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2.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(1): e38-e46, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who were attending the emergency department (ED), before hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients diagnosed with UGB in 62 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs, case group) during the first 2 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. We formed 2 control groups: COVID-19 patients without UGB (control group A) and non-COVID-19 patients with UGB (control group B). Fifty-three independent variables and 4 outcomes were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: We identified 83 UGB in 74,814 patients with COVID-19 who were attending EDs (1.11%, 95% CI=0.88-1.38). This incidence was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients [2474/1,388,879, 1.78%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.71-1.85; odds ratio (OR)=0.62; 95% CI=0.50-0.77]. Clinical characteristics associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 patients presenting with UGB were abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, dyspnea, expectoration, melena, fever, cough, chest pain, and dysgeusia. Compared with non-COVID-19 patients with UGB, COVID-19 patients with UGB more frequently had fever, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, interstitial lung infiltrates, and ground-glass lung opacities. They underwent fewer endoscopies in the ED (although diagnoses did not differ between cases and control group B) and less endoscopic treatment. After adjustment for age and sex, cases showed a higher in-hospital all-cause mortality than control group B (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.09-3.86) but not control group A (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.59-2.19) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of UGB in COVID-19 patients attending EDs was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients. Digestive symptoms predominated over respiratory symptoms, and COVID-19 patients with UGB underwent fewer gastroscopies and endoscopic treatments than the general population with UGB. In-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with UGB was increased compared with non-COVID patients with UGB, but not compared with the remaining COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastroscopy , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 30(4): 528-530, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594923

ABSTRACT

Hemobilia which is firstly described in 1948 is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Since its main clinic takes time to occur and may cause mortality, early diagnosis and management have a great importance. Almost for 3 years, the world has been facing with an unknown viral infection called COVID-19 whose clinic changes from asymptomatic respiratory infection to symptoms associated with multiple system involvement. The clinical presentation of Covid-19 infection varies tremendously depending on the severity of the illness. In this report, we present the first two cases of severe COVID-19 induced hemobilia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemobilia/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemobilia/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118796, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332923

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evaluation of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding using invasive endoscopic procedures comprising the standard of care (SOC)-upper endoscopy and colonoscopy-can expose the endoscopy staff to SARS-CoV-2. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) does not generate aerosols and only requires 1 person to manage the procedure. Objective: To examine the safety of VCE for the initial evaluation of GI bleeding at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic to identify signs of active bleeding while minimizing patient and personnel exposure, saving personal protective equipment, and avoiding invasive or unnecessary procedures. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter (UMass Memorial Medical Center and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center) retrospective cohort study including 146 patients with COVID-19 who received VCE as the first-line diagnostic modality was conducted from March 15 to June 15, 2020, compared with SOC in January 2020 for evaluation of GI bleeding. The association between treatment and outcomes was estimated using multivariable regression adjusting for potential confounders. Propensity score matching was used to verify the results. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was detection of active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding. Secondary end points included the number of patients requiring any invasive procedures, number of additional procedures, rates of rebleeding and rehospitalization, transfusion requirements, and mortality. Results: Among 146 patients, 92 (63.0%) were men; mean (SD) age was 64.93 (14.13) years in the COVID-19 group and 61.33 (13.39) years in the SOC group. Active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding was observed in 44 (59.5%) patients in the COVID-19 group compared with 18 (25.0%) in the SOC group (adjusted odds ratio, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.23 to 12.27). Only 36 patients (48.7%) in the COVID-19 group required any invasive procedure during the hospitalization compared with 70 (97.2%) in the SOC group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.08). The mean (SD) number of invasive procedures was 0.59 (0.77) per patient in the COVID-19 group compared with 1.18 (0.48) per patient in the SOC group (adjusted difference, -0.54; 95% CI, -0.77 to -0.31). Both approaches appeared to be safe and there was no significant difference in transfusion requirements, rebleeding, rehospitalization, or in-hospital mortality. No mortality was attributed to GI bleeding in either group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, first-line diagnostic evaluation of acute GI bleeding using VCE appeared to be a safe and useful alternative to the traditional approach of upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. Use of VCE was associated with increased detection of active bleeding and a reduced number of invasive procedures and unnecessary exposure of personnel to SARS-CoV-2 and use of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capsule Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Occupational Exposure , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 46(1): 89-96, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254925

ABSTRACT

Approximately 20% of patients with symptomatic syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have gastrointestinal bleeding and/or diarrhea. Most are managed without endoscopic evaluation because the risk of practitioner infection outweighs the value of biopsy analysis unless symptoms are life-threatening. As a result, much of what is known about the gastrointestinal manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been gleaned from surgical and autopsy cases that suffer from extensive ischemic injury and/or poor preservation. There are no detailed reports describing any other gastrointestinal effects of SARS-CoV-2 even though >3,000,000 people have died from COVID-19 worldwide. The purpose of this study is to report the intestinal findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection by way of a small case series including one with evidence of direct viral cytopathic effect and 2 with secondary injury attributed to viral infection. Infection can be confirmed by immunohistochemical stains directed against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, in situ hybridization for spike protein-encoding RNA, and ultrastructural visualization of viruses within the epithelium. It induces cytoplasmic blebs and tufted epithelial cells without inflammation and may not cause symptoms. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause gastrointestinal symptoms after the virus is no longer detected, reflecting systemic activation of cytokine and complement cascades rather than direct viral injury. Reversible mucosal ischemia features microvascular injury with hemorrhage, small vessel thrombosis, and platelet-rich thrombi. Systemic cytokine elaboration and dysbiosis likely explain epithelial cell injury that accompanies diarrheal symptoms. These observations are consistent with clinical and in vitro data and contribute to our understanding of the protean manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Intestinal Diseases/pathology , Intestinal Diseases/virology , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/immunology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Intestinal Diseases/immunology , Intestines/immunology , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/immunology , Ischemia/pathology , Ischemia/virology , Male , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
14.
Endoscopy ; 52(11): 1036-1038, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world. The Austrian government implemented a lockdown on 16 March to contain further spread of the disease. We investigated the effects of lockdown on acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in Austria. METHODS: We contacted 98 Austrian hospitals performing emergency endoscopies. The hospitals were asked to report upper GI endoscopies performed for recent hematemesis, melena, or both, and exhibiting endoscopically visible signs of bleeding. The study period was from 3 weeks before (calendar Week 9) to 3 weeks after (Week 14) initiation of the lockdown. RESULTS: 61 % of Austrian hospitals, and importantly all major state hospitals, responded. A total of 575 upper GI bleedings occurred during the 3 weeks before and 341 during the 3 weeks after initiation of lockdown (40.7 % reduction). There was a 54.6 % decline in nonvariceal bleeding events at Week 14 compared with Week 9 (89 vs. 196), whereas rates of variceal hemorrhage did not change (15 vs. 17). CONCLUSIONS: National lockdown resulted in a dramatic decrease in upper GI bleeding events in Austrian hospitals.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Austria , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 318, 2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and has been a significant public health threat. Despite typical manifestations of illness are dominated by respiratory symptom, some patients have concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations, including nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding, however, has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We herein described a case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infected patient with several risk factors for poor prognosis, including male, hypertension, old age, mixed bacterial infection and multilobular infiltration on radiological imaging. After improvement of respiratory status, the onset of gastrointestinal bleeding occurred, probably resulting from direct viral invasion as evidenced by the positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in the repeat stool specimens. Although aggressive resuscitation was administered, hematochezia was uncontrolled. The patient rapidly deteriorated, suffered from cardiac arrest, and expired. CONCLUSIONS: Digestive symptoms could be severe in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, especially for the high-risk individuals with predisposing conditions. A more thorough protocol for preventing cross-infection through faecal-oral transmission should be implemented in the process of patient care and infection control.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(5): 1027-1030, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646555

ABSTRACT

Following the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China, more than 10,765 patients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from February 18, 2020 to April 30, 2020 in South Korea. Performing emergency endoscopy is extremely challenging from the clinicians' viewpoint during the viral outbreak. There are no available guidelines for emergency endoscopy in tertiary hospitals during this pandemic. We set up an algorithm as a guide for emergency endoscopy in patients presenting to the emergency room with bleeding, foreign body, or impending cholangitis. From February 18, 2020 to April 30, 2020 of outbreak, 130 patients underwent emergency endoscopy in our center. Owing to the simple and streamlined algorithm for performing emergency endoscopy, no endoscopy-related infection to other patients or medical workers was reported in our center.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endoscopy , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Cholangitis/etiology , Cholangitis/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Foreign Bodies/diagnosis , Foreign Bodies/etiology , Foreign Bodies/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(3): 101521, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients have an increased susceptibility to develop thrombotic complications, thus thromboprophylaxis is warranted which may increase risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Our aim was to evaluate incidence of UGIB and use of upper GI endoscopy in COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: The medical and endoscopic management of UGIB in non-ICU COVID-19 patients has been retrospectively evaluated. Glasgow Blatchford score was calculated at onset of signs of GI bleeding. Timing between onset of signs of GI bleeding and execution, if performed, of upper GI endoscopy was evaluated. Endoscopic characteristics and outcome of patients were evaluated overall or according to the execution or not of an upper GI endoscopy before and after 24h. RESULTS: Out of 4871 COVID-19 positive patients, 23 presented signs of UGIB and were included in the study (incidence 0.47%). The majority (78%) were on anticoagulant therapy or thromboprophylaxis. In 11 patients (48%) upper GI endoscopy was performed within 24h, whereas it was not performed in 5. Peptic ulcer was the most common finding (8/18). Mortality rate was 21.7% for worsening of COVID-19 infection. Mortality and rebleeding were not different between patients having upper GI endoscopy before or after 24h/not performed. Glasgow Blatchford score was similar between the two groups (13;12-16 vs 12;9-15). CONCLUSION: Upper GI bleeding complicated hospital stay in almost 0.5% of COVID-19 patients and peptic ulcer disease is the most common finding. Conservative management could be an option in patients that are at high risk of respiratory complications.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
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