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1.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 12461-12469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585255

ABSTRACT

Severe mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted from the lack of effective treatment. Although COVID-19 vaccines are available, their side effects have become a challenge for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases, especially cancer patients. In the current report, we applied network pharmacology and systematic bioinformatics to explore the use of biochanin A in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and COVID-19 infection. Using the network pharmacology approach, we identified two clusters of genes involved in immune response (IL1A, IL2, and IL6R) and cell proliferation (CCND1, PPARG, and EGFR) mediated by biochanin A in CRC/COVID-19 condition. The functional analysis of these two gene clusters further illustrated the effects of biochanin A on interleukin-6 production and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CRC/COVID-19 pathology. In addition, pathway analysis demonstrated the control of PI3K-Akt and JAK-STAT signaling pathways by biochanin A in the treatment of CRC/COVID-19. The findings of this study provide a therapeutic option for combination therapy against COVID-19 infection in CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genistein/therapeutic use , Phytoestrogens/therapeutic use , Atlases as Topic , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Cyclin D1/genetics , Cyclin D1/immunology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1alpha/genetics , Interleukin-1alpha/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Multigene Family , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/immunology , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction
2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 740-751, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498507

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To quantify the integrated levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the two well-recognized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry-related genes, and to further identify key factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). Methods: We developed a metric of the potential for tissue infected with SARS-CoV-2 ("TPSI") based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcript levels and compared TPSI levels between tumor and matched normal tissues across 11 tumor types. For further analysis of HNSC, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), functional analysis, and single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were conducted to investigate TPSI-relevant biological processes and their relationship with the immune landscape. TPSI-related factors were identified from clinical and mutational domains, followed by lasso regression to determine their relative effects on TPSI levels. Results: TPSI levels in tumors were generally lower than in the normal tissues. In HNSC, the genes highly associated with TPSI were enriched in viral entry-related processes, and TPSI levels were positively correlated with both eosinophils and T helper 17 (Th17) cell infiltration. Furthermore, the site of onset, human papillomaviruses (HPV) status, and nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) mutations were identified as the most important factors shaping TPSI levels. Conclusions: This study identified the infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 between tumor and normal tissues, and provided evidence for the risk stratification of HNSC.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 714909, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497067

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinically, evidence shows that uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have a higher death-rate. However, current anti-UCEC/coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment is lacking. Plumbagin (PLB), a pharmacologically active alkaloid, is an emerging anti-cancer inhibitor. Accordingly, the current report was designed to identify and characterize the anti-UCEC function and mechanism of PLB in the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 via integrated in silico analysis. Methods: The clinical analyses of UCEC and COVID-19 in patients were conducted using online-accessible tools. Meanwhile, in silico methods including network pharmacology and biological molecular docking aimed to screen and characterize the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 functions, bio targets, and mechanisms of the action of PLB. Results: The bioinformatics data uncovered the clinical characteristics of UCEC patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, including specific genes, health risk, survival rate, and prognostic index. Network pharmacology findings disclosed that PLB-exerted anti-UCEC/COVID-19 effects were achieved through anti-proliferation, inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and modulation of some of the key molecular pathways associated with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating actions. Following molecular docking analysis, in silico investigation helped identify the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 pharmacological bio targets of PLB, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU). Conclusions: Based on the present bioinformatic and in silico findings, the clinical characterization of UCEC/COVID-19 patients was revealed. The candidate, core bio targets, and molecular pathways of PLB action in the potential treatment of UCEC/COVID-19 were identified accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Endometrial Neoplasms , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/complications , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/genetics , Computational Biology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/methods , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Genetic Association Studies , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Uterus/drug effects , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/pathology , Uterus/virology
4.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1325-1333, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection correlates with MM features. This study aimed to identify MM prognostic biomarkers with potential association with COVID-19. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in five MM data sets (GSE47552, GSE16558, GSE13591, GSE6477, and GSE39754) with the same expression trends were screened out. Functional enrichment analysis and the protein-protein interaction network were performed for all DEGs. Prognosis-associated DEGs were screened using the stepwise Cox regression analysis in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) MMRF-CoMMpass cohort and the GSE24080 data set. Prognosis-associated DEGs associated with COVID-19 infection in the GSE164805 data set were also identified. RESULTS: A total of 98 DEGs with the same expression trends in five data sets were identified, and 83 DEGs were included in the protein-protein interaction network. Cox regression analysis identified 16 DEGs were associated with MM prognosis in the TCGA cohort, and only the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C (COX6C) gene (HR = 1.717, 95% CI 1.231-2.428, p = .002) and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) gene (HR = 0.882, 95% CI 0.798-0.975, p = .014) were independent factors related to MM prognosis in the GSE24080 data set. Both of them were downregulated in patients with mild COVID-19 infection compared with controls but were upregulated in patients with severe COVID-19 compared with patients with mild illness. CONCLUSIONS: The NOD2 and COX6C genes might be used as prognostic biomarkers in MM. The two genes might be associated with the development of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Datasets as Topic , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Gene Ontology , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Microarray Analysis , Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/genetics , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(14): 3795-3817, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459010

