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1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(2): 168-176, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appears to be more serious in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. This meta-analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Embase, and Google Scholar on 16 October 2020, to identify observational studies that provided data on gastrointestinal symptoms and severity of COVID-19. Gastrointestinal symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The severe rate and the odds ratio (OR) were pooled. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies with 5285 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The severe rate of COVID-19 patients with diarrhea was 41.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 31.0-51.5%], and the OR of association between diarrhea and severe COVID-19 was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.05-1.89); sensitivity analysis showed that the results for the OR and 95% CI were unstable. For abdominal pain, the severe rate and OR of association with severe COVID-19 were 59.3% (95% CI: 41.3-76.4%) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.59-4.81), respectively; for nausea, 41.4% (95% CI: 23.2-60.7%) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.59-1.43), respectively; for vomiting, 51.3% (95% CI: 36.8-65.8%) and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.97-2.92), respectively. CONCLUSION: The severe rate was more than 40% in COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Abdominal pain was associated with a near 2.8-fold increased risk of severe COVID-19; the relationship between diarrhea and the severity of COVID-19 was regionally different; nausea and vomiting were limited in association with an increased risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
2.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(5): 485-494, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783874

ABSTRACT

GASTROSWOT is a strategic analysis of the current and projected states of the different subspecialties in gastroenterology that aims to provide guidance for research, clinical, and financial planning in gastroenterology. We executed a consensus-based international strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis. Four general coordinators, six field coordinators, and 12 experts participated in the study. SWOTs were provided for the following fields: neurogastroenterology, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and upper gastrointestinal diseases; inflammatory bowel disease; pancreatology and biliary diseases; endoscopy; gastrointestinal oncology; and hepatology. The GASTROSWOT analysis highlights the following in the current state of the field of gastroenterology: the incidence and complexity of several gastrointestinal diseases, including malignancies, are increasing; the COVID-19 pandemic has affected patient care on several levels; and with the advent of technical innovations in gastroenterology, a well trained workforce and strategic planning are required to optimise health-care utilisation. The analysis calls attention to the following in the future of gastroenterology: artificial intelligence and the use of big data will speed up discovery and smarter health-care provision in the field; the growth and diversification of gastroenterological specialties will improve specialised care for patients, but could promote fragmentation of care and health system inefficiencies; and furthermore, thoughtful planning is needed to reach an effective balance between the need for subspecialists and the value of general gastroenterology services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenterology , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Artificial Intelligence , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
3.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 106, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Several clinical investigations suggested that gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with disease severity of COVID-19. However, the relevance of gastrointestinal symptoms and mortality of COVID-19 remains largely unknown. We aim to investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane for studies published between Dec 1, 2019 and May 1, 2021, that had data on gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Additional literatures were obtained by screening the citations of included studies and recent reviews. Only studies that reported the mortality of COVID-19 patients with/without gastrointestinal symptoms were included. Raw data were pooled to calculate OR (Odds Ratio). The mortality was compared between patients with and without gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as between patients with and without individual symptoms (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain). RESULTS: Fifty-three literatures with 55,245 COVID-19 patients (4955 non-survivors and 50,290 survivors) were included. The presence of GI symptoms was not associated with the mortality of COVID-19 patients (OR=0.88; 95% CI 0.71-1.09; P=0.23). As for individual symptoms, diarrhea (OR=1.01; 95% CI 0.72-1.41; P=0.96), nausea/vomiting (OR=1.16; 95% CI 0.78-1.71; P=0.46) and abdominal pain (OR=1.55; 95% CI 0.68-3.54; P=0.3) also showed non-relevance with the death of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal symptoms are not associated with higher mortality of COVID-19 patients. The prognostic value of gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Nausea/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/etiology
5.
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(46): 7969-7981, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580317

