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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 119, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to find the association between gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory symptoms with mortality and hospitalization among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We analyzed the registered data of COVID-19 patients from February 20, 2020, to March 10, 2021. Depending on the patients' disease symptoms, four categories were defined: patients with only GI symptoms, patients with only respiratory symptoms, patients with both symptoms, and patients with other symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of groups with outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 42,964 patients from 23 hospitals were included, of which 26.5% patients had at least one or more GI symptoms. Of total patients, 51.58% patients were hospitalized among which 22.8% had at least one or more GI symptoms. GI symptoms significantly decreased the odds of mortality (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92), but respiratory symptoms increased the odds for mortality (1.36: 1.24-1.50), compared with patients with other symptoms. Moreover, the odds ratio of patients who had both respiratory and GI symptoms increased (1.52: 1.31-1.78) compared with patients with other symptoms. The same results were observed for hospitalization as the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the presence of GI symptoms in COVID-19 at the time of admission was associated with a lower odds of hospitalization and mortality; however, this association had higher odds for respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Z Gastroenterol ; 60(4): 575-585, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730358

ABSTRACT

Functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are stress-associated. The COVID-19 pandemic, which has been rampant since 2020, has caused anxiety and stress in the population. Distancing measures to combat the pandemic have affected mental health. Our objective was to examine the impact of the 3rd lockdown in Germany in December 2020 and January 2021 on the apprehension of patients with FD and IBS.Patients diagnosed with FD or IBS treated in a tertiary or primary care hospital in the South of Baden-Württemberg in 2020 voluntarily participated in an anonymous online survey. Questions about concomitant diseases, concern about COVID-19 and stress perception were answered.A total of 106 patients (♀=67, ♂=38, 1 diverse) participated in the survey. Of these, 16 had FD (♀=9, ♂=6, diverse=1), 80 had IBS (♀=52, ♂=28), and 10 had both (♀=6, ♂=4). The average age was 43.6 years. Depressive and anxiety disorders were most frequently reported comorbidities in both the FD (25% each) and IBS group (20% each), followed by joint wear and tear (FD: 13%, RDS: 14%). In a direct comparison of participants with FD and IBS, those with IBS showed significantly higher scores for an increase in gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during the pandemic (p=0.007), more frequent presentation to a physician during the pandemic, and greater social withdrawal due to GI symptoms (p=0.05). In direct comparison, those with IBS showed higher scores for fear that vaccination against COVID-19 would adversely affect GI symptoms compared to FD (p=0.05).In times of the pandemic, interdisciplinary collaboration in the care of patients with FD or IBS seems more necessary than ever to address concerns and provide good patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Dyspepsia/complications , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1315-1329, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718396

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (nSARS-CoV-2) virus outbreaks emerged from Wuhan, China, and spread all over the world, including India. Molecular diagnosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID) 19 for densely and highly populated countries like India is time-consuming. A few reports have described the successful diagnosis of nSARS-CoV-2 virus from sewage and wastewater samples contaminated with fecal matter, suggesting the diagnosis of COVID 19 from the same to raise an alarm about the community transmission of virus for implementation of evacuation and lockdown strategies. So far, the association between the detection of virus and its concentration in stool samples with severity of the disease and the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms have been rarely reported. We led the search utilizing multiple databases, specifically PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Google Scholar. We conducted a literature survey on gastrointestinal infection and the spread of this virus through fecal-oral transmission. Reports suggested that the existence and persistence of nSARS-CoV-2 in anal/rectal swabs and stool specimens for a longer period of time than in nasopharyngeal swabs provides a strong tenable outcome of gastrointestinal contamination and dissemination of this infection via potential fecal-oral transmission. This review may be helpful to conduct further studies to address the enteric involvement and excretion of nSARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces and control the community spread in both COVID-19 patients ahead of the onset of symptoms and in asymptomatic individuals through wastewater and sewage surveillance as an early indication of infection. The existence of the viral genome and active viral particle actively participate in genomic variations. Hence, we comprehended the enteric spread of different viruses amongst communities with special reference to nSARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sewage/virology , Water Purification
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(46): 7969-7981, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580317