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, utilizes the mechanism of binding to ACE2 (a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system [RAS]), subsequently mediating a secondary imbalance of the RAS family and leading to severe injury to the host. However, very few studies have been conducted to reveal the mechanism behind the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tumors. Methods: Demographic data extracted from 33 cancer types and over 10,000 samples were employed to determine the comprehensive landscape of the RAS. Expression distribution, pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional regulation and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) as well as genomic alterations, DNA methylation and m6A modification were analyzed in both tissue and cell lines. The clinical phenotype, prognostic value and significance of the RAS during immune infiltration were identified. Results: Low expression of AGTR1 was common in tumors compared to normal tissues, while very low expression of AGTR2 and MAS1 was detected in both tissues and cell lines. Differential expression patterns of ACE in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) were correlated with ubiquitin modification involving E3 ligases. Genomic alterations of the RAS family were infrequent across TCGA pan-cancer program, and ACE had the highest alteration frequency compared with other members. Low expression of AGTR1 may result from hypermethylation in the promoter. Downregulation of RAS family was linked to higher clinical stage and worse survival (as measured by disease-specific survival [DSS], overall survival [OS] or progression-free interval [PFI]), especially for ACE2 and AGTR1 in KIRC. ACE-AGTR1, a classical axis of the RAS family related to immune infiltration, was positively correlated with M2-type macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and immune checkpoint genes in most cancers. Conclusion: ACE, ACE2, AGT and AGTR1 were differentially expressed in 33 types of cancers. PTM of RAS family was found to rely on ubiquitination. ACE2 and AGTR1 might serve as independent prognostic factors for LGG and KIRC. SARS-CoV-2 might modify the tumor microenvironment by regulating the RAS family, thus affecting the biological processes of cancer.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
6.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 577: 146-151, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401239

ABSTRACT

The human lung cell A549 is susceptible to infection with a number of respiratory viruses. However, A549 cells are resistant to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in conventional submerged culture, and this would appear to be due to low expression levels of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor: angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Here, we examined SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility to A549 cells after adaptation to air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. A549 cells in ALI culture yielded a layer of mucus on their apical surface, exhibited decreased expression levels of the proliferation marker KI-67 and intriguingly became susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that A549 cells increased the endogenous expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 following adaptation to ALI culture conditions. Camostat, a TMPRSS2 inhibitor, reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection in ALI-cultured A549 cells. These findings indicate that ALI culture switches the phenotype of A549 cells from resistance to susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection through upregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , A549 Cells , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation/genetics
8.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4054-4069, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348035

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019, there exist quite a few studies on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and SARS-CoV-2 infection, while little is known about ACE2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The detailed mechanism among ACE2 and HCC still remains unclear, which needs to be further investigated. In the current study with a total of 6,926 samples, ACE2 expression was downregulated in HCC compared with non-HCC samples (standardized mean difference = -0.41). With the area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristic = 0.82, ACE2 expression showed a better ability to differentiate HCC from non-HCC. The mRNA expression of ACE2 was related to the age, alpha-fetoprotein levels and cirrhosis of HCC patients, and it was identified as a protected factor for HCC patients via Kaplan-Meier survival, Cox regression analyses. The potential molecular mechanism of ACE2 may be relevant to catabolic and cell division. In all, decreasing ACE2 expression can be seen in HCC, and its protective role for HCC patients and underlying mechanisms were explored in the study.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , alpha-Fetoproteins/genetics , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Datasets as Topic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Proteins/classification , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Protective Factors , Protein Interaction Mapping , ROC Curve , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 16904-16921, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298261