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused one of the worst public health crises in modern history. Even though severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 primarily affects the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal manifestations are well described in literature. This review will discuss the epidemiology, virology, manifestations, immunosuppressant states, and lessons learned from COVID-19. Observations: At the time of writing, COVID-19 had infected more than 111 million people and caused over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Multiple medical comorbidities including obesity, pre-existing liver condition and the use of proton pump inhibitor have been described as risk factor for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 most frequently causes diarrhea (12.4%), nausea/vomiting (9%) and elevation in liver enzymes (15%-20%). The current data does not suggest that patients on immunomodulators have a significantly increased risk of mortality from COVID-19. The current guidelines from American Gastroenterological Association and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases do not recommend pre-emptive changes in patients on immunosuppression if the patients have not been infected with COVID-19. Conclusions and relevance: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a change in structure and shape of gastroenterology departmental activities. Endoscopy should be performed only when necessary and with strict protective measures. Online consultations in the form of telehealth services and home drug deliveries have revolutionized the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Liver , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 246-252, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544341

ABSTRACT

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several studies indicate that the digestive system can also be affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, patients with digestive symptoms should have a capsule endoscopy (CE). COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms who underwent CE were recruited from March 2020 to April 2020. We collected patients' data and performed a prospective follow-up study for 6 months. All 11 COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms who underwent CE presented gastritis. Eight cases (72.7%) had intestinal mucosa inflammation. Among them, two cases showed intestinal ulcers or erosions. Moreover, two cases displayed colonic mucositis. One case was lost during follow-up. At 3-6 months after hospital discharge, five patients underwent CE again, presenting gastrointestinal lesions. Five of the 10 cases had GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and others. Among these five cases, the GI symptoms of three patients disappeared at the last follow-up and two patients still presented diarrhea symptoms. Overall, we observed damaged digestive tract mucosa that could be caused by SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, after discharge, some patients still presented intestinal lesions and GI symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Capsule Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastritis/complications , Gastritis/diagnosis , Gastritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
8.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(8): e315-e319, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456367

ABSTRACT

Since its initial onset in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread quickly across the globe, resulting in the potentially life-threatening respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although less commonly reported, COVID-19 has also been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, which may occur more frequently in children. This has also led to concern about the susceptibility of children to the SARS-CoV-2 virus who have underlying chronic digestive disease and may be treated with immune suppression. As such, recommendations and expert consensus regarding the management of chronic gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disease have been of great interest during the pandemic and international database reporting has informed our understanding. The impact of COVID-19 on the gastrointestinal tract and its influence on the management of pediatric digestive disease is reviewed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(8):e315-e319.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Child , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5836-5842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common gastrointestinal diseases. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and psychosocial distress worsens symptoms severity. Since the end of 2019 the world has been facing COVID-19 pandemic. The associated control measures have affected the psychological health of people. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders among Italian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sample is composed of 407 patients (187 males, 220 females), aged from 10 to 17 years. The mean age is 14.27 ± 2.24 years. The study was conducted through the Italian version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version.  The prevalence of each disorder has been calculated as the ratio of affected subjects for each disease and the total number of effective cases for that specific disease. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder in Italian children, during the COVD-19 pandemic, is higher, compared with the one reported in the previous studies. The most frequent disorders are Abdominal Migraine and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first one which provides data of the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders in sample of Italian adolescents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study underlines the need to focus on stress management, in order to reduce the effects of the lockdown on the psychological wellness of the youngest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Abdominal Pain/psychology , Adolescent , Aerophagy/epidemiology , Aerophagy/etiology , Aerophagy/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/psychology , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Dyspepsia/psychology , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Fecal Incontinence/psychology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Italy , Male , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Migraine Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , Rumination Syndrome/epidemiology , Rumination Syndrome/etiology , Rumination Syndrome/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/psychology
10.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 34(4): e14243, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented disruptions in healthcare. Functional gastrointestinal and motility disorders (FGIMD) are associated with significant healthcare utilization. The clinical implications of these healthcare disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical outcomes in patients with FGIMD are unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with three common FGIMD (irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia [FD]) tested for SARS-CoV-2 to describe alterations in gastrointestinal symptoms, medication use, and healthcare utilization during and before the pandemic and factors associated with COVID-19. KEY RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 during the pandemic (03/2020-09/2020) was 3.20% (83/2592) among patients with FGIMD, 3.62% in IBS (57/1574), 3.07% in gastroparesis (23/749), and 2.44% in FD (29/1187) at our institution. Patients with FGIMD had increased abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and weight loss (p < 0.001) along with increased proton pump inhibitor, H2 blocker, and opioid use (p < 0.0001). Both inpatient hospitalizations and outpatient visits (p < 0.0001) and number of diagnostic tests including cross-sectional imaging (p = 0.002), and upper and lower endoscopies (p < 0.0001) were significantly higher during the pandemic as compared to 6 months prior. Diarrhea-predominant IBS was positively (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.34-4.19, p = 0.003) associated with COVID-19, whereas functional dyspepsia was negatively (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.79, p = 0.004) associated. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Patients with common functional gastrointestinal and motility disorders have reported more gastrointestinal symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic with concurrent increased medication use and healthcare utilization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Dyspepsia/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(11): 2438-2440.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328704

