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1.
Minerva Surg ; 76(5): 467-476, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535065

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergency situations, as the COVID-19 pandemic that is striking the world nowadays, stress the national health systems which are forced to rapidly reorganize their sources. Therefore, many elective diagnostic and surgical procedures are being suspended or significantly delayed. Moreover, patients might find it difficult to refer to physicians and delay the diagnostic and even the therapeutic procedures because of emotional or logistic problems. The effect of diagnostic and therapeutic delay on survival in patients affected by gastrointestinal malignancies is still unclear. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We carried out a review of the available literature, in order to determine whether the delay in performing diagnosis and curative-intent surgical procedures affects the oncological outcomes in patients with esophageal, gastric, colorectal cancers, and colorectal liver metastasis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The findings indicate that for esophageal, gastric and colon cancers delaying surgery up to 2 months after the end of the staging process does not worsen the oncological outcomes. Esophageal cancer should undergo surgery within 7-8 weeks after the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Rectal cancer should undergo surgery within 31 days after the diagnostic process and within 12 weeks after neoadjuvant therapy. Adjuvant therapy should start within 4 weeks after surgery, especially in gastric cancer; a delay up to 42 days may be allowed for esophageal cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal malignancies can be safely managed considering that reasonable delays of planned treatments appear a generally safe approach, not having a significant impact on long-term oncological outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126334, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427027

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has delayed medical consultations, possibly leading to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer at advanced stages. Objective: To evaluate stage at diagnosis among patients with gastrointestinal cancer in Japan before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients in a hospital-based cancer registry who were diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer (ie, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, liver, and biliary tract cancers) between January 2016 and December 2020 at 2 tertiary Japanese hospitals. Exposures: The pre-COVID-19 period was defined as January 2017 to February 2020, and the COVID-19 period was defined as March 2020 to December 2020. Main Outcome and Measure: Monthly numbers of patients with newly diagnosed cancer were aggregated, classified by stage, and compared. Results: The study evaluated 5167 patients, including 4218 patients (2825 [67.0%] men; mean [SD] age, 71.3 [10.9] years) in the pre-COVID-19 period and 949 patients (607 [64.0%] men; mean [SD] age, 71.8 [10.7] years) in the COVID-19 period. Comparing the pre-COVID-19 period with the COVID-19 period, significant decreases were observed in the mean (SD) number of patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer (30.63 [6.62] patients/month vs 22.40 [5.85] patients/month; -26.87% change; P < .001) and colorectal cancer (41.61 [6.81] patients/month vs 36.00 [6.72] patients/month; -13.47% change; P = .03). Significant decreases were also observed in the mean (SD) number of cases of stage I gastric cancer (21.55 [5.66] cases/month vs 13.90 [5.99] cases/month; -35.51% change; P < .001), stage 0 colorectal cancer (10.58 [3.36] cases/month vs 7.10 [4.10] cases/month; -32.89% change; P = .008), and stage I colorectal cancer (10.16 [3.14] cases/month vs 6.70 [2.91] cases/month; -34.04% change; P = .003). No significant increases were observed for esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, liver, or biliary tract cancers. A significant decrease was observed in the mean (SD) number of cases per month of stage II colorectal cancer (7.42 [3.06] cases/month vs 4.80 [1.75] cases/month; -35.32% change; P = .01); a significant increase was observed for the mean (SD) number of cases per month of stage III colorectal cancer (7.18 [2.85] cases/month vs 12.10 [2.42] cases/month; 68.42% change; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients in a hospital-based cancer registry form Japan, significantly fewer patients were diagnosed with stage I gastric and colorectal cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the number of screening-detected cancers might have decreased, and colorectal cancer may have been diagnosed at more advanced stages.


Subject(s)
Biliary Tract Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
4.
Minerva Surg ; 76(5): 467-476, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200474

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergency situations, as the COVID-19 pandemic that is striking the world nowadays, stress the national health systems which are forced to rapidly reorganize their sources. Therefore, many elective diagnostic and surgical procedures are being suspended or significantly delayed. Moreover, patients might find it difficult to refer to physicians and delay the diagnostic and even the therapeutic procedures because of emotional or logistic problems. The effect of diagnostic and therapeutic delay on survival in patients affected by gastrointestinal malignancies is still unclear. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We carried out a review of the available literature, in order to determine whether the delay in performing diagnosis and curative-intent surgical procedures affects the oncological outcomes in patients with esophageal, gastric, colorectal cancers, and colorectal liver metastasis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The findings indicate that for esophageal, gastric and colon cancers delaying surgery up to 2 months after the end of the staging process does not worsen the oncological outcomes. Esophageal cancer should undergo surgery within 7-8 weeks after the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Rectal cancer should undergo surgery within 31 days after the diagnostic process and within 12 weeks after neoadjuvant therapy. Adjuvant therapy should start within 4 weeks after surgery, especially in gastric cancer; a delay up to 42 days may be allowed for esophageal cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal malignancies can be safely managed considering that reasonable delays of planned treatments appear a generally safe approach, not having a significant impact on long-term oncological outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Gut ; 70(3): 537-543, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major global impact on endoscopic services. This reduced capacity, along with public reluctance to undergo endoscopy during the pandemic, might result in excess mortality from delayed cancer diagnosis. Using the UK's National Endoscopy Database (NED), we performed the first national analysis of the impact of the pandemic on endoscopy services and endoscopic cancer diagnosis. DESIGN: We developed a NED COVID-19 module incorporating procedure-level data on all endoscopic procedures. Three periods were designated: pre-COVID (6 January 2020 to 15 March), transition (16-22 March) and COVID-impacted (23 March-31 May). National, regional and procedure-specific analyses were performed. The average weekly number of cancers, proportion of missing cancers and cancer detection rates were calculated. RESULTS: A weekly average of 35 478 endoscopy procedures were performed in the pre-COVID period. Activity in the COVID-impacted period reduced to 12% of pre-COVID levels; at its low point, activity was only 5%, recovering to 20% of pre-COVID activity by study end. Although more selective vetting significantly increased the per-procedure cancer detection rate (pre-COVID 1.91%; COVID-impacted 6.61%; p<0.001), the weekly number of cancers detected decreased by 58%. The proportion of missing cancers ranged from 19% (pancreatobiliary) to 72% (colorectal). CONCLUSION: This national analysis demonstrates the remarkable impact that the pandemic has had on endoscopic services, which has resulted in a substantial and concerning reduction in cancer detection. Major, urgent efforts are required to restore endoscopy capacity to prevent an impending cancer healthcare crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 144: 200-214, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987581

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous family of uncommon tumours with challenging diagnosis, clinical management and unique needs that almost always requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the absence of guidance from the scientific literature, along with the rapidly changing data available on the effect of COVID-19, we report how 12 high-volume NEN centres of expertise in 10 countries at different stages of the evolving COVID-19 global pandemic along with members of international neuroendocrine cancer patient societies have suggested to preserve high standards of care for patients with NENs. We review the multidisciplinary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and we suggest potential strategies to reduce risk and aid multidisciplinary treatment decision-making. By sharing our joint experiences, we aim to generate recommendations for proceeding to other institutions facing the same challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoid Tumor/therapy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/therapy , Medical Oncology/standards , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Thoracic Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoid Tumor/diagnosis , Consensus , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thoracic Neoplasms/diagnosis
7.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 52(2): 407-413, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The safety of upper gastrointestinal cancer patients in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is extremely important and most surgeons need to establish a contingency management. AIM: In this study, we present the surgical outlines of patients suffering from upper gastrointestinal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from PubMed, Cochrane Database of Controlled Trials, and SCOPUS of reports up to September 2020. RESULTS: The COVID-19 outbreak makes surgical procedures extremely difficult to be performed. The most common criteria to prioritize patients for surgical treatment are stage, tumor biology, presence of tumor-related symptoms, the risk of tumor to become non-resectable, and time interval from neoadjuvant therapy. The multidisciplinary teams can help assigning a priority level to each clinical case. CONCLUSION: We have to continue providing treatment to oncologic patients in the face of COVID-19 uncertainty, with higher caution and responsibility in order to develop a safer and more effective personalized treatment plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , COVID-19/etiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Risk Factors , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
10.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(11): 1346-1350, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598784

ABSTRACT

After the lockdown during the emergency phase of the Covid-19 pandemic, we have to deal with phase 2, a period of uncertain duration, with a controlled and progressive return to normalization, in which we need to reconcile our work and our movements with the presence of the virus on our territory. Digestive endoscopic activity is a high-risk transmission procedure for Covid-19. The measures put in place to protect healthcare personnel and patients are stressful and "time-consuming" and lead to a reduction in the number of endoscopic procedures that can be performed. In this scenario, the Oncological Institutes are forced to make a rigorous selection of patients to undergo endoscopic examinations and treatments, according to lists of exceptional priorities, in order to guarantee cancer patients and subjects at high risk of developing digestive tumors, a preferential diagnostic and therapeutic process, protected from contagion risks. For this purpose, cuts and postponing times of endoscopic performances are here proposed, which go beyond the guidelines of scientific societies and have little evidences in the literature. These changes should be applied limited to this exceptional period and in proportion to the capacity of each operating unit in order to meet the demands of the patients.


Subject(s)
Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Patient Selection , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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