Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spontaneous clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA presence, and the effectiveness of steroid-based intervention in HHV6-positive patients. RESULTS: 756 heart failure (HF) patients underwent an EMB procedure to determine the underlying cause of unexplained HF. Low levels of HHV6 DNA, detectable by nested PCR only, were found in 10.4% of the cases (n = 79) of which 62% (n = 49) showed myocardial inflammation. The spontaneous course of patients with EMB-proven HHV6 DNA-associated lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 26) showed significant improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical symptoms, respectively, in 15/26 (60%) patients, 3-12 months after disease onset. EMB mRNA expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protein analysis of cardiac remodeling markers, analyzed by real-time PCR and MALDI mass spectrometry, respectively, did not differ between HHV6-positive and -negative patients. In another cohort of patients with ongoing symptoms related to lymphocytic myocarditis associated with cardiac levels of HHV6-DNA copy numbers <500 copies/µg cardiac DNA, quantified by real-time PCR, the efficacy and safety of steroid-based immunosuppression for six months was investigated. Steroid-based immunosuppression improved the LVEF (≥5%) in 8/10 patients and reduced cardiac inflammation in 7/10 patients, without an increase in cardiac HHV6 DNA levels in follow-up EMBs. CONCLUSION: Low HHV6 DNA levels are frequently detected in the myocardium, independent of inflammation. In patients with lymphocytic myocarditis with low levels of HHV6 DNA, the spontaneous clinical improvement is nearby 60%. In selected symptomatic patients with cardiac HHV6 DNA copy numbers less than 500 copies/µg cardiac DNA and without signs of an active systemic HHV6 infection, steroid-based therapy was found to be effective and safe. This finding needs to be further confirmed in large, randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Dosage , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology , Stroke Volume
2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(5): 1773-1785, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653430

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid tests to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus have been performed worldwide since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the quality assessment of testing laboratories and the performance evaluation of molecular diagnosis products, reference materials (RMs) are required. In this work, we report the production of a lentiviral SARS-CoV-2 RM containing approximately 12 kilobases of its genome including common diagnostics targets such as RdRp, N, E, and S genes. The RM was measured with multiple assays using two different digital PCR platforms. To measure the homogeneity and stability of the lentiviral SARS-CoV-2 RM, reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) was used with in-house duplex assays. The copy number concentration of each target gene in the extracted RNA solution was then converted to that of the RM solution. Their copy number values are measured to be from 1.5 × 105 to 2.0 × 105 copies/mL. The RM has a between-bottle homogeneity of 4.80-8.23% and is stable at 4 °C for 1 week and at -70 °C for 6 months. The lentiviral SARS-CoV-2 RM closely mimics real samples that undergo identical pre-analytical processes for SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing. By offering accurate reference values for the absolute copy number of viral target genes, the developed RM can be used to improve the reliability of SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genome, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Gene Dosage , Gene Expression , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Lentivirus/genetics , Lentivirus/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA, Viral/standards , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/supply & distribution , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Genome Packaging
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 756262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551507

ABSTRACT

A male sex bias has emerged in the COVID-19 pandemic, fitting to the sex-biased pattern in other viral infections. Males are 2.84 times more often admitted to the ICU and mortality is 1.39 times higher as a result of COVID-19. Various factors play a role in this, and novel studies suggest that the gene-dose of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 7 could contribute to the sex-skewed severity. TLR7 is one of the crucial pattern recognition receptors for SARS-CoV-2 ssRNA and the gene-dose effect is caused by X chromosome inactivation (XCI) escape. Female immune cells with TLR7 XCI escape have biallelic TLR7 expression and produce more type 1 interferon (IFN) upon TLR7 stimulation. In COVID-19, TLR7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells is one of the pattern recognition receptors responsible for IFN production and a delayed IFN response has been associated with immunopathogenesis and mortality. Here, we provide a hypothesis that females may be protected to some extend against severe COVID-19, due to the biallelic TLR7 expression, allowing them to mount a stronger and more protective IFN response early after infection. Studies exploring COVID-19 treatment via the TLR7-mediated IFN pathway should consider this sex difference. Various factors such as age, sex hormones and escape modulation remain to be investigated concerning the TLR7 gene-dose effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Gene Dosage/genetics , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Factors , Signal Transduction/immunology , X Chromosome Inactivation/genetics
6.
J Virol Methods ; 294: 114174, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226316

