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1.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(1): e38-e46, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who were attending the emergency department (ED), before hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients diagnosed with UGB in 62 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs, case group) during the first 2 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. We formed 2 control groups: COVID-19 patients without UGB (control group A) and non-COVID-19 patients with UGB (control group B). Fifty-three independent variables and 4 outcomes were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: We identified 83 UGB in 74,814 patients with COVID-19 who were attending EDs (1.11%, 95% CI=0.88-1.38). This incidence was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients [2474/1,388,879, 1.78%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.71-1.85; odds ratio (OR)=0.62; 95% CI=0.50-0.77]. Clinical characteristics associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 patients presenting with UGB were abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, dyspnea, expectoration, melena, fever, cough, chest pain, and dysgeusia. Compared with non-COVID-19 patients with UGB, COVID-19 patients with UGB more frequently had fever, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, interstitial lung infiltrates, and ground-glass lung opacities. They underwent fewer endoscopies in the ED (although diagnoses did not differ between cases and control group B) and less endoscopic treatment. After adjustment for age and sex, cases showed a higher in-hospital all-cause mortality than control group B (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.09-3.86) but not control group A (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.59-2.19) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of UGB in COVID-19 patients attending EDs was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients. Digestive symptoms predominated over respiratory symptoms, and COVID-19 patients with UGB underwent fewer gastroscopies and endoscopic treatments than the general population with UGB. In-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with UGB was increased compared with non-COVID patients with UGB, but not compared with the remaining COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastroscopy , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Gut ; 71(5): 871-878, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGD) generates increased levels of aerosol in conscious patients and identify the source events. DESIGN: A prospective, environmental aerosol monitoring study, undertaken in an ultraclean environment, on patients undergoing OGD. Sampling was performed 20 cm away from the patient's mouth using an optical particle sizer. Aerosol levels during OGD were compared with tidal breathing and voluntary coughs within subject. RESULTS: Patients undergoing bariatric surgical assessment were recruited (mean body mass index 44 and mean age 40 years, n=15). A low background particle concentration in theatres (3 L-1) enabled detection of aerosol generation by tidal breathing (mean particle concentration 118 L-1). Aerosol recording during OGD showed an average particle number concentration of 595 L-1 with a wide range (3-4320 L-1). Bioaerosol-generating events, namely, coughing or burping, were common. Coughing was evoked in 60% of the endoscopies, with a greater peak concentration and a greater total number of sampled particles than the patient's reference voluntary coughs (11 710 vs 2320 L-1 and 780 vs 191 particles, n=9 and p=0.008). Endoscopies with coughs generated a higher level of aerosol than tidal breathing, whereas those without coughs were not different to the background. Burps also generated increased aerosol concentration, similar to those recorded during voluntary coughs. The insertion and removal of the endoscope were not aerosol generating unless a cough was triggered. CONCLUSION: Coughing evoked during OGD is the main source of the increased aerosol levels, and therefore, OGD should be regarded as a procedure with high risk of producing respiratory aerosols. OGD should be conducted with airborne personal protective equipment and appropriate precautions in those patients who are at risk of having COVID-19 or other respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cough , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Adult , Aerosols , Cough/etiology , Duodenoscopy , Esophagoscopy , Gastroscopy , Humans , Particle Size , Prospective Studies
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282058

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old woman presented as an acute admission with persistent vomiting and an inability to tolerate both solids and liquids. Five weeks prior to the admission she had an Elipse swallowable intragastric balloon placed into her stomach as an aid to weight loss. This type of balloon stays inflated inside the stomach for 16 weeks before disintegrating and passing through the gastrointestinal tract. Observations and blood parameters were unremarkable but abdominal radiograph indicated that the balloon had undergone spontaneous hyperinflation-a rare complication. At gastroscopy, the balloon was found to fill the entire stomach volume causing dysphagia. The balloon was punctured endoscopically, contents suctioned and remnants retrieved through the gastroscope. The patient commenced oral intake the following day and was discharged home with no further symptoms at 12-week follow-up.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Gastric Balloon , Obesity, Morbid , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Female , Gastric Balloon/adverse effects , Gastroscopy , Humans , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/etiology , Weight Loss
7.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(2): e00314, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097482

