Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 64
Filter
1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112743, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803592

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are a common cause of morbidity worldwide. The emergence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to more attention to viral infections and finding novel therapeutics. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been recently proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of viral diseases. Here, we review the research progress in the use of CRISPR-Cas technology for treating viral infections, as well as the strategies for improving the delivery of this gene-editing tool in vivo. Key challenges that hinder the widespread clinical application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology are also discussed, and several possible directions for future research are proposed.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Therapy/methods , Virus Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Genome, Viral , HIV Infections/therapy , Hepatitis B/therapy , Herpesviridae Infections/therapy , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Public Underst Sci ; 30(5): 570-587, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789077

ABSTRACT

This study examines discourses in Chinese online discussions of gene editing by multiple social actors on Weibo before and after a significant scientific crisis, the 2018 scandal of Chinese gene-edited human babies. A content analysis of 2074 posts was done to identify frames, emotions, and metaphors. Findings reveal that Chinese social media have opened up new spaces for multiple social actors to generate multiple discourses. This has resulted in a more participatory public engagement with science and technology on Chinese social media, potentially influencing the online agenda and policy decisions on science and technology. Finally, findings indicate that a scientific crisis can serve as a trigger for significant changes in public attitudes and opinions regarding gene editing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , China , Gene Editing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736951

ABSTRACT

Throughout history, nature has been acknowledged for being a primordial source of various bioactive molecules in which human macular carotenoids are gaining significant attention. Among 750 natural carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and their oxidative metabolites are selectively accumulated in the macular region of living beings. Due to their vast applications in food, feed, pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals industries, the global market of lutein and zeaxanthin is continuously expanding but chemical synthesis, extraction and purification of these compounds from their natural repertoire e.g., plants, is somewhat costly and technically challenging. In this regard microbial as well as microalgal carotenoids are considered as an attractive alternative to aforementioned challenges. Through the techniques of genetic engineering and gene-editing tools like CRISPR/Cas9, the overproduction of lutein and zeaxanthin in microorganisms can be achieved but the commercial scale applications of such procedures needs to be done. Moreover, these carotenoids are highly unstable and susceptible to thermal and oxidative degradation. Therefore, esterification of these xanthophylls and microencapsulation with appropriate wall materials can increase their shelf-life and enhance their application in food industry. With their potent antioxidant activities, these carotenoids are emerging as molecules of vital importance in chronic degenerative, malignancies and antiviral diseases. Therefore, more research needs to be done to further expand the applications of lutein and zeaxanthin.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Lutein/chemistry , Zeaxanthins/chemistry , Biological Factors/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Stability , Esterification , Gene Editing , Genetic Engineering , Humans , Macula Lutea/chemistry
5.
Cell Rep ; 38(10): 110476, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729612

ABSTRACT

Targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins toward specific cells and across cell membranes remains major challenges. Here, we develop protein-based delivery systems utilizing detoxified single-chain bacterial toxins such as diphtheria toxin (DT) and botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-like toxin, BoNT/X, as carriers. The system can deliver large protein cargoes including Cas13a, CasRx, Cas9, and Cre recombinase into cells in a receptor-dependent manner, although delivery of ribonucleoproteins containing guide RNAs is not successful. Delivery of Cas13a and CasRx, together with guide RNA expression, reduces mRNAs encoding GFP, SARS-CoV-2 fragments, and endogenous proteins PPIB, KRAS, and CXCR4 in multiple cell lines. Delivery of Cre recombinase modifies the reporter loci in cells. Delivery of Cas9, together with guide RNA expression, generates mutations at the targeted genomic sites in cell lines and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human neurons. These findings establish modular delivery systems based on single-chain bacterial toxins for delivery of membrane-impermeable therapeutics into targeted cells.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Toxins , COVID-19 , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing , Humans , RNA, Guide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cell Rep ; 38(8): 110414, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700507

ABSTRACT

Inflammasome activation exacerbates infectious disease caused by pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Although these pathogens activate host inflammasomes to regulate pathogen expansion, the mechanisms by which pathogen toxins contribute to inflammasome activation remain poorly understood. Here we show that activation of inflammasomes by Listeria infection is promoted by amino acid residue T223 of listeriolysin O (LLO) independently of its pore-forming activity. LLO T223 is critical for phosphorylation of the inflammasome adaptor ASC at amino acid residue Y144 through Lyn-Syk signaling, which is essential for ASC oligomerization. Notably, a Listeria mutant expressing LLO T223A is impaired in inducing ASC phosphorylation and inflammasome activation. Furthermore, the virulence of LLO T223A mutant is markedly attenuated in vivo due to impaired ability to activate the inflammasome. Our results reveal a function of a pathogen toxin that exacerbates infection by promoting phosphorylation of ASC.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/chemistry , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/chemistry , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/deficiency , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/genetics , Gene Editing , Heat-Shock Proteins/chemistry , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/chemistry , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Phosphorylation , Syk Kinase/genetics , Syk Kinase/metabolism , Virulence , src-Family Kinases/genetics , src-Family Kinases/metabolism
7.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686901

