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1.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(6): 762-768, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal system bleeding (UGIB) that occurs with the effect of coagulopathy due to COVID-19 disease itself and drugs such as LMWH and steroids used in the treatment negatively affects the outcomes. In this study, we aimed to examine the frequency of gastrointestinal system bleeding in COVID-19 patients, risk factors, effect on outcomes, and management. METHODS: Institutional center (a third-level pandemic center) database was searched for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 11, 2020, and December 17, 2020, retrospectively. Patients with UGIB symptoms/signs were included in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2), hospital department where bleeding was diagnosed, previous bleeding history, comorbidities, and medication were steroid, anticoagulant, low weight molecule heparin, and proton-pomp inhibitor, endoscopic findings/treatment, transfusion, and mortality rates were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as survivors and non-survivors and parameters were compared. RESULTS: Forty-five of a total 5484 patients under COVID-19 treatment had upper gastrointestinal bleeding (0.8%). The average age of the patients was 70.1 years and 73% bleeders were male. Nineteen patients (44%) underwent endoscopy. The most common etiologies of bleeding were gastric/duodenal ulcer (n=9), erosive gastritis (n=4), and hemorrhagic gastritis (n=3). Active bleeding re-quiring intervention was detected in only one patient; therapeutic band ligation was applied to only 1 (2%) of all patients. The most common etiologies of bleeding were gastric/duodenal ulcer (n=9), erosive gastritis (n=4), and hemorrhagic gastritis (n=3). In terms of statistical significance, it was observed that the rate of steroid treatment (77% vs. 39%) and the number of days of steroid treatment were higher in non-survivor group. CONCLUSION: UGIB is less common in COVID-19 patients compared to other hospitalized patients. However, it significantly increases mortality. Mortality risk increases even more in patients using steroids. These risks should be considered in patients under COVID-19 treatment. The majority of the bleeding patients does not require endoscopic treatment and should be managed conser-vatively. It is worth considering reducing unnecessary endoscopies in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Duodenal Ulcer , Gastritis , Peptic Ulcer Perforation , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Gastritis/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221098179, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840794

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of Covid-19 vary widely among patients. Recent studies suggest that up to 15% of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections develop gastrointestinal symptoms. The location of virus-host cell receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 has an important role in the pathophysiology and presentation of disease. They are expressed in the respiratory tract, as well as other organs and tissues including exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. These cells are therefore a possible target for the virus, which could explain the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and pancreatic injury. We report a disastrous collateral effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on a 33-year-old man with chronic renal insufficiency and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, who developed acute pancreatitis. Inflammation progressed rapidly toward necrosis and the development of a peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm which subsequently ruptured, causing death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Male , Pancreatitis/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 37(5): 878-882, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Changes to endoscopy service availability during the COVID-19 pandemic may have affected management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the pandemic on UGIB outcomes in the Toronto area in Canada. METHODS: We described all adults admitted to general medicine wards or intensive care units at six hospitals in Toronto and Mississauga, Canada, with UGIB during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) and compared them with a historical cohort (March 1 to June 30, 2018 and 2019). We compared clinical outcomes (in-hospital mortality, length of stay, 30-day readmission, intensive care utilization, receipt of endoscopy, persistent bleeding, receipt of second endoscopy, and need for angiographic or surgical intervention) using multivariable regression models, controlling for demographics, comorbidities, and severity of clinical presentation. RESULTS: There were 82.5 and 215.5 admissions per month for UGIB during the COVID-19 and control periods, respectively. There were no baseline differences between groups for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, or severity of bleeding. Patients in the COVID-19 group did not have significantly different unadjusted (3.9% vs 4.2%, P = 0.983) or adjusted mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25-1.48, P = 0.322). Patients in COVID-19 group were less likely to receive endoscopy for UGIB in the unadjusted (61.8% vs 71.0%, P = 0.003) and adjusted (adjusted OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.49-0.84, P < 0.01) models. There were no differences between groups for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: While patients admitted for UGIB during the first wave of the pandemic were less likely to receive endoscopy, this had no impact on mortality or any secondary outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(1): e38-e46, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who were attending the emergency department (ED), before hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients diagnosed with UGB in 62 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs, case group) during the first 2 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. We formed 2 control groups: COVID-19 patients without UGB (control group A) and non-COVID-19 patients with UGB (control group B). Fifty-three independent variables and 4 outcomes were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: We identified 83 UGB in 74,814 patients with COVID-19 who were attending EDs (1.11%, 95% CI=0.88-1.38). This incidence was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients [2474/1,388,879, 1.78%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.71-1.85; odds ratio (OR)=0.62; 95% CI=0.50-0.77]. Clinical characteristics associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 patients presenting with UGB were abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, dyspnea, expectoration, melena, fever, cough, chest pain, and dysgeusia. Compared with non-COVID-19 patients with UGB, COVID-19 patients with UGB more frequently had fever, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, interstitial lung infiltrates, and ground-glass lung opacities. They underwent fewer endoscopies in the ED (although diagnoses did not differ between cases and control group B) and less endoscopic treatment. After adjustment for age and sex, cases showed a higher in-hospital all-cause mortality than control group B (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.09-3.86) but not control group A (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.59-2.19) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of UGB in COVID-19 patients attending EDs was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients. Digestive symptoms predominated over respiratory symptoms, and COVID-19 patients with UGB underwent fewer gastroscopies and endoscopic treatments than the general population with UGB. In-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with UGB was increased compared with non-COVID patients with UGB, but not compared with the remaining COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastroscopy , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 30(4): 528-530, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594923

ABSTRACT

Hemobilia which is firstly described in 1948 is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Since its main clinic takes time to occur and may cause mortality, early diagnosis and management have a great importance. Almost for 3 years, the world has been facing with an unknown viral infection called COVID-19 whose clinic changes from asymptomatic respiratory infection to symptoms associated with multiple system involvement. The clinical presentation of Covid-19 infection varies tremendously depending on the severity of the illness. In this report, we present the first two cases of severe COVID-19 induced hemobilia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemobilia/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemobilia/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 113(12): 852-853, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579657

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 72-year-old male with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. He had been discharged from hospital two weeks before after severe COVID-19 infection, treated with lopinavir-ritonavir (L-R), hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and methylprednisolone. On presentation, he was in hypovolemic shock. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an ulcer in the third duodenal portion, which was sclerosed and hemodynamic stability was recovered. A scan was performed as it was in an atypical location for ulcers, showing an aortic aneurysm in close relationship to the duodenum, suggesting a primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF).


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , COVID-19 , Duodenal Diseases , Intestinal Fistula , Vascular Fistula , Aged , Aortic Diseases/complications , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Duodenal Diseases/complications , Duodenal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Intestinal Fistula/complications , Intestinal Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Fistula/complications , Vascular Fistula/diagnostic imaging
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 337-343, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1496639

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed digestive endoscopy services around the world. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure the number of urgent/emergency endoscopic procedures performed in a Brazilian hospital, comparing it to the same period in the previous year, and to identify risk factors in COVID-19 patients undergoing endoscopic procedures for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational, single-center study. The study evaluated urgent/emergency endoscopic procedures performed on adult patients from March to August in 2019 and 2020. The COVID-19 patients included were diagnosed using RT-PCR, aged over 18 years with complete medical record information. The variables evaluated were age, sex, comorbidities, length of stay, D-dimer, need for intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation. Student's t-test for independent samples or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables. Categorical variables were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. A P-value <0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 130 urgent/emergency endoscopic procedures were performed in 2020 and 97 in 2019. During the study period, 631 patients were hospitalized due to COVID-19, of whom 16 underwent urgent/emergency endoscopic procedures, 10 (1.6%) due to UGIB. Of the variables analyzed, the need for ICU and/or mechanical ventilation during hospitalization was statistically significant as a risk factor for UGIB. CONCLUSION: This study showed increased urgent/emergency endoscopic procedures during the pandemic at the study site. Among the patients hospitalized with the novel coronavirus, there is a higher risk for UGIB in those needing ICU and/or mechanical ventilation.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A pandemia da COVID-19 tem alterado o funcionamento de serviços de endoscopia digestiva pelo mundo. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem por objetivo medir o número de exames endoscópicos de urgência/emergência realizados em um hospital público brasileiro, comparando-o ao mesmo período do ano anterior, além de avaliar os fatores de risco dos pacientes com COVID-19 que realizaram exame endoscópico por hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA). MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, observacional e unicêntrico. Foram avaliados todos os exames endoscópicos de urgência/emergência realizados em pacientes acima de 18 anos, nos períodos de março a agosto dos anos de 2019 e 2020. Os pacientes com COVID-19 incluídos foram diagnosticados por RT-PCR, acima de 18 anos, com informações completas em prontuário. As variáveis avaliadas foram: tipo de exame endoscópico, idade, sexo, comorbidades, tempo de internação, d-dímero, necessidade de UTI e ventilação mecânica durante a internação. A comparação dos grupos em relação a variáveis quantitativas foi feita através do teste t de Student para amostras independentes ou o teste não-paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. As variáveis categóricas foram avaliadas pelo teste exato de Fisher. Valores de P<0,05 indicaram significância estatística. RESULTADOS: Observaram-se 130 exames endoscópicos de urgência/emergência no período avaliado em 2020, e 97 em 2019. No período do estudo foram internados 631 pacientes por COVID-19, dos quais 16 realizaram exame endoscópico de urgência/emergência, sendo 1,6% por HDA. Dentre as variáveis analisadas, necessidade de UTI e/ou ventilação mecânica durante o internamento foram estatisticamente significativos como risco para desenvolvimento de HDA. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostra que para a realidade local houve incremento de exames endoscópicos de urgência/emergência durante a pandemia. Dentre os pacientes internados com o novo coronavírus, há maior risco de HDA naqueles que necessitam de UTI e/ou ventilação mecânica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , SARS-CoV-2 , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Middle Aged
10.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(9): 1081-1090, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are at increased risk for thromboembolic events. It is unclear whether the risk for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is also increased. METHODS: We considered 4128 COVID-19 patients enrolled in the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 (LEOSS) registry. The association between occurrence of GI bleeding and comorbidities as well as medication were examined. In addition, 1216 patients from COKA registry were analyzed focusing on endoscopy diagnostic findings. RESULTS: A cumulative number of 97 patients (1.8%) with GI bleeding were identified in the LEOSS registry and COKA registry. Of 4128 patients from the LEOSS registry, 66 patients (1.6%) had a GI bleeding. The rate of GI bleeding in patients with intensive care unit (ICU) admission was 4.5%. The use of therapeutic dose of anticoagulants showed a significant association with the increased incidence of bleeding in the critical phase of disease. The Charlson comorbidity index and the COVID-19 severity index were significantly higher in the group of patients with GI bleeding than in the group of patients without GI bleeding (5.83 (SD = 2.93) vs. 3.66 (SD = 3.06), p < 0.01 and 3.26 (SD = 1.69) vs. 2.33 (SD = 1.53), p < 0.01, respectively). In the COKA registry 31 patients (2.5%) developed a GI bleeding. Of these, the source of bleeding was identified in upper GI tract in 21 patients (67.7%) with ulcer as the most frequent bleeding source (25.8%, n = 8) followed by gastroesophageal reflux (16.1%, n = 5). In three patients (9.7%) GI bleeding source was located in lower GI tract caused mainly by diverticular bleeding (6.5%, n = 2). In seven patients (22.6%) the bleeding localization remained unknown. CONCLUSION: Consistent with previous research, comorbidities and disease severity correlate with the incidence of GI bleeding. Also, therapeutic anticoagulation seems to be associated with a higher risk of GI bleeding. Overall, the risk of GI bleeding seems not to be increased in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Diverticular Diseases/diagnosis , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Registries , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 2534975, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405234

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to affect the gastrointestinal system with a variety of symptoms, including bleeding. The prevalence of bleeding in these patients remains unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to estimate the rate of gastrointestinal bleeding in COVID-19 patients and its association with mortality. MEDLINE and Embase were searched through December 20, 2020. Studies reporting COVID-19 patients with and without gastrointestinal bleeding were included. Estimated prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was pooled; heterogeneity was expressed as I 2. Metaregression analysis was performed to assess the impact of confounding covariates. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. A total of 91887 COVID-19 patients were considered, of whom 534 reported gastrointestinal bleeding (0.6%) [409 (76.6%) upper and 121 (22.7%) lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB and LGIB, resp.)]. The overall pooled gastrointestinal bleeding rate was 5% [95% CI 2-8], with high heterogeneity (I 2 99.2%); "small study effect" was observed using the Egger test (p=0.049). After removing two outlier studies, the pooled bleeding rate was 2% [95% CI 0-4], with high heterogeneity (I 2 99.2%), and no "small study effect" (p=0.257). The pooled UGIB rate was 1% (95% CI 0-3, I 2 98.6%, p=0.214), whereas the pooled LGIB rate was 1% (95% CI 0-2, I 2 64.7%, p=0.919). Metaregression analysis showed that overall estimates on gastrointestinal bleeding were affected by studies reporting different sources of bleeding. No significant association between gastrointestinal bleeding and mortality was found. In this meta-analysis of published studies, individuals with COVID-19 were found to be at risk for gastrointestinal bleeding, especially upper gastrointestinal bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 113(12): 852-853, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399679

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 72-year-old male with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. He had been discharged from hospital two weeks before after severe COVID-19 infection, treated with lopinavir-ritonavir (L-R), hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and methylprednisolone. On presentation, he was in hypovolemic shock. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an ulcer in the third duodenal portion, which was sclerosed and hemodynamic stability was recovered. A scan was performed as it was in an atypical location for ulcers, showing an aortic aneurysm in close relationship to the duodenum, suggesting a primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF).


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , COVID-19 , Duodenal Diseases , Intestinal Fistula , Vascular Fistula , Aged , Aortic Diseases/complications , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Duodenal Diseases/complications , Duodenal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Intestinal Fistula/complications , Intestinal Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Fistula/complications , Vascular Fistula/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 113(2): 122-124, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110819

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified earlier this year and spread rapidly globally. The clinical manifestations that it produces have gradually become known and the typical clinical picture is respiratory. Although gastrointestinal symptoms have been described in several communications, information on endoscopic findings in these patients is practically zero. We describe two cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with COVID-19. In both cases, the presence of gastric ulcers was identified in an unusual location, the gastric fundus. After ruling out malignancy, our suspicion was an ischemic etiology that is consistent with terminal gastric vascularization at the gastric fundus level and increased thrombotic phenomena in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Stomach Ulcer/etiology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
19.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests frequent gastrointestinal (GI) involvement during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), endoscopic findings are scarcely reported. AIMS: We aimed at registering endoscopic abnormalities and potentially associated risk factors among patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All consecutive patients with COVID-19 undergoing endoscopy in 16 institutions from high-prevalence regions were enrolled. Mann-Whitney U, χ2 or Fisher's exact test were used to compare patients with major abnormalities to those with negative procedures, and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: Between February and May 2020, during the first pandemic outbreak with severely restricted endoscopy activity, 114 endoscopies on 106 patients with COVID-19 were performed in 16 institutions (men=70.8%, median age=68 (58-74); 33% admitted in intensive care unit; 44.4% reporting GI symptoms). 66.7% endoscopies were urgent, mainly for overt GI bleeding. 52 (45.6%) patients had major abnormalities, whereas 13 bled from previous conditions. The most prevalent upper GI abnormalities were ulcers (25.3%), erosive/ulcerative gastro-duodenopathy (16.1%) and petechial/haemorrhagic gastropathy (9.2%). Among lower GI endoscopies, 33.3% showed an ischaemic-like colitis.Receiver operating curve analysis identified D-dimers >1850 ng/mL as predicting major abnormalities. Only D-dimers >1850 ng/mL (OR=12.12 (1.69-86.87)) and presence of GI symptoms (OR=6.17 (1.13-33.67)) were independently associated with major abnormalities at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In this highly selected cohort of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring endoscopy, almost half showed acute mucosal injuries and more than one-third of lower GI endoscopies had features of ischaemic colitis. Among the hospitalisation-related and patient-related variables evaluated in this study, D-dimers above 1850 ng/mL was the most useful at predicting major mucosal abnormalities at endoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrial.gov (ID: NCT04318366).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ischemic/etiology , Colitis, Ischemic/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Duodenum/pathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach Ulcer/etiology , Stomach Ulcer/pathology
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(1): 63-65, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067875

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations and complications of SARS-CoV-2 are still emerging and variant. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and complications are hugely under-recognized. The presence of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 receptors in the intestinal enterocytes, the receptors primarily involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 pneumonia, maybe the key factor contributing to the pathogenesis of GI manifestations. Ischemic colitis, although the most common ischemic pathology of the GI tract, is relatively rare, occurring as a result of colonic hypoperfusion. The innumerable causes of colonic ischemia are categorized into occlusive and nonocclusive pathologies. Here, we have discussed a case of severe COVID-19 pneumonia, developing ischemic colitis, as a rare GI complication. The cause of ischemia in COVID-19 pneumonia is multifactorial, including hypercoagulable state, coagulopathy leading to thromboembolic complications, and use of vasopressors in severely ill patients with hemodynamic compromise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ischemic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Colitis, Ischemic/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Male
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