ABSTRACT

Abnormal ATPase H+ Transporting Accessory Protein 1 (ATP6AP1) expression may promote carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of ATP6AP1 with breast cancer (BC) and COVID-19. The Oncomine, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, Human Protein Atlas and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases were used to evaluate the expression and prognostic value of ATP6AP1 in BC. ATP6AP1 was upregulated in BC tissues, and higher ATP6AP1 expression was associated with poorer outcomes. Data from the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource, Tumor-Immune System Interaction Database and Kaplan-Meier plotter indicated that ATP6AP1 expression correlated with immune infiltration, and that its prognostic effects in BC depended on tumor-infiltrating immune cell subtype levels. Multiple databases were used to evaluate the association of ATP6AP1 with clinicopathological factors, assess the mutation and methylation of ATP6AP1, and analyze gene co-expression and enrichment. The ATP6AP1 promoter was hypomethylated in BC tissues and differentially methylated between different disease stages and subtypes. Data from the Gene Expression Omnibus indicated that ATP6AP1 levels in certain cell types were reduced after SARS-CoV-2 infections. Ultimately, higher ATP6AP1 expression was associated with a poorer prognosis and with higher or lower infiltration of particular immune cells in BC. BC patients may be particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infections, which may alter their prognoses.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/immunology , DNA Methylation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Mutation/genetics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/analysis , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/immunology
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 15770-15784, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282781

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is highly contagious and pathogenic. TMPRSS2 and Neuropilin-1, the key components that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 infection, are potential targets for treatment of COVID-19. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis on NRP1 and TMPRSS2 in lung to provide information for treating comorbidity of COVID-19 with lung cancer. NRP1 is widely expressed across all the human tissues while TMPRSS2 is expressed in a restricted pattern. High level of NRP1 associates with worse prognosis in multiple cancers, while high level of TMPRSS2 is associated with better survival of Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Moreover, NRP1 positively correlates with the oncogenic Cancer Associated Fibroblast (CAF), macrophage and endothelial cells infiltration, negatively correlates with infiltration of CD8+ T cell, the tumor killer cell in Lung Squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). TMPRSS2 shows negative correlation with the oncogenic events in LUAD. RNA-seq data show that NRP1 level is slightly decreased in peripheral blood of ICU admitted COVID-19 patients, unaltered in lung, while TMPRSS2 level is significantly decreased in lung of COVID-19 patients. Our analysis suggests NRP1 as a potential therapeutic target, while sets an alert on targeting TMPRSS2 for treating comorbidity of COVID-19 and lung cancers.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/mortality , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Macrophages/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
11.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(8): 1925-1939, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266906

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) allow entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells and play essential roles in cancer therapy. However, the functions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in kidney cancer remain unclear, especially as kidneys are targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: UCSC Xena project, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases (GSE30589 and GSE59185) were searched for gene expression in human tissues, gene expression data, and clinical information. Several bioinformatics methods were utilized to analyze the correlation between ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with respect to the prognosis of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP). Results: ACE2 expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue, while its downregulation was associated with low survival in KIRC and KIRP patients. TMPRSS2 was downregulated in KIRC and KIRP, and its expression was not correlated with patient survival. According to clinical risk factor-based prediction models, ACE2 exhibits predictive accuracy for kidney cancer prognosis and is correlated with metabolism and immune infiltration. In an animal model, ACE2 expression was remarkably downregulated in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells compared to in the control. Conclusion: ACE2 expression is highly correlated with various metabolic pathways and is involved in immune infiltration.it plays a crucial role than TMPRSS2 in diagnosing and prognosis of kidney cancer patients. The overlap in ACE2 expression between kidney cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that patients with KIRC or KIRP are at high risk of developing serious symptoms.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/complications , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/immunology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/immunology , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Organ Specificity , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Tissue Array Analysis , Vero Cells
12.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(15): 1681-1687, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243784

ABSTRACT

Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex that mediates the interaction between different proteins as a basic linker in the transcription mechanism of eukaryotes. It interacts with RNA polymerase II and participates in the process of gene expression. Mediator complex subunit 19 or regulation by oxygen 3, or lung cancer metastasis-related protein 1 is located at the head of the mediator complex; it is a multi-protein co-activator that induces the transcription of RNA polymerase II by DNA transcription factors. It is a tumor-related gene that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis and is closely related to the occurrence and development of the cancers of the lung, bladder, skin, etc. Here, we used the structure of mediator complex subunit 19 to review its role in tumor progression, fat metabolism, drug therapy, as well as the novel coronavirus, which has attracted much attention at present, suggesting that mediator complex subunit 19 has broad application in the occurrence and development of clinical diseases. As a tumor-related gene, the role and mechanism of mediator complex subunit 19 in the regulation of tumor growth could be of great significance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of mediator complex subunit 19 -related tumors.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Mediator Complex/physiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cell Movement , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9905, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223111