ABSTRACT

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system is best known for its role in genomic editing. It has also demonstrated great potential in nucleic acid biosensing. However, the specificity limitation in CRISPR/Cas has created a hurdle for its advancement. More recently, nucleic acid aptamers known for their high affinity and specificity properties for their targets have been integrated into CRISPR/Cas systems. This review article gives a brief overview of the aptamer and CRISPR/Cas technology and provides an updated summary and discussion on how the two distinctive nucleic acid technologies are being integrated into modern diagnostic and therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Biosensing Techniques/methods , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing , Precision Medicine , Humans
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674668

ABSTRACT

CRISPR/Cas is a prokaryotic self-defense system, widely known for its use as a gene-editing tool. Because of their high specificity to detect DNA and RNA sequences, different CRISPR systems have been adapted for nucleic acid detection. CRISPR detection technologies differ highly among them, since they are based on four of the six major subtypes of CRISPR systems. In just 5 years, the CRISPR diagnostic field has rapidly expanded, growing from a set of specific molecular biology discoveries to multiple FDA-authorized COVID-19 tests and the establishment of several companies. CRISPR-based detection methods are coupled with pre-existing preamplification and readout technologies, achieving sensitivity and reproducibility comparable to the current gold standard nucleic acid detection methods. Moreover, they are very versatile, can be easily implemented to detect emerging pathogens and new clinically relevant mutations, and offer multiplexing capability. The advantages of the CRISPR-based diagnostic approaches are a short sample-to-answer time and no requirement of laboratory settings; they are also much more affordable than current nucleic acid detection procedures. In this review, we summarize the applications and development trends of the CRISPR/Cas13 system in the identification of particular pathogens and mutations and discuss the challenges and future prospects of CRISPR-based diagnostic platforms in biomedicine.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/trends , Disease/genetics , Gene Editing/methods , COVID-19/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , DNA/genetics , Diagnosis , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Gene ; 818: 146136, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611737

ABSTRACT

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) associated Cas protein (CRISPR-Cas) has turned out to be a very important tool for the rapid detection of viruses. This can be used for the identification of the target site in a virus by identifying a 3-6 nt length Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) adjacent to the potential target site, thus motivating us to adopt CRISPR-Cas technique to identify SARS-CoV-2 as well as other members of Coronaviridae family. In this regard, we have developed a fast and effective method using k-mer technique in order to identify the PAM by scanning the whole genome of the respective virus. Subsequently, palindromic sequences adjacent to the PAM locations are identified as the potential target sites. Palindromes are considered in this work as they are known to identify viruses. Once all the palindrome-PAM combinations are identified, PAMs specific for the RNA-guided DNA Cas9/Cas12 endonuclease are identified to bind and cut the target sites. In this regard, PAMs such as 5'-TGG-3' and 5'-TTTA-3' in NSP3 and Exon for SARS-CoV-2, 5'-GGG-3' and 5'-TGG-3' in Exon and NSP2 for MERS-CoV and 5'-AGG-3' and 5'-TTTG-3' in Helicase and NSP3 respectively for SARS-CoV-1 are identified corresponding to SpCas9 and FnCas12a endonucleases. Finally, to recognise the target sites of Coronaviridae family as cleaved by SpCas9 and FnCas12a, complements of the palindromic target regions are designed as primers or guide RNA (gRNA). Therefore, such complementary gRNAs along with respective Cas proteins can be considered in assays for the identification of SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Inverted Repeat Sequences/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence , CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/metabolism , Gene Editing , Humans
11.
Drug Discov Today ; 27(4): 1062-1076, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587950

ABSTRACT

Proposing efficient prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) requires precise knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. An array of platforms, including organoids and microfluidic devices, have provided a basis for studies of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we summarize available models as well as novel drug screening approaches, from simple to more advanced platforms. Notably, organoids and microfluidic devices offer promising perspectives for the clinical translation of basic science, such as screening therapeutics candidates. Overall, modifying these advanced micro and macro 3D platforms for disease modeling and combining them with recent advances in drug screening has significant potential for the discovery of novel potent drugs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microfluidics , Models, Biological , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Editing , Genome , Humans , Tissue Engineering
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105188, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568934