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that measurement of SARS-CoV-2 viral copy number can inform clinical and public health management of SARS-CoV-2 carriers and COVID-19 patients. Here we show that quantification of SARS-CoV-2 is feasible in a clinical setting, using a duplex RT-qPCR assay which targets both the E gene (Charité assay) and a human RNA transcript, RNase P (CDC assay) as an internal sample sufficiency control. Samples in which RNase P is not amplified indicate that sample degradation has occurred, PCR inhibitors are present, RNA extraction has failed or swabbing technique was insufficient. This important internal control reveals that 2.4 % of nasopharyngeal swabs (15/618 samples) are inadequate for SARS-CoV-2 testing which, if not identified, could result in false negative results. We show that our assay is linear across at least 7 logs and is highly reproducible, enabling the conversion of Cq values to viral copy numbers using a standard curve. Furthermore, the SARS-CoV-2 copy number was independent of the RNase P copy number indicating that the per-swab viral copy number is not dependent on sampling- further allowing comparisons between samples. The ability to quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral copy number will provide an important opportunity for viral burden-guided public health and clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Gene Dosage , Genes, Essential , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Ribonuclease P/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load
7.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(3): 358-367, 2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006913

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as an international health emergency. Current diagnostic tests are based on the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method, which is the gold standard test that involves the amplification of viral RNA. However, the RT-qPCR assay has limitations in terms of sensitivity and quantification. In this study, we tested both qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to detect low amounts of viral RNA. The cycle threshold (CT) of the viral RNA by RT-PCR significantly varied according to the sequences of the primer and probe sets with in vitro transcript (IVT) RNA or viral RNA as templates, whereas the copy number of the viral RNA by ddPCR was effectively quantified with IVT RNA, cultured viral RNA, and RNA from clinical samples. Furthermore, the clinical samples were assayed via both methods, and the sensitivity of the ddPCR was determined to be equal to or more than that of the RT-qPCR. However, the ddPCR assay is more suitable for determining the copy number of reference materials. These findings suggest that the qPCR assay with the ddPCR defined reference materials could be used as a highly sensitive and compatible diagnostic method for viral RNA detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Probes/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Dosage/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999206

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread across the world and was characterized as a pandemic. To protect medical laboratory personnel from infection, most laboratories inactivate the virus causing COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in clinical samples before testing. However, the effect of inactivation on the detection results remains unknown. Here, we used a digital PCR assay to determine the absolute SARS-CoV-2 RNA copy number in 63 nasopharyngeal swab samples and assess the effect of inactivation methods on viral RNA copy number. Viral inactivation was performed by three different methods: (i) incubation with the TRIzol LS reagent for 10 min at room temperature, (ii) heating in a water bath at 56°C for 30 min, and (iii) high-temperature treatment, including autoclaving at 121°C for 20 min, boiling at 100°C for 20 min, and heating at 80°C for 20 min. Compared to the amount of RNA in the original sample, TRIzol treatment destroyed 47.54% of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene and 39.85% of open reading frame (ORF) 1ab. For samples treated at 56°C for 30 min, the copy number of the N gene and ORF 1ab was reduced by 48.55% and 56.40%, respectively. The viral RNA copy number dropped by 50 to 66% after heating at 80°C for 20 min. Nearly no viral RNA was detected after autoclaving at 121°C or boiling at 100°C for 20 min. These results indicate that inactivation reduced the quantity of detectable viral RNA and may cause false-negative results, especially in weakly positive cases. Thus, use of the TRIzol reagent rather than heat inactivation is recommended for sample inactivation, as the TRIzol reagent had the least effect on the RNA copy number among the tested methods.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disinfectants , Female , Gene Dosage , Hot Temperature , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL