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1.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196306

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066121

ABSTRACT

Complement factor I (CFI), a complement inhibitor, is well known for regulating the complement system activation by degrading complement component 3b (C3b) in animal serum, thus becoming involved in innate defense. Nevertheless, the functional mechanisms of CFI in the complement system and in host-pathogen interactions are far from being clarified in teleost fish. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the CFI gene, CiCFI, from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and analyzed its function in degrading serum C3b and expression changes after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. The open reading frame of CiCFI was found to be 2121 bp, encoding 706 amino acids with a molecular mass of 79.06 kDa. The pairwise alignments showed that CiCFI shared the highest identity (66.9%) with CFI from Carassius gibelio and the highest similarity (78.7%) with CFI from Danio rerio. The CiCFI protein was characterized by a conserved functional core Tryp_SPc domain with the catalytic triad and substrate binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CiCFI and the homologs CFIs from other teleost fish formed a distinct evolutionary branch. Similar with the CFIs reported in mammals, the recombinant CiCFI protein could significantly reduce the C3b content in the serum, demonstrating the conserved function of CiCFI in the complement system in the grass carp. CiCFI mRNA and protein showed the highest expression level in the liver. After GCRV infection, the mRNA expressions of CiCFI were first down-regulated, then up-regulated, and then down-regulated to the initial level, while the protein expression levels maintained an overall downward trend to the late stage of infection in the liver of grass carps. Unexpectedly, the protein levels of CiCFI were also continuously down-regulated in the serum of grass carps during GCRV infection, while the content of serum C3b proteins first increases and then returns to the initial level, suggesting a distinct role of CiCFI in regulating complement activation and fish-virus interaction. Combining our previous results that complement factor D, a complement enhancer, shows continuously up-regulated expression levels in grass carps during GCRV infection, and this study may provide the further essential data for the full picture of complex complement regulation mechanism mediated by Df and CFI of the grass carp during pathogen infection.


Subject(s)
Carps , Fish Diseases , Reoviridae Infections , Reoviridae , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , Carps/genetics , Carps/metabolism , Complement Activation , Complement C3b , Complement Factor D/genetics , Complement Factor I/genetics , Complement Factor I/metabolism , Complement Inactivating Agents , Fish Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Mammals/metabolism , Phylogeny , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reoviridae/physiology , Reoviridae Infections/genetics , Reoviridae Infections/veterinary
3.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(6)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062859

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: Single-cell/nuclei RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies can simultaneously quantify gene expression in thousands of cells across the genome. However, the majority of the noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), cannot currently be profiled at the same scale. MiRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs and play an important role in gene regulation. MiRNAs originate from the processing of primary transcripts, known as primary-microRNAs (pri-miRNAs). The pri-miRNA transcripts, independent of their cognate miRNAs, can also function as long noncoding RNAs, code for micropeptides or even interact with DNA, acting like enhancers. Therefore, it is apparent that the significance of scRNA-seq pri-miRNA profiling expands beyond using pri-miRNA as proxies of mature miRNAs. However, there are no computational methods that allow profiling and quantification of pri-miRNAs at the single-cell-type resolution. RESULTS: We have developed a simple yet effective computational framework to profile pri-MiRNAs from single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets (PPMS). Based on user input, PPMS can profile pri-miRNAs at cell-type resolution. PPMS can be applied to both newly produced and publicly available datasets obtained via single cell or single-nuclei RNA-seq. It allows users to (i) investigate the distribution of pri-miRNAs across cell types and cell states and (ii) establish a relationship between the number of cells/reads sequenced and the detection of pri-miRNAs. Here, to demonstrate its efficacy, we have applied PPMS to publicly available scRNA-seq data generated from (i) individual chambers (ventricles and atria) of the human heart, (ii) human pluripotent stem cells during their differentiation into cardiomyocytes (the heart beating cells) and (iii) hiPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , RNA, Small Untranslated , Humans , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , Gene Expression Regulation , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism
4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 80: 101697, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031135