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused one of the worst public health crises in modern history. Even though severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 primarily affects the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal manifestations are well described in literature. This review will discuss the epidemiology, virology, manifestations, immunosuppressant states, and lessons learned from COVID-19. Observations: At the time of writing, COVID-19 had infected more than 111 million people and caused over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Multiple medical comorbidities including obesity, pre-existing liver condition and the use of proton pump inhibitor have been described as risk factor for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 most frequently causes diarrhea (12.4%), nausea/vomiting (9%) and elevation in liver enzymes (15%-20%). The current data does not suggest that patients on immunomodulators have a significantly increased risk of mortality from COVID-19. The current guidelines from American Gastroenterological Association and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases do not recommend pre-emptive changes in patients on immunosuppression if the patients have not been infected with COVID-19. Conclusions and relevance: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a change in structure and shape of gastroenterology departmental activities. Endoscopy should be performed only when necessary and with strict protective measures. Online consultations in the form of telehealth services and home drug deliveries have revolutionized the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Liver , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 22(4): 305-309, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Gastrointestinal manifestations are common during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. They can occur before respiratory symptoms, resulting in a diagnostic delay and an increased risk of disease transmission. The current study reports major gastrointestinal manifestations as initial symptoms of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, and single-center study of 713 cases was conducted in a field hospital in Morocco over a 5-week period from June 21 to July 25, 2020. RESULTS: The average age of our patients was 31.95 years. Clinically, on admission, anorexia was the main symptom, present in 32.3% of patients. Gastrointestinal manifestations were present in 14.9% of patients, including watery diarrhea in 8.6% of cases, nausea and/or vomiting in 4.6% of cases, and abdominal pain in 1.6% of cases. Six hundred thirty-two patients were treated in accordance with one of the two therapeutic protocols recommended by the National Ministry of Health. The treatment-related effects that occurred in 61.4% of patients were primarily digestive in 55.3% of cases. In multivariate analysis, following adjustment of the studied parameters, only the presence of gastrointestinal manifestations (odds ratio [OR]: 1.478 confidence interval [CI]: 1.286-1.698; p < 0.001) and treatment side effects (OR = 1.069, CI: 1.020-1.119, p = 0.005) altered the rate of negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests on day 10. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal manifestations are common during COVID-19 and seem to be linked to a longer duration of disease. SARS-CoV-2 (the causative virus of COVID-19) can persist in the digestive tract, with the possibility of fecal-oral transmission. Therefore, hygiene is extremely important, especially handwashing and strict precautions when performing gastrointestinal endoscopy and handling stools from infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 37(3): 489-498, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Because acute infectious gastroenteritis may cause post-infection irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 affects gastrointestinal (GI) tract, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) may cause post-infection-functional GI disorders (FGIDs). We prospectively studied the frequency and spectrum of post-infection-FGIDs among COVID-19 and historical healthy controls and the risk factors for its development. METHODS: Two hundred eighty patients with COVID-19 and 264 historical healthy controls were followed up at 1 and 3 months using translated validated Rome Questionnaires for the development of chronic bowel dysfunction (CBD), dyspeptic symptoms, and their overlap and at 6-month for IBS, uninvestigated dyspepsia (UD) and their overlap. Psychological comorbidity was studied using Rome III Psychosocial Alarm Questionnaire. RESULTS: At 1 and 3 months, 16 (5.7%), 16 (5.7%), 11 (3.9%), and 24 (8.6%), 6 (2.1%), 9 (3.2%) of COVID-19 patients developed CBD, dyspeptic symptoms, and their overlap, respectively; among healthy controls, none developed dyspeptic symptoms and one developed CBD at 3 months (P < 0.05). At 6 months, 15 (5.3%), 6 (2.1%), and 5 (1.8%) of the 280 COVID-19 patients developed IBS, UD, and IBS-UD overlap, respectively, and one healthy control developed IBS at 6 months (P < 0.05 for all except IBS-UD overlap). The risk factors for post-COVID-19 FGIDs at 6 months included symptoms (particularly GI), anosmia, ageusia, and presence of CBD, dyspeptic symptoms, or their overlap at 1 and 3 months and the psychological comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing COVID-19 led to post-COVID-19 FGIDs. Post-COVID-19 FGIDs may pose a significant economic, social, and healthcare burden to the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513873