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are highly prevalent in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranging from 17.6 % to 53 %.1-4 The proposed mechanism for GI symptoms involves SARS-CoV-2 virus binding to the host cell's angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, commonly found in GI tract epithelial cells.5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(23): 3303-3316, 2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282666

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the first pandemic of the 21st century. As found in adults, signs and symptoms related to the disease mainly involve the respiratory tract in the paediatric population. However, a considerable number of children present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The purpose of this review is an accurate description, from pathogenesis to clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, of COVID-19 effects on the gastrointestinal system at a paediatric age. SARS-CoV-2 can be identified in stool specimens of affected children by real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. Positivity can last for several weeks after the end of the symptomatic phase. Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms are generally self-limited, can correlate with blood tests and imaging alterations, and may require supportive treatment such as hydration. However, they can precede severe disease manifestations such as the COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Children belonging to risk categories such as those affected by celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and hepatic disease seem to not have a more severe course than the others, even if they are undergoing immunosuppressant treatment. Medical follow-ups of patients with chronic diseases need to be revised during the pandemic period in order to postpone unnecessary tests, mainly endoscopic ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Adult , Child , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00365, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249736

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The initial surge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted national recommendations to delay nonurgent endoscopic procedures. The objective of this study was to provide real-world data on the impact of COVID-19 on endoscopic procedures in a safety-net healthcare system and cancer center affiliated with a tertiary academic center. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used a combination of electronic health record data and a prospective data tool created to track endoscopy procedures throughout COVID-19 to describe patient and procedural characteristics of endoscopic procedures delayed during the initial COVID-19 surge. RESULTS: Of the 480 patients identified, the median age was 57 years (interquartile range 46-66), 55% (n = 262) were male, and 59% self-identified as white. Colonoscopy was the most common type of delayed procedure (49%), followed by combined esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy (22%), and EGD alone (20%). Colorectal cancer screening was the most common indication for delayed colonoscopy (35%), and evaluation of suspected bleeding (30%) was the most common indication for delayed combined EGD and colonoscopy. To date, 46% (223/480) of delayed cases have been completed with 12 colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers diagnosed. Sociodemographic factors, procedure type, and sedation type were not significantly associated with endoscopy completion. The median time to endoscopy after delayed procedure was 88 days (interquartile range 63-119) with no differences by procedure type. DISCUSSION: To minimize potential losses to follow-up, delayed, or missed diagnoses and to reduce progression of gastrointestinal diseases, all efforts should be used to ensure follow-up in those whose endoscopic procedures were delayed because of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Washington/epidemiology
19.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 24(5): 445-449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247536

ABSTRACT

Millions of patients seek medical attention for diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain. In the current environment, it is important to recognize that these symptoms may be the only manifestation or may precede more serious systemic complications of COVID-19. Herein, we describe the first case of ischemic colitis (IC) in a young adult who presented with diarrhea and highlight the laboratory pitfalls for patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Colitis, Ischemic/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colitis, Ischemic/complications , Colitis, Ischemic/physiopathology , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/virology , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Male
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