ABSTRACT

The best and most effective way to combat pandemics is to use effective vaccines and live attenuated vaccines are among the most effective vaccines. However, one of the major problems is the length of time it takes to get the attenuated vaccines. Today, the CRISPR toolkit (Clustered Regularly Inerspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) has made it possible to make changes with high efficiency and speed. Using this toolkit to make point mutations on the RNA virus's genome in a coculture of permissive and nonpermissive cells and under controlled conditions can accelerate changes in the genome and accelerate natural selection to obtain live attenuated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , Endonucleases/genetics , Endonucleases/immunology , Gene Expression , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Proteins/immunology
13.
Elife ; 102021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513055

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate processes ranging from antitumor and antiviral immunity to host-microbe communication at mucosal surfaces. It remains difficult, however, to genetically manipulate human DCs, limiting our ability to probe how DCs elicit specific immune responses. Here, we develop a CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method for human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) that mediates knockouts with a median efficiency of >94% across >300 genes. Using this method, we perform genetic screens in moDCs, identifying mechanisms by which DCs tune responses to lipopolysaccharides from the human microbiome. In addition, we reveal donor-specific responses to lipopolysaccharides, underscoring the importance of assessing immune phenotypes in donor-derived cells, and identify candidate genes that control this specificity, highlighting the potential of our method to pinpoint determinants of inter-individual variation in immunity. Our work sets the stage for a systematic dissection of the immune signaling at the host-microbiome interface and for targeted engineering of DCs for neoantigen vaccination.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Gene Editing , Genomics , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron/immunology , CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Phenotype , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
14.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512137

ABSTRACT

Personalized regenerative medicine and biomedical research have been galvanized and revolutionized by human pluripotent stem cells in combination with recent advances in genomics, artificial intelligence, and genome engineering. More recently, we have witnessed the unprecedented breakthrough life-saving translation of mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 to contain the global pandemic and the investment in billions of US dollars in space exploration projects and the blooming space-tourism industry fueled by the latest reusable space vessels. Now, it is time to examine where the translation of pluripotent stem cell research stands currently, which has been touted for more than the last two decades to cure and treat millions of patients with severe debilitating degenerative diseases and tissue injuries. This review attempts to highlight the accomplishments of pluripotent stem cell research together with cutting-edge genomics and genome editing tools and, also, the promises that have still not been transformed into clinical applications, with cardiovascular research as a case example. This review also brings to our attention the scientific and socioeconomic challenges that need to be effectively addressed to see the full potential of pluripotent stem cells at the clinical bedside.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Genomics , Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation , Artificial Intelligence , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular System/cytology , Cardiovascular System/growth & development , Cell Differentiation , Drug Discovery , Gene Editing , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Precision Medicine , Regenerative Medicine , Safety
15.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 35-47, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512994

ABSTRACT

The past decade has witnessed the blossom of nucleic acid therapeutics and diagnostics (theranostics). Unlike conventional small molecule medicines or protein biologics, nucleic acid theranostics have characteristic features such as the intrinsic ability as "information drugs" to code and execute genetic and theranostic information, ready programmability for nucleic acid engineering, intrinsic stimulatory or regulatory immunomodulation, versatile functionalities, and easy conformational recovery upon thermal or chemical denaturation. Single-stranded circular DNA (circDNA) are a class of single-stranded DNAs (ssDNA) featured with their covalently-closed topology. In addition to the basic advantages of nucleic acids-based materials, such as low cost, biocompatibility, and simplicity of chemical modification, the lack of terminals in circDNA prevents exonuclease degradation, resulting in enhanced biostability relative to the corresponding linear ssDNA. circDNA has been explored for versatile theranostic applications. For instance, circDNA has been extensively studied as templates for bioanalytical signal amplification and the synthesis of nano-/micro-/macro- biomaterials via rolling circle amplification (RCA) and rolling circle transcription (RCT) technologies. circDNA has also been commonly used as the scaffolds for the self-assembly of versatile DNA origami. Finally, circDNA has been implemented as theranostic aptamers, miRNA inhibitors, as well as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) gene editing donors. In this review article, we will discuss the chemistry, characteristic properties, and the theranostic applications of circDNA (excluding double-stranded circular DNA such as plasmids); we will also envision the challenges and opportunities in this research field.