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, endoscopists have high risks of exposure to exhaled air from patients during gastroscopy. To minimize this risk, we transformed the oxygen mask into a fully closed negative-pressure gastroscope isolation mask. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of use of this mask during gastroscopy. METHODS: From February 28, 2020, to March 10, 2020, 320 patients undergoing gastroscopy were randomly assigned into the mask group (n = 160) or conventional group (n = 160). Patients in the mask group wore the isolation mask during gastroscopy, whereas patients in the conventional group did not wear the mask. The adenosine triphosphate fluorescence and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in patients' exhaled air were measured to reflect the degree of environmental pollution by exhaled air. Patients' vital signs, operation time, and adverse events during endoscopy were also evaluated. RESULTS: Four patients were excluded because of noncooperation or incomplete data. A total of 316 patients were included in the final analysis. The difference between the highest CO2 concentration around patients' mouth and CO2 concentration in the environment was significantly decreased in the mask group compared with the conventional group. There was no significant difference in the adenosine triphosphate fluorescence, vital signs, and operation time between the 2 groups. No severe adverse events related to the isolation mask, endoscopy failure, or new coronavirus infection during follow-up were recorded. DISCUSSION: This new isolation mask showed excellent feasibility of use and safety compared with routine gastroscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroscopy/adverse effects , Masks/virology , Patient Isolators/virology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Equipment Design/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Fluorescence , Gastroscopy/methods , Humans , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Treatment Outcome
8.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(11): 1475-1478, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998550

ABSTRACT

An oligosymptomatic patient with initially exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms (massive nausea and mild pancreatitis) turned out to suffer from COVID-19 during the hospital stay. The patient did not exhibit the typical COVID-symptoms cough or fever despite lung involvement. The gastroenterological diagnostic investigations comprised abdominal ultrasound, gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasound and first revealed no clear cause of these symptoms. In an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, patchy ground-glass opacities in both lungs were discovered and the following chest CT scan and a virus PCR test revealed the right and surprising diagnosis. This case report depicts the clinical course of this atypical case and discusses gastrointestinal COVID-manifestations and clinical consequences as well as consequences of this atypical presentation for disease control.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endosonography , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastroscopy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(10): 748-755, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782543

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic forced the closure of endoscopy units. Before resuming endoscopic activity, we designed a protocol to evaluate gastroscopies and colonoscopies cancelled during the pandemic, denying inappropriate requests and prioritizing appropriate ones. METHODS: two types of inappropriate request were established: a) COVID-19 context, people aged ≤ 50 years without alarm symptoms and a low probability of relevant endoscopic findings; and b) inappropriate context, requests not in line with clinical guidelines or protocols. Denials were filed in the medical record. Appropriate requests were classified into priority, conventional and follow-up. Requests denied by specialty were compared and the findings of priority requests were evaluated. RESULTS: between March 16th and June 30th 2020, 1,658 requests (44 % gastroscopies and 56 % colonoscopies) were evaluated, of which 1,164 (70 %) were considered as appropriate (priority 8.5 %, conventional 48 %, follow-up 43 % and non-evaluable 0.5 %) and 494 (30 %) as inappropriate (20 % COVID-19 context, 80 % inappropriate context). The reasons for denial of gastroscopy were follow-up of lesions (33 %), insufficiently studied symptoms (20 %) and relapsing symptoms after a previous gastroscopy (18 %). The reasons for denial of colonoscopies were post-polypectomy surveillance (25 %), colorectal cancer after surgery (21 %) and a family history of cancer (13 %). There were significant differences in denied requests according to specialty: General Surgery (52 %), Hematology (37 %) and Primary Care (29 %); 31 % of priority cases showed relevant findings. CONCLUSIONS: according to our study, 24 % of endoscopies were discordant with scientific recommendations. Therefore, their denial and the prioritization of appropriate ones optimize the use of resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Colonoscopy/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Gastroscopy/standards , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Colonoscopy/trends , Female , Gastroscopy/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Hospitals, Public/standards , Hospitals, Public/trends , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Tertiary Care Centers/standards , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Young Adult
10.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(1): 44-47, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778111

ABSTRACT

Long and sharp objects can be foreign body intentionally or accidentally ingested. Timing of endoscopy relies on foreign body shape and size, localization in gastrointestinal tract, patient's clinical conditions, occurrence of symptoms, or onset of complications. We present a case of a 47-year-old male with no known comorbidity, who accidentally swallowed a portion of a naso-pharyngeal swab half-broken during the second diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2. The intact swab had a total length of 15 cm and was made of wood. The patient was asymptomatic, laboratory tests were normal, and neck-chest-abdominal X-ray and CT scan were negative for major complications. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was promptly performed to prevent the long sharp swab from crossing the pylorus leading to serious complications and, therefore, risk surgical intervention. The patient was intubated and the procedure was carried out under general anesthesia. In the gastric body, broken naso-pharyngeal swab was detected among the food debris, and using a latex rubber hood, the 7.5 cm foreign body was removed with a retrieval alligator-tooth forceps. Our hospital is located in a high-risk area of COVID-19 outbreak where many naso-pharyngeal swabs are performed, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of swab ingestion during SARS-CoV-2 test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Foreign Bodies , Gastroscopy/methods , Specimen Handling , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Deglutition , Diagnostic Equipment/adverse effects , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/etiology , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/adverse effects , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/methods , Treatment Outcome
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