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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): 2248-2249, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821697
2.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(9): 1024-1027, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813638
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 790422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789351

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection mainly present with respiratory issues and related symptoms, in addition to significantly affected digestive system, especially the intestinal tract. While several studies have shown changes in the intestinal flora of patients with COVID-19, not much information is available on the gut virome of such patients. In this study, we used the viromescan software on the latest gut virome database to analyze the intestinal DNA virome composition of 15 patients with COVID-19 and investigated the characteristic alternations, particularly of the intestinal DNA virome to further explore the influence of COVID-19 on the human gut. The DNA viruses in the gut of patients with COVID-19 were mainly crAss-like phages (35.48%), Myoviridae (20.91%), and Siphoviridae (20.43%) family of viruses. Compared with healthy controls, the gut virome composition of patients with COVID-19 changed significantly, especially the crAss-like phages family, from the first time of hospital admission. A potential correlation is also indicated between the change in virome and bacteriome (like Tectiviridae and Bacteroidaceae). The abundance of the viral and bacterial population was also analyzed through continuous sample collection from the gut of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The gut virome is indeed affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and along with gut bacteriome, it may play an important role in the disease progression of COVID-19. These conclusions would be helpful in understanding the gut-related response and contribute to the treatment and prevention strategies of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , DNA , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virome
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785744

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has been shown to possess many applications in different fields of medicine. This systematic review has drawn attention to the axis between resveratrol and human microbiota, which plays a key role in maintaining an adequate immune response that can lead to different diseases when compromised. Resveratrol can also be an asset in new technologies, such as gene therapy. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to find papers that matched our topic dating from 1 January 2017 up to 18 January 2022, with English-language restriction using the following Boolean keywords: ("resveratrol" AND "microbio*"). Eighteen studies were included as relevant papers matching the purpose of our investigation. Immune response, prevention of thrombotic complications, microbiota, gene therapy, and bone regeneration were retrieved as the main topics. The analyzed studies mostly involved resveratrol supplementation and its effects on human microbiota by trials in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. The beneficial activity of resveratrol is evident by analyzing the changes in the host's genetic expression and the gastrointestinal microbial community with its administration. The possibility of identifying individual microbial families may allow to tailor therapeutic plans with targeted polyphenolic diets when associated with microbial dysbiosis, such as inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, degenerative diseases, tumors, obesity, diabetes, bone tissue regeneration, and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Obesity/drug therapy , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use
5.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 22(3): 161-170, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782946

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Inflammation is a key component in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. In the past few years, the role of systemic infection and gut dysbiosis in modulating inflammation and stroke risk has been increasingly acknowledged. In this review, we synthesize contemporary literature on the effects of infection and inflammation on stroke risk and outcomes, with a focus on periodontal disease, COVID-19 infection, and gut dysbiosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic and acute infections such as periodontitis and COVID-19 induce systemic inflammation that cause atherogenesis and increase cardiac injury and arrhythmias. These infections also directly injure the endothelium leading to worsened secondary inflammation after stroke. Gut dysbiosis engenders a pro-inflammatory state by modulating intestinal lymphocyte populations that can traffic directly to the brain. Additionally, post-stroke immune dysregulation creates a compounding feedback loop of further infections and gut dysbiosis that worsen outcomes. Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of how infection and dysbiosis affect the progression of stroke, as well as long-term recovery, have revealed tantalizing glimpses at potential therapeutic targets. We discuss the multidirectional relationship between stroke, infection, and gut dysbiosis, and identify areas for future research to further explore therapeutic opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Dysbiosis/complications , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/etiology
7.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(2): 189-190, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753951
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 804644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753360

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late December 2019. Considering the important role of gut microbiota in maturation, regulation, and induction of the immune system and subsequent inflammatory processes, it seems that evaluating the composition of gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy individuals may have potential value as a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for the disease. Also, therapeutic interventions affecting gut microbial flora may open new horizons in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and accelerating their recovery. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for relevant studies published from December 2019 to December 2021 using Pubmed/Medline, Embase, and Scopus. Articles containing the following keywords in titles or abstracts were selected: "SARS-CoV-2" or "COVID-19" or "Coronavirus Disease 19" and "gastrointestinal microbes" or "dysbiosis" or "gut microbiota" or "gut bacteria" or "gut microbes" or "gastrointestinal microbiota". Results: Out of 1,668 studies, 22 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and a total of 1,255 confirmed COVID-19 patients were examined. All included studies showed a significant association between COVID-19 and gut microbiota dysbiosis. The most alteration in bacterial composition of COVID-19 patients was depletion in genera Ruminococcus, Alistipes, Eubacterium, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Fusicathenibacter, and Blautia and enrichment of Eggerthella, Bacteroides, Actinomyces, Clostridium, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Collinsella. Also, some gut microbiome alterations were associated with COVID-19 severity and poor prognosis including the increment of Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, Campylobacter, Rothia, Corynebacterium, Megasphaera, Enterococcus, and Aspergillus spp. and the decrement of Roseburia, Eubacterium, Lachnospira, Faecalibacterium, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant change of gut microbiome composition in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy individuals. This great extent of impact has proposed the gut microbiota as a potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. There is much evidence about this issue, and it is expected to be increased in near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Dysbiosis/diagnosis , Dysbiosis/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vopr Pitan ; 91(1): 86-97, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744381