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine regulating different tissues and organs in diverse and sometimes discrepant ways. The dual and sometime hermetic nature of IL-6 action has been highlighted in several contexts and can be explained by the concept of hormesis, in which beneficial or toxic effects can be induced by the same molecule depending on the intensity, persistence, and nature of the stimulation. According with hormesis, a low and/or controlled IL-6 release is associated with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and pro-myogenic actions, whereas increased systemic levels of IL-6 can induce pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic responses. However, many aspects regarding the multifaceted action of IL-6 and the complex nature of its signal transduction remains to be fully elucidated. In this review we collect mechanistic insight into the molecular networks contributing to normal or pathologic changes during advancing age and in chronic diseases. We point out the involvement of IL-6 deregulation in aging-related diseases, dissecting the hormetic action of this key mediator in different tissues, with a special focus on skeletal muscle. Since IL-6 can act as an enhancer of detrimental factor associated with both aging and pathologic conditions, such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, this cytokine could represent a "Gerokine", a determinant of the switch from physiologic aging to age-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Aging , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Aging/physiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction
6.
Biomol Concepts ; 13(1): 298-313, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009730

ABSTRACT

Growth factors and cytokines activate signal transduction pathways and regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Intracellular domains of activated receptors recruit several protein kinases as well as transcription factors that serve as platforms or hubs for the assembly of multi-protein complexes. The signaling hubs involved in a related biologic function often share common interaction proteins and target genes. This functional connectivity suggests that a pairwise comparison of protein interaction partners of signaling hubs and network analysis of common partners and their expression analysis might lead to the identification of critical nodes in cellular signaling. A pairwise comparison of signaling hubs across several related pathways might reveal novel signaling modules. Analysis of protein interaction connectome by Venn (PIC-Venn) of transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, NFKB1, RELA, FOS, and JUN, and their common interaction network suggested that BRCA1 and TSC22D3 function as critical nodes in immune responses by connecting the signaling hubs into signaling modules. Transcriptional regulation of critical hubs may play a major role in the lung epithelial cells in response to SARS-CoV-2 and in COVID-19 patients. Mutations and differential expression levels of these critical nodes and modules in pathological conditions might deregulate signaling pathways and their target genes involved in inflammation. Biological connectivity emerges from the structural connectivity of interaction networks across several signaling hubs in related pathways. The main objectives of this study are to identify critical hubs, critical nodes, and modules involved in the signal transduction pathways of innate and adaptive immunity. Application of PIC-Venn to several signaling hubs might reveal novel nodes and modules that can be targeted by small regulatory molecules to simultaneously activate or inhibit cell signaling in health and disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Mammals , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(36): e2120680119, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001001

ABSTRACT

The systemic immune response to viral infection is shaped by master transcription factors, such as NF-κB, STAT1, or PU.1. Although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested as important regulators of transcription factor activity, their contributions to the systemic immunopathologies observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection have remained unknown. Here, we employed a targeted single-cell RNA sequencing approach to reveal lncRNAs differentially expressed in blood leukocytes during severe COVID-19. Our results uncover the lncRNA PIRAT (PU.1-induced regulator of alarmin transcription) as a major PU.1 feedback-regulator in monocytes, governing the production of the alarmins S100A8/A9, key drivers of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Knockout and transgene expression, combined with chromatin-occupancy profiling, characterized PIRAT as a nuclear decoy RNA, keeping PU.1 from binding to alarmin promoters and promoting its binding to pseudogenes in naïve monocytes. NF-κB-dependent PIRAT down-regulation during COVID-19 consequently releases a transcriptional brake, fueling alarmin production. Alarmin expression is additionally enhanced by the up-regulation of the lncRNA LUCAT1, which promotes NF-κB-dependent gene expression at the expense of targets of the JAK-STAT pathway. Our results suggest a major role of nuclear noncoding RNA networks in systemic antiviral responses to SARS-CoV-2 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Monocytes , RNA, Long Noncoding , SARS-CoV-2 , Alarmins/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinases/genetics , Monocytes/immunology , NF-kappa B/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis
8.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993938

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a prominent role in post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanisms in the brain tuning synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and cognitive functions in physiological and pathological conditions [...].