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected African American populations disproportionately with respect to prevalence, and mortality. Expression profiles represent snapshots of combined genetic, socio-environmental (including socioeconomic and environmental factors), and physiological effects on the molecular phenotype. As such, they have potential to improve biological understanding of differences among populations, and provide therapeutic biomarkers and environmental mitigation strategies. Here, we undertook a large-scale assessment of patterns of gene expression between African Americans and European Americans, mining RNA-Seq data from 25 non-diseased and diseased (tumor) tissue-types. We observed the widespread enrichment of pathways implicated in COVID-19 and integral to inflammation and reactive oxygen stress. Chemokine CCL3L3 expression is up-regulated in African Americans. GSTM1, encoding a glutathione S-transferase that metabolizes reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics, is upregulated. The little-studied F8A2 gene is up to 40-fold more highly expressed in African Americans; F8A2 encodes HAP40 protein, which mediates endosome movement, potentially altering the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2. African American expression signatures, superimposed on single cell-RNA reference data, reveal increased number or activity of esophageal glandular cells and lung ACE2-positive basal keratinocytes. Our findings establish basal prognostic signatures that can be used to refine approaches to minimize risk of severe infection and improve precision treatment of COVID-19 for African Americans. To enable dissection of causes of divergent molecular phenotypes, we advocate routine inclusion of metadata on genomic and socio-environmental factors for human RNA-sequencing studies.


Subject(s)
African Americans/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Neoplasms/genetics , /genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokine CCL3/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Glutathione Transferase/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/classification , Neoplasms/ethnology , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Prognosis , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
14.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 52, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136226

ABSTRACT

In vitro-transcribed messenger RNA-based therapeutics represent a relatively novel and highly efficient class of drugs. Several recently published studies emphasize the potential efficacy of mRNA vaccines in treating different types of malignant and infectious diseases where conventional vaccine strategies and platforms fail to elicit protective immune responses. mRNA vaccines have lately raised high interest as potent vaccines against SARS-CoV2. Direct application of mRNA or its electroporation into dendritic cells was shown to induce polyclonal CD4+ and CD8+ mediated antigen-specific T cell responses as well as the production of protective antibodies with the ability to eliminate transformed or infected cells. More importantly, the vaccine composition may include two or more mRNAs coding for different proteins or long peptides. This enables the induction of polyclonal immune responses against a broad variety of epitopes within the encoded antigens that are presented on various MHC complexes, thus avoiding the restriction to a certain HLA molecule or possible immune escape due to antigen-loss. The development and design of mRNA therapies was recently boosted by several critical innovations including the development of technologies for the production and delivery of high quality and stable mRNA. Several technical obstacles such as stability, delivery and immunogenicity were addressed in the past and gradually solved in the recent years.This review will summarize the most recent technological developments and application of mRNA vaccines in clinical trials and discusses the results, challenges and future directions with a special focus on the induced innate and adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/genetics , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Transfer Techniques , Humans , Immunity , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , RNA Stability , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4533, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104538

ABSTRACT

Multiple studies have reported a doubling in risk of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) among cancer patients. Here, we examine the potential biological rationale behind this recurrent epidemiological observation. By leveraging large-scale genome-wide transcriptional data of normal and malignant tissues from adults and children, we found evidence of increased expression of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry genes in the cancer state, particularly in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tract tissues, with decreased expression in pediatric vs. adult samples. Additionally, by interrogating the temporal effects of radiotherapy on human peripheral blood mononuclear and mucosal cells, we observed important treatment-related alterations in host innate immunity, specifically type I interferon responses. Overall, cancers enhance expression of critical viral entry genes, and innate viral defenses can be dysregulated transiently during radiation treatments. These factors may contribute to the observed increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 entry and severity of COVID-19 in cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Innate , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/immunology , Child , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1724-1731, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102758

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 seriously affected people's life and safety, and it has not been effectively controlled all over the world at present. The binding of S protein of SARS-COV-2 virus to ACE2 receptor requires the assistance of Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2), which can activate the S protein on the surface of virus and promote its binding to the ACE2 receptor. With the continuous accumulation of experience in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and the experimental studies of a large number of scientific researchers, it was found that COVID-19 patients had a higher mortality rate in patients with underlying diseases. Therefore, for COVID-19 patients with tumors, the mortality rate may be significantly higher than other people. Clinical studies had found that some patients were complicated with cytokine storm in clinical treatment, which was also the direct cause of death for some patients. The infiltration of immune cells and the release of a variety of cytokines were important factors causing cytokine storm. Therefore, for COVID-19 patients with tumors, it was of great clinical significance to explore the relationship between COVID-19 virus receptor ACE2, TMPRSS2 and immune cell infiltration, which can help clinicians to make some more appropriate treatment plans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/genetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(8): 4157-4165, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091045

ABSTRACT

TMPRSS2 (OMIM: 602060) is a cellular protease involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and it facilitates entry of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. It is important to predict the prostate's susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients and the disease outcome by assessing TMPRSS2 expression in cancer tissues. In this study, we conducted the expression profiles of the TMPRSS2 gene for COVID-19 in different normal tissues and PRAD (prostate adenocarcinoma) tumour tissues. TMPRSS2 is highly expressed in normal tissues including the small intestine, prostate, pancreas, salivary gland, colon, stomach, seminal vesicle and lung, and is increased in PRAD tissues, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 might attack not only the lungs and other normal organs, but also in PRAD cancer tissues. Hypomethylation of TMPRSS2 promoter may not be the mechanism for TMPRSS2 overexpression in PRAD tissues and PRAD pathogenesis. TMPRSS2 expresses eleven isoforms in PRAD tissues, with the TMPRSS2-001 isoform expressed highest and followed by TMPRSS2-201. Further isoform structures prediction showed that these two highly expressed isoforms have both SRCR_2 and Trypsin (Tryp_SPc) domains, which may be essential for TMPRSS2 functional roles for tumorigenesis and entry for SARS-CoV-2 in PRAD patients. Analyses of functional annotation and enrichment in TMPRSS2 showed that TMPRSS2 is mostly enriched in regulation of viral entry into host cells, protein processing and serine-type peptidase activity. TMPRSS2 is also associated with prostate gland cancer cell expression, different complex(es) formation, human influenza and carcinoma, pathways in prostate cancer, influenza A, and transcriptional misregulation in cancer. Altogether, even though high expression of TMPRSS2 may not be favourable for PRAD patient's survival, increased expression in these patients should play roles in susceptibility of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical severity for COVID-19, highlighting the value of protective actions of PRAD cases by targeting or androgen-mediated therapeutic strategies in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Ontology , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Prostate/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(7): e37, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066376

ABSTRACT

Multiple driver genes in individual patient samples may cause resistance to individual drugs in precision medicine. However, current computational methods have not studied how to fill the gap between personalized driver gene identification and combinatorial drug discovery for individual patients. Here, we developed a novel structural network controllability-based personalized driver genes and combinatorial drug identification algorithm (CPGD), aiming to identify combinatorial drugs for an individual patient by targeting personalized driver genes from network controllability perspective. On two benchmark disease datasets (i.e. breast cancer and lung cancer datasets), performance of CPGD is superior to that of other state-of-the-art driver gene-focus methods in terms of discovery rate among prior-known clinical efficacious combinatorial drugs. Especially on breast cancer dataset, CPGD evaluated synergistic effect of pairwise drug combinations by measuring synergistic effect of their corresponding personalized driver gene modules, which are affected by a given targeting personalized driver gene set of drugs. The results showed that CPGD performs better than existing synergistic combinatorial strategies in identifying clinical efficacious paired combinatorial drugs. Furthermore, CPGD enhanced cancer subtyping by computationally providing personalized side effect signatures for individual patients. In addition, CPGD identified 90 drug combinations candidates from SARS-COV2 dataset as potential drug repurposing candidates for recently spreading COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Precision Medicine/methods , Breast Neoplasms/classification , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Datasets as Topic , Drug Repositioning , Drug Synergism , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Genes, Neoplasm/genetics , Humans , Risk Assessment , Workflow
20.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(2): 69-72, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039910

ABSTRACT

DICER1 is a highly conserved RNaseIII endoribonuclease that has a critical role in the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs responsible for post-transcriptional gene silencing, controlling more than half of human protein-coding genes. This is achieved through the targeting and regulation of complementary RNA transcripts and has a well-documented role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and transposon repression. DICER1 deficiency results in dysregulation of miRNAs, changing the expression of many genes. DICER1 syndrome represents a collection of benign and malignant tumours arising from an autosomally inherited germline mutation leading to an inherited predisposition to cancer. The syndrome represents an unusual form of Knudson's two-hit hypothesis, where individuals with a pathogenic germline DICER1 variant acquire a second trans-somatic missense DICER1 mutation. This somatic mutation appears to have to occur in one of five hotspots codons and may contribute towards the incomplete penetrance observed within DICER1 syndrome families. In this case, DICER1 is haploinsuffcient with only one deletion required and partial loss of function being advantageous to tumours over complete loss of function. As increasing data emerge reaffirming the pivotal role of DICER1 in the maintenance of human physiology, DICER1 is likely to become an increasingly attractive target for novel therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary/genetics , Ribonuclease III/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Mutation
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