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1.
Oncol Rep ; 47(1)2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518658

ABSTRACT

The devastating complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) result from the dysfunctional immune response of an individual following the initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) infection. Multiple toxic stressors and behaviors contribute to underlying immune system dysfunction. SARS­CoV­2 exploits the dysfunctional immune system to trigger a chain of events, ultimately leading to COVID­19. The authors have previously identified a number of contributing factors (CFs) common to myriad chronic diseases. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that there may be a significant overlap between CFs associated with COVID­19 and gastrointestinal cancer (GIC). Thus, in the present study, a streamlined dot­product approach was used initially to identify potential CFs that affect COVID­19 and GIC directly (i.e., the simultaneous occurrence of CFs and disease in the same article). The nascent character of the COVID­19 core literature (~1­year­old) did not allow sufficient time for the direct effects of numerous CFs on COVID­19 to emerge from laboratory experiments and epidemiological studies. Therefore, a literature­related discovery approach was used to augment the COVID­19 core literature­based 'direct impact' CFs with discovery­based 'indirect impact' CFs [CFs were identified in the non­COVID­19 biomedical literature that had the same biomarker impact pattern (e.g., hyperinflammation, hypercoagulation, hypoxia, etc.) as was shown in the COVID­19 literature]. Approximately 2,250 candidate direct impact CFs in common between GIC and COVID­19 were identified, albeit some being variants of the same concept. As commonality proof of concept, 75 potential CFs that appeared promising were selected, and 63 overlapping COVID­19/GIC potential/candidate CFs were validated with biological plausibility. In total, 42 of the 63 were overlapping direct impact COVID­19/GIC CFs, and the remaining 21 were candidate GIC CFs that overlapped with indirect impact COVID­19 CFs. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that COVID­19 and GIC share a number of common risk/CFs, including behaviors and toxic exposures, that impair immune function. A key component of immune system health is the removal of those factors that contribute to immune system dysfunction in the first place. This requires a paradigm shift from traditional Western medicine, which often focuses on treatment, rather than prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/etiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27500, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462564

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected various aspects, including socioeconomic status and health. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on oral health based on the number of teeth that contribute to mastication, and the nutritional status of elderly patients with digestive cancers.The authors defined the before and during COVID-19 periods in this study as January 2019 to December 2019 and January 2020 to December 2020, respectively. Patients with digestive cancer who underwent general, laboratory, and orthopantomograph examinations for preoperative oral health assessment before general anesthesia participated in this study. The authors investigated the following general characteristics: (1) sex, (2) age, and (3) the organ affected by disease and scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia. The authors collected information about (4) the number of teeth that could contribute to mastication as a clinical oral health parameter. The parameters: (5) body mass index, (6) serum total protein levels, and (7) serum albumin levels were used to indicate the nutritional status.A total of 233 elderly patients with digestive cancer participated in this study. There was no significant difference between the age of the patients with digestive cancer. There was also no significant difference in the number of teeth that could contribute to mastication. Additionally, there was no significant difference in nutritional status as indicated by the body mass index, serum total protein levels, and serum albumin levels.This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 did not have a significant influence on the oral health and nutritional status of elderly patients with digestive cancer. However, the influence of COVID-19 on community oral health may become apparent in the future. Thus, dental professionals should continue further research regarding the effects of COVID-19 on oral health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Proteins , Body Mass Index , Female , Health Status , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mastication/physiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tooth Loss/epidemiology
3.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
5.
Ann Surg ; 272(6): e321-e328, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic features and clinical courses of gastrointestinal cancer patients with pre/asymptomatic COVID-19 and to explore evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in the surgically resected specimens. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The advisory of postponing or canceling elective surgeries escalated a worldwide debate regarding the safety and feasibility of performing elective surgical procedures during this pandemic. Limited data are available on gastrointestinal cancer patients with pre/asymptomatic COVID-19 undergoing surgery. METHODS: Clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Surgically resected specimens of the cases with confirmed COVID-19 were obtained to detect the expression of ACE2 and the presence of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients (male, 34) with a median age 62.5 years were enrolled. All the patients presented no respiratory symptoms or abnormalities on chest computed tomography before surgery. Six patients (11.5%) experienced symptom onset and were confirmed to be COVID-19. All were identified to be preoperatively pre/asymptomatic, as 5 were with SARS-CoV-2 presenting in cytoplasm of enterocytes or macrophages from the colorectal tissues and 1 had symptom onset immediately after surgery. The case fatality rate in patients with COVID-19 was 16.7%, much higher than those without COVID-19 (2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal cancer patients with pre/asymptomatic COVID-19 were at high risk of postoperative onset and death. At current pandemic, elective surgery should be postponed or canceled. It highlights the need for investigating the full clinical spectrum and natural history of this infection. The early colorectal tropism of SARS-CoV-2 may have major implications on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/virology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(6): 597-603, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-295511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients treated for malignancy are considered at risk of severe COVID-19. This exceptional pandemic has affected countries on every level, particularly health systems which are experiencing saturation. Like many countries, France is currently greatly exposed, and a complete reorganization of hospitals is ongoing. We propose here adaptations of diagnostic procedures, therapies and care strategies for patients treated for digestive cancer during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: French societies of gastroenterology and gastrointestinal (GI) oncology carried out this study to answer two main questions that have arisen (i) how can we limit high-risk situations for GI-cancer patients and (ii) how can we limit contact between patients and care centers to decrease patients' risk of contamination while continuing to treat their cancer. All recommendations are graded as experts' agreement according to the level of evidence found in the literature until March 2020. RESULTS: A proposal to adapt treatment strategies was made for the main GI oncology situations. Considering the level of evidence and the heterogeneous progression of the COVID-19 epidemic, all proposals need to be considered by a multidisciplinary team and implemented with patient consent. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 epidemic may significantly affect patients treated for digestive malignancies. Healthcare teams need to consider adapting treatment sequences when feasible and according to the epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Infection Control , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , France/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Management/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
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