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2.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(4): 548-553, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587254

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 patients have been reported to have digestive symptoms with poor outcome. Ivermectin, an antiparasitic drug, has been used in COVID-19 patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ivermectin has effects on gastrointestinal complications and ventilator-free days in ventilated patients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients who were mechanically ventilated in the ICU were included in this study. The ventilated patients who received ivermectin within 3 days after admission were assigned to the Ivermectin group, and the others were assigned to the Control group. Patients in the Ivermectin group received ivermectin 200 µg/kg via nasal tube. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications and ventilator-free days within 4 weeks from admission were evaluated as clinical outcomes using a propensity score with the inverse probability weighting method. RESULTS: We included 88 patients in this study, of whom 39 patients were classified into the Ivermectin group, and 49 patients were classified into the Control group. The hazard ratio for gastrointestinal complications in the Ivermectin group as compared with the Control group was 0.221 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.057 to 0.855; p = 0.029) in a Cox proportional-hazard regression model. The odds ratio for ventilator-free days as compared with the Control group was 1.920 (95% CI, 1.076 to 3.425; p = 0.027) in a proportional odds logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Ivermectin improved gastrointestinal complications and the number of ventilator-free days in severe COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Prevention of gastrointestinal symptoms by SARS-Cov-2 might be associated with COVID-19 outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295191

ABSTRACT

Primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis is a rare disease associated with an increased mortality and is rarely reported in an immunocompetent host. We report the first case of mucormycosis-associated colonic perforation in a COVID-19 patient with a favourable outcome. A 48-year-old healthy male doctor in home isolation due to COVID-19 was admitted to COVID-19 intensive care unit when his symptoms deteriorated. The patient was put on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) using Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) and treatment given as per existing hospital protocol. The patient improved clinically, and was discharged on day 10 of admission. Two days later, he presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms to the emergency department. A diagnosis of perforation peritonitis was made, the patient was stabilised and sigmoid colectomy with descending colon colostomy was done. A diagnosis of gastrointestinal mucormycosis was made and injectable antifungal was started. The patient was discharged after his general conditions improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(10): 705-715, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287810

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing global health crisis causing major challenges for clinical care in patients with gastrointestinal diseases. Although triggering of anti-viral immune responses is essential for clearance of infection, some patients have severe lung inflammation and multiorgan failure due to marked immune cell dysregulation and cytokine storm syndrome. Importantly, the activation of cytotoxic follicular helper T cells and a reduction of regulatory T cells have a crucial, negative prognostic role. These findings lead to the question of whether immunosuppressive and biologic therapies for gastrointestinal diseases affect the incidence or prognosis of COVID-19 and, thus, whether they should be adjusted to prevent or affect the course of the disease. In this Review, data on the use of such therapies are discussed with a primary focus on inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis and liver transplantation. In particular, the roles of corticosteroids, classic immunosuppressive agents (such as thiopurines and mycophenolate mofetil), small molecules (such as Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors), and biologic agents (such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, vedolizumab and ustekinumab) are reviewed. Finally, the use of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines for the prevention of infection in patients with gastrointestinal diseases and concomitant immunosuppressive or biologic therapy will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/immunology , Global Health , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Prognosis
6.
IUBMB Life ; 73(5): 739-760, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135107

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal symptoms and liver injury are common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, profiles of different pharmaceutical interventions used are relatively underexplored. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been increasingly used for patients with COVID-19, but the efficacy of CHM used in COVID-19 on gastrointestinal symptoms and liver functions has not been well studied with definitive results based on the updated studies. The present study aimed at testing the efficacy of CHM on digestive symptoms and liver function (primary outcomes), the aggravation of COVID-19, and the time to viral assay conversion (secondary outcomes), among patients with COVID-19, compared with standard pharmacotherapy. The literature search was undertaken in 11 electronic databases from December 1, 2019 up to November 8, 2020. Appraisal of the evidence was conducted with Cochrane risk of bias tool or Newcastle Ottawa Scale. A random-effects model or subgroup analysis was conducted when significant heterogeneity was identified in the meta-analysis. The certainty of the evidence was assessed with the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation approach. Forty-eight included trials involving 4,704 participants were included. Meta-analyses favored CHM plus standard pharmacotherapy for COVID-19 on reducing the aggravation of COVID-19 and the time to viral assay conversion compared with standard pharmacotherapy. However, the present CHM as a complementary therapy for treating COVID-19 may not be beneficial for improving most gastrointestinal symptoms and liver function based on the current evidence. More well-conducted trials are warranted to confirm the potential efficacy of CHM furtherly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anorexia/virology , COVID-19/etiology , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/virology , Young Adult
8.
Dig Dis ; 39(2): 119-139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was initially considered a respiratory disease but the SARS-CoV-2 virus can lead to serious systemic consequences affecting major organs including the digestive system. SUMMARY: This review brings new clinically important information for the gastroenterologist. This includes: the mechanisms of tissue damage seen with the SARS-CoV-2 virus; the consequences of immunosuppression in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and chronic liver disease with the additional risks of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis; the impact of COVID-19 on gastrointestinal emergencies, on gastrointestinal endoscopy, diagnosis and treatments. These highlight the need to understand the clinical pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutic implications of drugs commonly used by gastroenterologists and their links with COVID-19. Key Messages: Any part of the digestive system may be affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and those with pre-existing disease are at greatest risk of adverse outcomes. The risk for drug-drug interactions is considerable in patients seriously ill with COVID-19 who often require mechanical ventilation and life support. Some repurposed drugs used against SARS-CoV-2 can cause or aggravate some of the COVID-19-related gastrointestinal symptoms and can also induce liver injury. Ongoing clinical studies will hopefully identify effective drugs with a more favourable risk-benefit ratio than many initially tried treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastroenterologists , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(13): 7506-7511, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic mainly involves respiratory symptoms, though gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are increasingly being recognized. In this context, the presence of comorbidities appears to be associated with adverse outcomes. However, the role of digestive manifestations is not yet well defined. The primary aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms and digestive comorbidities in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 compared to controls. The secondary aim was to determine the association of GI-symptoms and digestive comorbidities with clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inpatients with COVID-19 and controls with similar symptoms and/or radiological findings were enrolled. Symptoms at admission and throughout hospitalization were collected as they were comorbidities. The measured clinical outcomes were mortality, intensive care unit admission and cumulative endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients were included: 34 with COVID-19 and 71 controls. At admission, the prevalence of GI symptoms among COVID-19 patients was 8.8%. During hospitalization, the frequency of GI symptoms was higher in patients with COVID-19 than in controls (p=0.004). Among patients with COVID-19, the mortality and a cumulative endpoint rates of those with GI symptoms were both lower than for those without GI symptoms (p=0.016 and p=0.000, respectively). Finally, we found digestive comorbidities to be associated with a milder course of COVID-19 (p=0.039 for cumulative endpoint). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted the non-negligible frequency of GI symptoms in patients with COVID-19, partly attributable to the therapies implemented. In addition, the presence of GI symptoms and digestive comorbidities is associated with better outcomes. Most likely, digestive comorbidities do not hinder the host's immune response against SARS-COV-2, and the occurrence of GI symptoms might be linked to a faster reduction of the viral load via the faecal route.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Italy , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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