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Depressants , MicroRNAs , Nervous System Diseases , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology
9.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969360

ABSTRACT

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a widely distributed polymer found from bacteria to animals, including marine species. This polymer exhibits morphogenetic as well as antiviral activity and releases metabolic energy after enzymatic hydrolysis also in human cells. In the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the platelets are at the frontline of this syndrome. Platelets release a set of molecules, among them polyP. In addition, the production of airway mucus, the first line of body defense, is impaired in those patients. Therefore, in this study, amorphous nanoparticles of the magnesium salt of polyP (Mg-polyP-NP), matching the size of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were prepared and loaded with the secondary plant metabolite quercetin or with dexamethasone to study their effects on the respiratory epithelium using human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. The results revealed that both compounds embedded into the polyP nanoparticles significantly increased the steady-state-expression of the MUC5AC gene. This mucin species is the major mucus glycoprotein present in the secreted gel-forming mucus. The level of gene expression caused by quercetin or with dexamethasone, if caged into polyP NP, is significantly higher compared to the individual drugs alone. Both quercetin and dexamethasone did not impair the growth-supporting effect of polyP on A549 cells even at concentrations of quercetin which are cytotoxic for the cells. A possible mechanism of the effects of the two drugs together with polyP on mucin expression is proposed based on the scavenging of free oxygen species and the generation of ADP/ATP from the polyP, which is needed for the organization of the protective mucin-based mucus layer.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Mucin 5AC/biosynthesis , Mucin 5AC/drug effects , Quercetin/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Magnesium/chemistry , Mucin 5AC/genetics , Mucins/biosynthesis , Mucins/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Plants/chemistry , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Quercetin/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species
10.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 144: 105885, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social connection has been linked to reduced disease risk and enhanced antiviral immunity, but it is unclear whether online social connections have similar effects to those previously documented for in-person/offline social relationships, or whether online connections can substitute for in-person social relations when the latter are restricted. We examined this question in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing specifically on an immune system gene regulation profile known as the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), which is characterized by up-regulation of proinflammatory genes and down-regulation of genes linked to innate antiviral responses and antibody production. METHODS: We analyzed CTRA RNA profiles in blood samples from 142 healthy young adults (69% female, 87% white) during the "social distancing" period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Mixed effect linear models quantified the relation of CTRA gene expression to measures of in-person social connection (number of friends, social eudaimonia, loneliness) and online psychosocial connection (online loneliness, perceived social value in online leisure and educational contexts, and internet use) while controlling for demographic and health factors. RESULTS: Multiple indicators of in-person and generalized social connection were associated with lower CTRA gene expression, whereas no measure of online social connection showed any significant association with CTRA gene expression. CONCLUSION: Experiences of in-person social connection are associated with reduced CTRA gene expression during a period of restricted social interaction. In contrast, online social relationships show no such association. Digitally mediated social relations do not appear to substantially offset the absence of in-person/offline social connection in the context of immune cell gene regulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress, Psychological , Antiviral Agents , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/genetics , Young Adult
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934090

ABSTRACT

Questions concerning the influences of nuclear receptors and their ligands on mammalian B cells are vast in number. Here, we briefly review the effects of nuclear receptor ligands, including estrogen and vitamins, on immunoglobulin production and protection from infectious diseases. We describe nuclear receptor interactions with the B cell genome and the potential mechanisms of gene regulation. Attention to the nuclear receptor/ligand regulation of B cell function may help optimize B cell responses, improve pathogen clearance, and prevent damaging responses toward inert- and self-antigens.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Receptors, Steroid/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulins/genetics , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Receptors, Steroid/genetics , Thyroid Hormones/genetics , Thyroid Hormones/immunology , Vitamin A/genetics , Vitamin A/immunology , Vitamin D/genetics , Vitamin D/immunology
12.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917645

ABSTRACT

In addition to the α, ß, and γ subunits of ENaC, human salt-sensing taste receptor cells (TRCs) also express the δ-subunit. At present, it is not clear if the expression and function of the ENaC δ-subunit in human salt-sensing TRCs is also modulated by the ENaC regulatory hormones and intracellular signaling effectors known to modulate salt responses in rodent TRCs. Here, we used molecular techniques to demonstrate that the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1), the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are expressed in δ-ENaC-positive cultured adult human fungiform (HBO) taste cells. Our results suggest that RAAS components function in a complex with ENaC and TRPV1 to modulate salt sensing and thus salt intake in humans. Early, but often prolonged, symptoms of COVID-19 infection are the loss of taste, smell, and chemesthesis. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contains two subunits, S1 and S2. S1 contains a receptor-binding domain, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to the ACE2 receptor, a component of RAAS. Our results show that the binding of a mutated S1 protein to ACE2 decreases ACE2 expression in HBO cells. We hypothesize that changes in ACE2 receptor expression can alter the balance between the two major RAAS pathways, ACE1/Ang II/AT1R and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MASR1, leading to changes in ENaC expression and responses to NaCl in salt-sensing human fungiform taste cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Epithelial Sodium Channels/metabolism , Adult , Animals , Cell Line , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Mice , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics , Taste Buds/metabolism
13.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742218

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and associated proteins play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathological events, such as immune activation, inflammation, gut barrier maintenance, intestinal stem cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Although many of these clinical events are quite significant in SIV/HIV infection, expression profiling of these proteins has not been well reported. Considering the different pathological consequences in the gut after HIV infection, we hypothesized that the expression of ACE2 and associated proteins of the Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could be compromised after SIV/HIV infection. We quantified the gene expression of ACE2 as well as AGTR1/2, ADAM17, and TMPRSS2, and compared between SIV infected and uninfected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; hereafter abbreviated RMs). The gene expression analysis revealed significant downregulation of ACE2 and upregulation of AGTR2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the gut of infected RMs. Protein expression profiling also revealed significant upregulation of AGTR2 after infection. The expression of ACE2 in protein level was also decreased, but not significantly, after infection. To understand the entirety of the process in newly regenerated epithelial cells, a global transcriptomic study of enteroids raised from intestinal stem cells was performed. Interestingly, most of the genes associated with the RAS, such as DPP4, MME, ANPEP, ACE2, ENPEP, were found to be downregulated in SIV infection. HNFA1 was found to be a key regulator of ACE2 and related protein expression. Jejunum CD4+ T cell depletion and increased IL-6 mRNA, MCP-1 and AGTR2 expression may signal inflammation, monocyte/macrophage accumulation and epithelial apoptosis in accelerating SIV pathogenesis. Overall, the findings in the study suggested a possible impact of SIV/HIV infection on expression of ACE2 and RAS-associated proteins resulting in the loss of gut homeostasis. In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV co-infection remains uncertain and needs further investigation as the significance profile of ACE2, a viral entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and its expression in mRNA and protein varied in the current study. There is a concern of aggravated SARS-CoV-2 outcomes due to possible serious pathological events in the gut resulting from compromised expression of RAS- associated proteins in SIV/HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Jejunum/metabolism , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/metabolism , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/physiology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation Mediators , Jejunum/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism
15.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0208621, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736026

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections induce the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that in cells infected with gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-8 were drastically upregulated, and the MAP kinase p38 and the integrated stress response pathways were implicated in this process. In this study, we report that coronavirus infection activates a negative regulatory loop that restricts the upregulation of a number of proinflammatory genes. As revealed by the initial transcriptomic and subsequent validation analyses, the anti-inflammatory adenine-uridine (AU)-rich element (ARE)-binding protein, zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36), and its related family members were upregulated in cells infected with IBV and three other coronaviruses, alphacoronaviruses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43, respectively. Characterization of the functional roles of ZFP36 during IBV infection demonstrated that ZFP36 promoted the degradation of transcripts coding for IL-6, IL-8, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), through binding to AREs in these transcripts. Consistently, knockdown and inhibition of JNK and p38 kinase activities reduced the expression of ZFP36, as well as the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. On the contrary, overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2), the upstream and downstream kinases of p38, respectively, increased the expression of ZFP36 and decreased the expression of IL-8. Taken together, this study reveals an important regulatory role of the MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis in coronavirus infection-induced proinflammatory response. IMPORTANCE Excessive and uncontrolled induction and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the so-called cytokine release syndrome (CRS), would cause life-threatening complications and multiple organ failure in severe coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and COVID-19. This study reveals that coronavirus infection also induces the expression of ZFP36, an anti-inflammatory ARE-binding protein, promoting the degradation of ARE-containing transcripts coding for IL-6 and IL-8 as well as a number of other proteins related to inflammatory response. Furthermore, the p38 MAP kinase, its upstream kinase MKK3 and downstream kinase MK2 were shown to play a regulatory role in upregulation of ZFP36 during coronavirus infection cycles. This MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis would constitute a potential therapeutic target for severe coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Tristetraprolin/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenine/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Uridine/metabolism , Vero Cells
16.
Science ; 374(6571): 1127-1133, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723460

ABSTRACT

Humans differ in their susceptibility to infectious disease, partly owing to variation in the immune response after infection. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to quantify variation in the response to influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from European- and African-ancestry males. Genetic ancestry effects are common but highly cell type specific. Higher levels of European ancestry are associated with increased type I interferon pathway activity in early infection, which predicts reduced viral titers at later time points. Substantial population-associated variation is explained by cis-expression quantitative trait loci that are differentiated by genetic ancestry. Furthermore, genetic ancestry­associated genes are enriched among genes correlated with COVID-19 disease severity, suggesting that the early immune response contributes to ancestry-associated differences for multiple viral infection outcomes.


Subject(s)
African Americans/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Whites/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Variation , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Quantitative Trait Loci , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Load , Young Adult
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 879-882.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719463

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory response to SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is thought to underpin COVID-19 pathogenesis. We conducted daily transcriptomic profiling of three COVID-19 cases and found that the early immune response in COVID-19 patients is highly dynamic. Patient throat swabs were tested daily for SARS-CoV-2, with the virus persisting for 3 to 4 weeks in all three patients. Cytokine analyses of whole blood revealed increased cytokine expression in the single most severe case. However, most inflammatory gene expression peaked after respiratory function nadir, except expression in the IL1 pathway. Parallel analyses of CD4 and CD8 expression suggested that the pro-inflammatory response may be intertwined with T cell activation that could exacerbate disease or prolong the infection. Collectively, these findings hint at the possibility that IL1 and related pro-inflammatory pathways may be prognostic and serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19. This work may also guide future studies to illuminate COVID-19 pathogenesis and develop host-directed therapies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1018, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702467

ABSTRACT

The antiviral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection can limit viral spread and prevent development of pneumonic COVID-19. However, the protective immunological response associated with successful viral containment in the upper airways remains unclear. Here, we combine a multi-omics approach with longitudinal sampling to reveal temporally resolved protective immune signatures in non-pneumonic and ambulatory SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and associate specific immune trajectories with upper airway viral containment. We see a distinct systemic rather than local immune state associated with viral containment, characterized by interferon stimulated gene (ISG) upregulation across circulating immune cell subsets in non-pneumonic SARS-CoV2 infection. We report reduced cytotoxic potential of Natural Killer (NK) and T cells, and an immune-modulatory monocyte phenotype associated with protective immunity in COVID-19. Together, we show protective immune trajectories in SARS-CoV2 infection, which have important implications for patient prognosis and the development of immunomodulatory therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , Cytokines/blood , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 796094, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690446

ABSTRACT

It is still controversial whether chronic lung inflammation increases the risk for COVID-19. One of the risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 is the level of expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in lung tissue. It is, however, not clear how lung tissue inflammation affects expression levels of these receptors. We hence aimed to determine the level of SARS-CoV-2 receptors in lung tissue of asthmatic relative to age, gender, and asthma severity, and to investigate the factors regulating that. Therefore, gene expression data sets of well-known asthmatic cohorts (SARP and U-BIOPRED) were used to evaluate the association of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with age, gender of the asthmatic patients, and also the type of the underlying lung tissue inflammatory cytokines. Notably, ACE2 and to less extent TMPRSS2 expression were upregulated in the lung tissue of asthmatics compared to healthy controls. Although a differential expression of ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 was observed relative to age within the moderate and severe asthma groups, our data suggest that age may not be a key regulatory factor of its expression. The type of tissue inflammation, however, associated significantly with ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels following adjusting with age, gender and oral corticosteroids use of the patient. Type I cytokine (IFN-γ), IL-8, and IL-19 were associated with increased expression, while Type II cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) with lower expression of ACE2 in lung tissue (airway epithelium and/or lung biopsies) of moderate and severe asthmatic patients. Of note, IL-19 was associated with ACE2 expression while IL-17 was associated with TMPRSS2 expression in sputum of asthmatic subjects. In vitro treatment of bronchial fibroblasts with IL-17 and IL-19 cytokines confirmed the regulatory effect of these cytokines on SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors. Our results suggest that the type of inflammation may regulate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the lung tissue of asthmatics and may hence affect susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology
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