Subject(s)
DNA, Circular/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine/methods , Gene Editing , Humans
16.
Science ; 372(6545): 914-915, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501517
17.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488755

ABSTRACT

Understanding the dynamic relationship between viral pathogens and cellular host factors is critical to furthering our knowledge of viral replication, disease mechanisms and development of anti-viral therapeutics. CRISPR genome editing technology has enhanced this understanding, by allowing identification of pro-viral and anti-viral cellular host factors for a wide range of viruses, most recently the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2. This review will discuss how CRISPR knockout and CRISPR activation genome-wide screening methods are a robust tool to investigate the viral life cycle and how other class 2 CRISPR systems are being repurposed for diagnostics.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Gene Editing , Zika Virus Infection/virology , Zika Virus/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481009

ABSTRACT

The livestock industry is constantly threatened by viral disease outbreaks, including infections with zoonotic potential. While preventive vaccination is frequently applied, disease control and eradication also depend on strict biosecurity measures. Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated proteins (Cas) have been repurposed as genome editors to induce targeted double-strand breaks at almost any location in the genome. Thus, CRISPR/Cas genome editors can also be utilized to generate disease-resistant or resilient livestock, develop vaccines, and further understand virus-host interactions. Genes of interest in animals and viruses can be targeted to understand their functions during infection. Furthermore, transgenic animals expressing CRISPR/Cas can be generated to target the viral genome upon infection. Genetically modified livestock can thereby reduce disease outbreaks and decrease zoonotic threats.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing/methods , Livestock/virology , Viruses/genetics , Animal Husbandry/methods , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Genetic Engineering , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Viruses/pathogenicity
19.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(21): 4001-4011, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475239

ABSTRACT

Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted emergency use authorization for two mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, mRNA-based technology has attracted broad attention from the scientific community to investors. When delivered intracellularly, mRNA has the ability to produce various therapeutic proteins, enabling the treatment of a variety of illnesses, including but not limited to infectious diseases, cancers, and genetic diseases. Accordingly, mRNA holds significant therapeutic potential and provides a promising means to target historically hard-to-treat diseases. Current clinical efforts harnessing mRNA-based technology are focused on vaccination, cancer immunotherapy, protein replacement therapy, and genome editing. The clinical translation of mRNA-based technology has been made possible by leveraging nanoparticle delivery methods. However, the application of mRNA for therapeutic purposes is still challenged by the need for specific, efficient, and safe delivery systems.This Account highlights key advances in designing and developing combinatorial synthetic lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) with distinct chemical structures and properties for in vitro and in vivo intracellular mRNA delivery. LNPs represent the most advanced nonviral nanoparticle delivery systems that have been extensively investigated for nucleic acid delivery. The aforementioned COVID-19 mRNA vaccines and one LNP-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) drug (ONPATTRO) have received clinical approval from the FDA, highlighting the success of synthetic ionizable lipids for in vivo nucleic acid delivery. In this Account, we first summarize the research efforts from our group on the development of bioreducible and biodegradable LNPs by leveraging the combinatorial chemistry strategy, such as the Michael addition reaction, which allows us to easily generate a large set of lipidoids with diverse chemical structures. Next, we discuss the utilization of a library screening strategy to identify optimal LNPs for targeted mRNA delivery and showcase the applications of the optimized LNPs in cell engineering and genome editing. Finally, we outline key challenges to the clinical translation of mRNA-based therapies and propose an outlook for future directions of the chemical design and optimization of LNPs to improve the safety and specificity of mRNA drugs. We hope this Account provides insight into the rational design of LNPs for facilitating the development of mRNA therapeutics, a transformative technology that promises to revolutionize future medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Gene Editing , Gene Transfer Techniques , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Genetic Therapy , Humans , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
20.
N Biotechnol ; 66: 25-35, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428279

ABSTRACT

The aim of this survey is to identify and characterize new products in plant biotechnology since 2015, especially in relation to the advent of New Breeding Techniques (NBTs) such as gene editing based on the CRISPR-Cas system. Transgenic (gene transfer or gene silencing) and gene edited traits which are approved or marketed in at least one country, or which have a non-regulated status in the USA, are collected, as well as related patents worldwide. In addition, to shed light on potential innovation for Africa, field trials on the continent are examined. The compiled data are classified in application categories, including agronomic improvements, industrial use and medical use, namely production of recombinant therapeutic molecules or vaccines (including against Covid-19). The data indicate that gene editing appears to be an effective complement to 'classical' transgenesis, the use of which is not declining, rather than a replacement, a trend also observed in the patenting landscape. Nevertheless, increased use of gene editing is apparent. Compared to transgenesis, gene editing has increased the proportion of some crop species and decreased others amongst approved, non-regulated or marketed products. A similar differential trend is observed for breeding traits. Gene editing has also favored the emergence of new private companies. China, and prevalently its public sector, overwhelmingly dominates the patenting landscape, but not the approved/marketed one, which is dominated by the USA. The data point in the direction that regulatory environments will favor or discourage innovation.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Plant Breeding , Plants, Genetically Modified , Biotechnology , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genome, Plant , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Vaccines/biosynthesis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL