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1.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(2): e543-e545, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270767

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Patients with hematologic malignancies have been shown to have higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19 than reported in the general adult population. Reports on acute lymphoblastic leukemia and COVID in children are scarce. We present a case of an 11-year-old male patient undergoing treatment for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an atypical course of COVID-19. The patient received a positive result of the syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction test performed due to epidemiologic reasons. The chemotherapy was continued since the patient had no clinical signs of COVID-19. The disease started with intensive gastrointestinal bleeding, followed by severe respiratory tract infection over 2 weeks later.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/virology , Prognosis
2.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 46(1): 89-96, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254925

ABSTRACT

Approximately 20% of patients with symptomatic syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have gastrointestinal bleeding and/or diarrhea. Most are managed without endoscopic evaluation because the risk of practitioner infection outweighs the value of biopsy analysis unless symptoms are life-threatening. As a result, much of what is known about the gastrointestinal manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been gleaned from surgical and autopsy cases that suffer from extensive ischemic injury and/or poor preservation. There are no detailed reports describing any other gastrointestinal effects of SARS-CoV-2 even though >3,000,000 people have died from COVID-19 worldwide. The purpose of this study is to report the intestinal findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection by way of a small case series including one with evidence of direct viral cytopathic effect and 2 with secondary injury attributed to viral infection. Infection can be confirmed by immunohistochemical stains directed against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, in situ hybridization for spike protein-encoding RNA, and ultrastructural visualization of viruses within the epithelium. It induces cytoplasmic blebs and tufted epithelial cells without inflammation and may not cause symptoms. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause gastrointestinal symptoms after the virus is no longer detected, reflecting systemic activation of cytokine and complement cascades rather than direct viral injury. Reversible mucosal ischemia features microvascular injury with hemorrhage, small vessel thrombosis, and platelet-rich thrombi. Systemic cytokine elaboration and dysbiosis likely explain epithelial cell injury that accompanies diarrheal symptoms. These observations are consistent with clinical and in vitro data and contribute to our understanding of the protean manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Intestinal Diseases/pathology , Intestinal Diseases/virology , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/immunology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Intestinal Diseases/immunology , Intestines/immunology , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/immunology , Ischemia/pathology , Ischemia/virology , Male , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
3.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests frequent gastrointestinal (GI) involvement during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), endoscopic findings are scarcely reported. AIMS: We aimed at registering endoscopic abnormalities and potentially associated risk factors among patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All consecutive patients with COVID-19 undergoing endoscopy in 16 institutions from high-prevalence regions were enrolled. Mann-Whitney U, χ2 or Fisher's exact test were used to compare patients with major abnormalities to those with negative procedures, and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: Between February and May 2020, during the first pandemic outbreak with severely restricted endoscopy activity, 114 endoscopies on 106 patients with COVID-19 were performed in 16 institutions (men=70.8%, median age=68 (58-74); 33% admitted in intensive care unit; 44.4% reporting GI symptoms). 66.7% endoscopies were urgent, mainly for overt GI bleeding. 52 (45.6%) patients had major abnormalities, whereas 13 bled from previous conditions. The most prevalent upper GI abnormalities were ulcers (25.3%), erosive/ulcerative gastro-duodenopathy (16.1%) and petechial/haemorrhagic gastropathy (9.2%). Among lower GI endoscopies, 33.3% showed an ischaemic-like colitis.Receiver operating curve analysis identified D-dimers >1850 ng/mL as predicting major abnormalities. Only D-dimers >1850 ng/mL (OR=12.12 (1.69-86.87)) and presence of GI symptoms (OR=6.17 (1.13-33.67)) were independently associated with major abnormalities at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In this highly selected cohort of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring endoscopy, almost half showed acute mucosal injuries and more than one-third of lower GI endoscopies had features of ischaemic colitis. Among the hospitalisation-related and patient-related variables evaluated in this study, D-dimers above 1850 ng/mL was the most useful at predicting major mucosal abnormalities at endoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrial.gov (ID: NCT04318366).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ischemic/etiology , Colitis, Ischemic/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Duodenum/pathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach Ulcer/etiology , Stomach Ulcer/pathology
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