ABSTRACT

The problem of increasing the population antiviral immunity is of particular importance during the third year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Concomitant intestinal dysbiosis is known to play an significant role in immune cell dysfunction. Therefore, it is very important to take measures to maintain the gut microbiota using the most affordable nutritional remedies, which include fermented milk and probiotic products designed for mass population consumption and capable of enhancing their immune defence when added to the daily diet. The aim of the study was to analyze scientific evidence highlighting the role of intestinal microbiota in maintaining the macro-organism immunological balance, and to evaluate modern fermented milk and probiotic products in terms of their effect on normalising the gut microbiota and their importance in the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Material and methods. The presented scientific and analytical review analyzed the data of electronic resources of the Global Health platform, scientific libraries eLIBRARY.RU, Cochrane Library and CyberLeninka, the search system Google Academy¼, specialized sites for scientific publications ScienceDirect and Elsevier, bibliographic databases of articles on medical sciences MEDLINE, CDC infection diseases, Embase and PubMed- NCBI. The structural-logical, analytical and axiomatic methods were used. Results. It has been shown that normal intestinal microbiota takes part in maintaining metabolism in the digestive tract, increases the body's immune reactivity and regulates the functioning of all organs and systems. The severity of dysbiotic disorders can determine susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, the severity of this infection course, as well as the level of post-infection and post-vaccination anti-COVID-19 immunity. The high prevalence of gut dysbacteriosis indicates the need to strengthen measures of correcting dysbiotic disorders, including the inclusion of fermented and probiotic products in the daily population diet. Conclusion. Fermented milk and probiotic products, as sources of easily digestible macronutrients, essential micronutrients, biologically active substances and beneficial live microorganisms, should be included in the daily diet during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to increase the adaptive capacity and immunity of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Milk , Probiotics , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fermentation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Milk/microbiology , Pandemics , Probiotics/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742341

ABSTRACT

The mucosal immune system of the respiratory tract possesses an effective "defense barrier" against the invading pathogenic microorganisms; therefore, the lungs of healthy organisms are considered to be sterile for a long time according to the strong pathogens-eliminating ability. The emergence of next-generation sequencing technology has accelerated the studies about the microbial communities and immune regulating functions of lung microbiota during the past two decades. The acquisition and maturation of respiratory microbiota during childhood are mainly determined by the birth mode, diet structure, environmental exposure and antibiotic usage. However, the formation and development of lung microbiota in early life might affect the occurrence of respiratory diseases throughout the whole life cycle. The interplay and crosstalk between the gut and lung can be realized by the direct exchange of microbial species through the lymph circulation, moreover, the bioactive metabolites produced by the gut microbiota and lung microbiota can be changed via blood circulation. Complicated interactions among the lung microbiota, the respiratory viruses, and the host immune system can regulate the immune homeostasis and affect the inflammatory response in the lung. Probiotics, prebiotics, functional foods and fecal microbiota transplantation can all be used to maintain the microbial homeostasis of intestinal microbiota and lung microbiota. Therefore, various kinds of interventions on manipulating the symbiotic microbiota might be explored as novel effective strategies to prevent and control respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Probiotics , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Lung , Microbiota/physiology , Probiotics/therapeutic use
11.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737037

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, is a major challenge facing scientists worldwide. Alongside the lungs, the system of organs comprising the GI tract is commonly targeted by COVID-19. The dysbiotic modulations in the intestine influence the disease severity, potentially due to the ability of the intestinal microbiota to modulate T lymphocyte functions, i.e., to suppress or activate T cell subpopulations. The interplay between the lungs and intestinal microbiota is named the gut-lung axis. One of the most usual comorbidities in COVID-19 patients is type 2 diabetes, which induces changes in intestinal microbiota, resulting in a pro-inflammatory immune response, and consequently, a more severe course of COVID-19. However, changes in the microbiota in this comorbid pathology remain unclear. Metformin is used as a medication to treat type 2 diabetes. The use of the type 2 diabetes drug metformin is a promising treatment for this comorbidity because, in addition to its hypoglycemic action, it can increase amount of intestinal bacteria that induce regulatory T cell response. This dual activity of metformin can reduce lung damage and improve the course of the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dysbiosis , Humans , Immunity
12.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 63: 98-107, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729675

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking gut dysbiosis and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are poorly understood, although gut microbiota disorders are related to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. The roles of the gut microbiota in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with those in respiratory viral infection, which is an easily understood and enlightening analogy. Secondary bacterial infections caused by immune disorders and antibiotic abuse can lead to dysregulation of the gut microbiota in patients with respiratory viral infections. The gut microbiota can influence the progression of respiratory viral infections through metabolites and the immune response, which is known as the gut-lung axis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is expressed in both the lungs and the small intestine, which may be a bridge between the lung and the gut. Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to disturb the gut microbiota, which may be the cause of cytokine storms. Bacteria in the gut, lung, and other tissues and respiratory viruses can be considered microecosystems and may exert overall effects on the host. By referencing respiratory viral infections, this review focused on the mechanisms involved in the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 infections and the gut microbiota and provides new strategies for the treatment or prevention of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections by improving gut microbial homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Dysbiosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(9): 803-814, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720312

ABSTRACT

Children are less susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and they have manifested lower morbidity and mortality after infection, for which a multitude of mechanisms may be considered. Whether the normal development of the gut-airway microbiome in children is affected by COVID-19 has not been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection alters the upper respiratory tract and the gut microbiomes in nine children. The alteration of the microbiome is dominated by the genus Pseudomonas, and it sustains for up to 25-58 days in different individuals. Moreover, the patterns of alternation are different between the upper respiratory tract and the gut. Longitudinal investigation shows that the upper respiratory tract and the gut microbiomes are extremely variable among children during the course of COVID-19. The dysbiosis of microbiome persists in 7 of 8 children for at least 19-24 days after discharge from the hospital. Disturbed development of both the gut and the upper respiratory microbiomes and prolonged dysbiosis in these nine children imply possible long-term complications after clinical recovery from COVID-19, such as predisposition to the increased health risk in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans
14.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(9): 792-802, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720311

ABSTRACT

Gut microbial dysbiosis has been linked to many noncommunicable diseases. However, little is known about specific gut microbiota composition and its correlated metabolites associated with molecular signatures underlying host response to infection. Here, we describe the construction of a proteomic risk score based on 20 blood proteomic biomarkers, which have recently been identified as molecular signatures predicting the progression of the COVID-19. We demonstrate that in our cohort of 990 healthy individuals without infection, this proteomic risk score is positively associated with proinflammatory cytokines mainly among older, but not younger, individuals. We further discover that a core set of gut microbiota can accurately predict the above proteomic biomarkers among 301 individuals using a machine learning model and that these gut microbiota features are highly correlated with proinflammatory cytokines in another independent set of 366 individuals. Fecal metabolomics analysis suggests potential amino acid-related pathways linking gut microbiota to host metabolism and inflammation. Overall, our multi-omics analyses suggest that gut microbiota composition and function are closely related to inflammation and molecular signatures of host response to infection among healthy individuals. These results may provide novel insights into the cross-talk between gut microbiota and host immune system.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , COVID-19/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Proteomics/methods
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715408

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a major pandemic that the world is fighting. SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection by attaching to the ACE2 receptor on the alveolar epithelial cells. However, the ACE2 receptor is also present in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a link between nutrition, virulence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Respiratory viral infections perturb the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota is shaped by our diet; therefore, a healthy gut is important for optimal metabolism, immunology and protection of the host. Malnutrition causes diverse changes in the immune system by repressing immune responses and enhancing viral vulnerability. Thus, improving gut health with a high-quality, nutrient-filled diet will improve immunity against infections and diseases. This review emphasizes the significance of dietary choices and its subsequent effects on the immune system, which may potentially impact SARS-CoV-2 vulnerability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Feeding Behavior , Immune System/immunology , Malnutrition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Health Status , Humans , Models, Immunological , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence/immunology
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1824, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713207

ABSTRACT

The human gut contains a complex microbiota dominated by bacteriophages but also containing other viruses and bacteria and fungi. There are a growing number of techniques for the extraction, sequencing, and analysis of the virome but currently no standardized protocols. This study established an effective workflow for virome analysis to investigate the virome of stool samples from two understudied ethnic groups from Malaysia: the Jakun and Jehai Orang Asli. By using the virome extraction and analysis workflow with the Oxford Nanopore Technology, long-read sequencing successfully captured close to full-length viral genomes. The virome composition of the two indigenous Malaysian communities were remarkably different from those found in other parts of the world. Additionally, plant viruses found in the viromes of these individuals were attributed to traditional food-seeking methods. This study establishes a human gut virome workflow and extends insights into the healthy human gut virome, laying the groundwork for comparative studies.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Genome, Viral , Indigenous Peoples , Viruses/genetics , Feces/virology , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Malaysia , Metagenomics/methods , Phylogeny , Virome/genetics , Viruses/classification
18.
Biofactors ; 48(2): 294-306, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712029

ABSTRACT

Microelements represent an emerging resource for medicine and its preventive branch. Zinc is the second most abundant element in our organism with peculiar physiologic functions and pathophysiologic implications in systemic and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. It interacts very often with gut microbiota (GM) and can affect natural course of GI diseases through a bidirectional relationship with intestinal bugs. We aimed to review literature data regarding zinc chemistry, role in health, and GI diseases in man with a special focus on its interaction with GM. We conducted a search on the main medical databases for original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and case series using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: zinc, microelements, gut microbiota, gut health, and COVID-19. Zinc has a rapid and simple metabolism and limited storage within our body. Its efficacy on immune system modulation reflects on improved response to pathogens, reduced inflammatory response, and improved atopic/allergic reactions. Zinc is also involved in cell cycle regulation (namely, apoptosis) with potential anti-cancerogenic effects. All these effects are in a "symbiotic" relationship with GM. Finally, zinc shows preliminary viral antireplicative effects. Zinc seems to gain more and more evidences on its efficacy in allergic, atopic and infectious diseases treatment, and prevention. COVID-19 can be the booster for research on future applications of zinc as perfect "postbiotic" in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Immunity , Zinc/therapeutic use
19.
Food Funct ; 13(5): 2846-2856, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700242

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a serious global health issue, and the societal interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic may have perturbed energy homeostasis, which affects the condition of obesity. Tea is a traditional beverage in Asia and has been shown to provide many beneficial health effects. Oolong tea is semifermented, with its chemical composition comprising features of green (unfermented) and black (fermented) tea. Although green tea has anti-obesity properties, studies on the anti-obesity ability of oolong tea are still scarce. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of oolong tea extract (OTE) and investigated the effects of OTE on high-fat diet-induced obese rats. OTE contained more (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate than theaflavins and theasinensins. Rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with 0.5% OTE exhibited significantly reduced body weight and visceral fat weight compared with the HFD-only group. OTE also decreased adipocyte size, lipogenesis-related protein sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein expression and increased thermogenesis-related protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) protein expression in epididymal adipose tissue compared with the HFD group. Moreover, the OTE groups had a significantly higher abundance of Candidatus arthromitus and Hydrogenoanaerobacterium and a lower abundance of Ruminococcus1, Oscillibacter, and Odoribacter compared with the HFD group. All these results show that OTE can alleviate weight gain by regulating lipid metabolism and modulating the distribution of the gut microbiota to decrease lipid accumulation in adipose tissue.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tea , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Male , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2031840, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692369

ABSTRACT

There is a growing debate about the involvement of the gut microbiome in COVID-19, although it is not conclusively understood whether the microbiome has an impact on COVID-19, or vice versa, especially as analysis of amplicon data in hospitalized patients requires sophisticated cohort recruitment and integration of clinical parameters. Here, we analyzed fecal and saliva samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected and post COVID-19 patients and controls considering multiple influencing factors during hospitalization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on fecal and saliva samples from 108 COVID-19 and 22 post COVID-19 patients, 20 pneumonia controls and 26 asymptomatic controls. Patients were recruited over the first and second corona wave in Germany and detailed clinical parameters were considered. Serial samples per individual allowed intra-individual analysis. We found the gut and oral microbiota to be altered depending on number and type of COVID-19-associated complications and disease severity. The occurrence of individual complications was correlated with low-risk (e.g., Faecalibacterium prausznitzii) and high-risk bacteria (e.g., Parabacteroides ssp.). We demonstrated that a stable gut bacterial composition was associated with a favorable disease progression. Based on gut microbial profiles, we identified a model to estimate mortality in COVID-19. Gut microbiota are associated with the occurrence of complications in COVID-19 and may thereby influencing disease severity. A stable gut microbial composition may contribute to a favorable disease progression and using bacterial signatures to estimate mortality could contribute to diagnostic approaches. Importantly, we highlight challenges in the analysis of microbial data in the context of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Dysbiosis/etiology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Microbiota , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index
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