ABSTRACT

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , Young Adult
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(11): 1376-1384, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are no head-to-head trials of different dose escalation strategies of methotrexate (MTX) in RA. We compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of 'usual' (5 mg every 4 weeks) versus 'fast' (5 mg every 2 weeks) escalation of oral MTX. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label (assessor blinded) RCT included patients 18-55 years of age having active RA with disease duration <5 years, and not on DMARDs. Patients were randomized 1:1 into usual or fast escalation groups, both groups starting MTX at 15 mg/week till a maximum of 25 mg/week. Primary outcome was EULAR good response at 16 weeks, secondary outcomes were ΔDAS28 and adverse effects (AE). Analyses were intention-to-treat. RESULTS: 178 patients with mean DAS28-CRP of 5.4(1.1) were randomized to usual (n=89) or fast escalation groups (n=89). At 16 weeks, there was no difference in good EULAR response in the usual (28.1%) or fast escalation (22.5%) groups (p=0.8). There was no difference in mean ΔDAS28-CRP at 8 weeks (-0.9, -0.8, p=0.72) or 16 weeks (-1.3, -1.3, p=0.98). Even at 24 weeks (extended follow-up), responses were similar. There were no inter-group differences in ΔHAQ, or MTX-polyglutamates 1-3 levels at 8 or 16 weeks. Gastrointestinal AE were higher in the fast escalation group over initial 8 weeks (27%, 40%, p=0.048), but not over 16 weeks. There was no difference in cytopenias, transaminitis, or drug discontinuation/dose reduction between the groups. No serious AE were seen. CONCLUSION: A faster MTX escalation strategy in RA was not more efficacious over 16-24 weeks, and did not significantly increase AE, except higher gastrointestinal AE initially. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2018/12/016549.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Leukopenia/chemically induced , Leukopenia/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/analogs & derivatives , Methotrexate/blood , Middle Aged , Polyglutamic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Polyglutamic Acid/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5836-5842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common gastrointestinal diseases. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and psychosocial distress worsens symptoms severity. Since the end of 2019 the world has been facing COVID-19 pandemic. The associated control measures have affected the psychological health of people. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders among Italian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sample is composed of 407 patients (187 males, 220 females), aged from 10 to 17 years. The mean age is 14.27 ± 2.24 years. The study was conducted through the Italian version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version.  The prevalence of each disorder has been calculated as the ratio of affected subjects for each disease and the total number of effective cases for that specific disease. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder in Italian children, during the COVD-19 pandemic, is higher, compared with the one reported in the previous studies. The most frequent disorders are Abdominal Migraine and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first one which provides data of the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders in sample of Italian adolescents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study underlines the need to focus on stress management, in order to reduce the effects of the lockdown on the psychological wellness of the youngest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Abdominal Pain/psychology , Adolescent , Aerophagy/epidemiology , Aerophagy/etiology , Aerophagy/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/psychology , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Dyspepsia/psychology , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Fecal Incontinence/psychology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Italy , Male , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Migraine Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , Rumination Syndrome/epidemiology , Rumination Syndrome/etiology , Rumination Syndrome/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/psychology
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003773, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-COVID refers to a variety of symptoms affecting different organs reported by people following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To date, there have been no robust estimates of the incidence and co-occurrence of long-COVID features, their relationship to age, sex, or severity of infection, and the extent to which they are specific to COVID-19. The aim of this study is to address these issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on linked electronic health records (EHRs) data from 81 million patients including 273,618 COVID-19 survivors. The incidence and co-occurrence within 6 months and in the 3 to 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis were calculated for 9 core features of long-COVID (breathing difficulties/breathlessness, fatigue/malaise, chest/throat pain, headache, abdominal symptoms, myalgia, other pain, cognitive symptoms, and anxiety/depression). Their co-occurrence network was also analyzed. Comparison with a propensity score-matched cohort of patients diagnosed with influenza during the same time period was achieved using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model. The incidence of atopic dermatitis was used as a negative control. Among COVID-19 survivors (mean [SD] age: 46.3 [19.8], 55.6% female), 57.00% had one or more long-COVID feature recorded during the whole 6-month period (i.e., including the acute phase), and 36.55% between 3 and 6 months. The incidence of each feature was: abnormal breathing (18.71% in the 1- to 180-day period; 7.94% in the 90- to180-day period), fatigue/malaise (12.82%; 5.87%), chest/throat pain (12.60%; 5.71%), headache (8.67%; 4.63%), other pain (11.60%; 7.19%), abdominal symptoms (15.58%; 8.29%), myalgia (3.24%; 1.54%), cognitive symptoms (7.88%; 3.95%), and anxiety/depression (22.82%; 15.49%). All 9 features were more frequently reported after COVID-19 than after influenza (with an overall excess incidence of 16.60% and hazard ratios between 1.44 and 2.04, all p < 0.001), co-occurred more commonly, and formed a more interconnected network. Significant differences in incidence and co-occurrence were associated with sex, age, and illness severity. Besides the limitations inherent to EHR data, limitations of this study include that (i) the findings do not generalize to patients who have had COVID-19 but were not diagnosed, nor to patients who do not seek or receive medical attention when experiencing symptoms of long-COVID; (ii) the findings say nothing about the persistence of the clinical features; and (iii) the difference between cohorts might be affected by one cohort seeking or receiving more medical attention for their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Long-COVID clinical features occurred and co-occurred frequently and showed some specificity to COVID-19, though they were also observed after influenza. Different long-COVID clinical profiles were observed based on demographics and illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/etiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(5): 502-511, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the frequency and association of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with outcomes in patients with corona virus disease 2019  (COVID-19) admitted to the hospital. METHODS: Records were retrospectively collected from patients admitted to a tertiary care center in Washington, D.C., with confirmed COVID-19 from March 15, 2020  to July 15, 2020. After adjusting for clinical demographics and comorbidities, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The most common  presenting symptoms of COVID-19 in patients that were admitted to the hospital were cough (38.4%), shortness of breath (37.5%), and fever (34.3%), followed by GI symptoms in 25.9% of patients. The most common GI symptom was diarrhea (12.8%) followed by nausea or vomiting (10.5%), decreased appetite (9.3%), and abdominal pain (3.8%). Patients with diarrhea were more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] 2.750; p = 0.006; confidence interval [CI] 1.329-5.688), be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR 2.242; p = 0.019; CI 1.139-4.413), and be intubated (OR 3.155; p = 0.002; CI 1.535-6.487). Additional outcomes analyzed were need for vasopressors, presence of shock, and acute kidney injury. Patients with  diarrhea  were 2.738 (p = 0.007; CI 1.325-5.658), 2.467 (p = 0.013; CI 1.209-5.035), and 2.694 (p = 0.007; CI 1.305-5.561) times more likely to experience these outcomes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Screening questions should be expanded to include common GI symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Health care providers should note whether their patient is presenting with diarrhea due to the potential implications on disease severity and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 34(2): e14187, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal infections represent a risk factor for functional gastrointestinal and somatoform extraintestinal disorders. We investigated the prevalence and relative risk (RR) of gastrointestinal and somatoform symptoms 5 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with a control cohort. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-four SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and 183 controls responded to an online questionnaire about symptoms and signs during the acute phase of the infection and after 4.8 ± 0.3 months. Presence and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms, somatization, anxiety, and depression were recorded with standardized questionnaires. Stool form and presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were also recorded. Any association between exposure to infection and symptoms was evaluated by calculating crude and adjusted RR values and score differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI). KEY RESULTS: Fever, dyspnea, loss of smell/taste/weight, diarrhea, myalgia, arthralgia, and asthenia were reported by more than 40% of patients during the acute phase. Compared with controls, adjusted RRs for loose stools, chronic fatigue, and somatization were increased after infection: 1.88 (95% CI 0.99-3.54), 2.24 (95% CI 1.48-3.37), and 3.62 (95% CI 1.01-6.23), respectively. Gastrointestinal sequelae were greater in patients with diarrhea during the acute phase. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Mild gastroenterological symptoms persist 5 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, in particular in patients reporting diarrhea in the acute phase. Infected patients are at increased risk of chronic fatigue and somatoform disorders, thus supporting the hypothesis that both functional gastrointestinal and somatoform disorders may have a common biological origin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Somatoform Disorders/epidemiology , Somatoform Disorders/virology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 34(3): e14251, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 frequently presents with acute gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but it is unclear how common these symptoms are after recovery. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of GI symptoms after COVID-19. METHODS: The medical records of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 1 and June 30, 2020, were reviewed for the presence of GI symptoms at primary care follow-up 1 to 6 months later. The prevalence of new GI symptoms was estimated, and risk factors were assessed. Additionally, an anonymous survey was used to determine the prevalence of new GI symptoms among online support groups for COVID-19 survivors. KEY RESULTS: Among 147 patients without pre-existing GI conditions, the most common GI symptoms at the time of hospitalization for COVID-19 were diarrhea (23%), nausea/vomiting (21%), and abdominal pain (6.1%), and at a median follow-up time of 106 days, the most common GI symptoms were abdominal pain (7.5%), constipation (6.8%), diarrhea (4.1%), and vomiting (4.1%), with 16% reporting at least one GI symptom at follow-up (95% confidence interval 11 to 23%). Among 285 respondents to an online survey for self-identified COVID-19 survivors without pre-existing GI symptoms, 113 (40%) reported new GI symptoms after COVID-19 (95% CI 33.9 to 45.6%). CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES: At a median of 106 days after discharge following hospitalization for COVID-19, 16% of unselected patients reported new GI symptoms at follow-up. 40% of patients from COVID survivor groups reported new GI symptoms. The ongoing GI effects of COVID-19 after recovery require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors , Young Adult
18.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(9): 757-765, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367075

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an airborne infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 relies on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor for cellular entry and the abundance of this receptor in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may help explain the GI manifestations, including dysgeusia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, present in over 40% of infected patients. GI tract involvement also raises the concern for oral-fecal transmission which is poorly understood. Outcome studies in COVID-19 patients with preexisting liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease show predominantly mild transaminase elevations and no increased risk from the use of biological agents in inflammatory bowel disease patients. High-dose corticosteroids, however, should be avoided. As endoscopic procedures are aerosol-generating, modifications to clinical practice is necessary to minimize the spread of COVID-19. We have reviewed current literature to describe the impact of COVID-19 in gastroenterology and hepatology as well as targets of future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenterology , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Gastroenterology ; 161(6): 2047-2050.e3, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364614

ABSTRACT

One year into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the African continent still seems to be spared from the devastating effects the disease had in other continents. Africa's COVID-19 seems to be of a milder nature both in adults and children. However, lack of data from Africa is significant, and more studies are needed to validate the disease status, clinical manifestations, and future implications for Africa. In this study, we report pediatric COVID-19 features in Africa represented by 8 countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Young Adult
20.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1331-1338, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between viral load and the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD and GD), the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and the recovery of OD and GD in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted on 599 outpatients' cases in Golestan province between February and June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence, severity (complete or partial) and recovery time of OD and GD and their associations with cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction were assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 38.27 ± 13.62 years. The incidence of general symptoms included myalgia 70.1%, headache 51.8%, fever 47.7% and dyspnoea 21.4%. 41.9% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain 26.5%, diarrhoea 25.2%, nausea 20.5% and vomiting 12.9%. 12.2% of patients had comorbidity. The trimester recovery rates of OD and GD were 93.94% and 94.74% respectively. The mean recovery time of OD and GD was 14.56 ± 13.37 and 13.8 ± 3.77 days respectively. The mean CT value in all patients was 27.45 ± 4.55. There were significant associations between the mean of CT value with headache (p = 0.04), GD (p = 0.002) and OD (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this study indicates a possible association between viral load with incidence of OD and GD in COVID-19 patient's cases and assures the recovery of OD/GD in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/virology
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