected, patients with liver disease are more likely to have a more severe disease and a higher mortality. There is a paucity of objective data on the optimal preventive or management strategies, but few recommendations for GI physicians based on circumstantial evidence are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastroenterologists , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans
12.
J Investig Med ; 68(8): 1397-1401, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768005

ABSTRACT

Believed to have originated from a local Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China, the COVID-19 has had an unprecedented and catastrophic impact on humanity, with the WHO declaring it a global pandemic. Although the first case of COVID-19 was reported in December 2019, the primary source and intermediate host have not been confirmed, but human-to-human transmission has been universally accepted. The main mode of transmission of the virus is through respiratory droplets along with prominent respiratory system involvement. However, fecal-oral transmission due to the shedding of the virus in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may continue for up to 10 weeks after respiratory clearance and is fast becoming important. SARS-CoV-2 shows a high affinity to ACE2 receptors, making sites of high ACE2 receptor expression, such as lungs, GI tract, brain, kidneys, heart, liver and immune system, a prime target for infection. Through this literature review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge of immunological pathways that contribute to the disease with a focus specifically on the GI tract involvement. We direct attention to the pathophysiological mechanism of involvement of the GI tract leading to symptomatic manifestations, track GI organ-specific viral loads to compare and contrast with other organ systems. We briefly detail specific treatment strategies from a GI disease standpoint and mention special considerations when there is involvement of the GI tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Internalization
13.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 46(3): 1249-1255, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756310

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This scoping review evaluated the currently available data related to abdominal imaging in the SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: A systematic review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science was performed from inception to July 15, 2020 using PRISMA-ScR guidelines. The review included case reports and series discussing radiologic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in abdominal imaging studies. Studies published from inception to March 31, 2020, were independently screened and reviewed by one author, and another author reviewed studies published after March 31 to July 15, 2020. Study screening and full-text review for publications before March 31, 2020, was performed by one author, and another author for publications after March 31 to July 15, 2020. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies were included in qualitative synthesis. The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms is roughly 18% and includes loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Sixteen percent of COVID-19 cases may only present with gastrointestinal symptoms. Many patients presenting this way demonstrate evidence of COVID-19 incidentally through abdominal CT imaging at the lung bases. Studies published to date have also reported abdominal imaging findings including small and large bowel wall thickening, fluid-filled colon, pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumoperitoneum, intussusception, and ascites. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal manifestations and imaging manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasingly reported and warrant specific attention during abdominal imaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110271, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753081

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by a new strain of coronavirus called SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is a positive sense single strand RNA virus. In humans, it binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with the help a structural protein on its surface called the S-spike. Further, cleavage of the viral spike protein (S) by the proteases like transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) or Cathepsin L (CTSL) is essential to effectuate host cell membrane fusion and virus infectivity. COVID-19 poses intriguing issues with imperative relevance to clinicians. The pathogenesis of GI symptoms, diabetes-associated mortality, and disease recurrence in COVID-19 are of particular relevance because they cannot be sufficiently explained from the existing knowledge of the viral diseases. Tissue specific variations of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry related receptors expression in healthy individuals can help in understanding the pathophysiological basis the aforementioned collection of symptoms. ACE2 mediated dysregulation of sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1 or SLC5A1) in the intestinal epithelium also links it to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus which can be a possible reason for the associated mortality in COVID-19 patients with diabetes. High expression of ACE2 in mucosal cells of the intestine and GB make these organs potential sites for the virus entry and replication. Continued replication of the virus at these ACE2 enriched sites may be a basis for the disease recurrence reported in some, thought to be cured, patients. Based on the human tissue specific distribution of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and other supportive evidence from the literature, we hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry receptor-ACE2 based mechanism in GI tissue may be involved in COVID-19 (i) in the pathogenesis of digestive symptoms, (ii) in increased diabetic complications, (iii) in disease recurrence.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , Incidence , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Models, Theoretical , Protein Binding , Proteome , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Treatment Outcome
15.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(3): 622-630, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663764

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic mainly affects older people, those with obesity or other coexisting chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and high blood pressure. It has been observed that about 20 % of patients will require hospitalization, and some of them will need the support of invasive mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. Nutritional status appears to be a relevant factor influencing the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Several international guidelines have provided recommendations to ensure energy and protein intake in people with COVID-19, with safety measures to reduce the risk of infection in healthcare personnel. The purpose of this review is to analyze the main recommendations related to adequate nutritional management for critically ill patients with COVID-19 in order to improve their prognosis and clinical outcomes.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia actual por COVID-19 afecta principalmente a personas mayores, con obesidad o con otras enfermedades crónicas coexistentes como diabetes de tipo 2 e hipertensión arterial. Se ha observado que alrededor del 20 % de los pacientes requerirán hospitalización y algunos de ellos necesitarán soporte de ventilación mecánica invasiva en unidades de cuidados intensivos. El estado nutricional parece ser un factor relevante que influye en el resultado clínico de los pacientes con COVID-19 críticamente enfermos. Diversas guías internacionales han publicado recomendaciones para asegurar la ingesta energética y proteica de las personas con COVID-19, junto con medidas de seguridad para disminuir el riesgo de infección por parte del personal de salud. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar las principales recomendaciones relacionadas con el adecuado manejo nutricional del paciente hospitalizado críticamente enfermo con COVID-19 con la finalidad de mejorar el pronóstico y los resultados clínicos.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Malnutrition/diet therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Requirements , Nutritional Support , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Refeeding Syndrome/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(10): 2366-2368.e3, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-359348

ABSTRACT

Since February 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread to Italy affecting more than 100,000 people. Several studies have reported a high prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and investigated their potential association with clinical outcomes.1 The timing, clinical significance, and possible impact on viral spread of GI symptoms presentation have not been fully elucidated. Elevation of liver function tests and other laboratory values has also been reported; however, their prognostic significance has not been clearly established.2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 3-8, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30823

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to global health and is currently causing a major pandemic. While patients typically present with fever and a respiratory illness, mounting evidence indicates that patients might also report extra-pulmonary manifestations, including those affecting the liver and gastrointestinal tract. This involvement may have important implications to the disease management, transmission, and prognosis, especially in patients with pre-existing hepatic or digestive co-morbidities. In this review, the characteristics and possible explanations of hepatic and gastrointestinal involvement caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are summarized, adding to our knowledge of the spectrum of COVID-19. In addition, preventive measures implemented in endoscopy departments to prevent further dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 infection are proposed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Liver Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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