Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 81
Filter
1.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969360

ABSTRACT

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a widely distributed polymer found from bacteria to animals, including marine species. This polymer exhibits morphogenetic as well as antiviral activity and releases metabolic energy after enzymatic hydrolysis also in human cells. In the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the platelets are at the frontline of this syndrome. Platelets release a set of molecules, among them polyP. In addition, the production of airway mucus, the first line of body defense, is impaired in those patients. Therefore, in this study, amorphous nanoparticles of the magnesium salt of polyP (Mg-polyP-NP), matching the size of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were prepared and loaded with the secondary plant metabolite quercetin or with dexamethasone to study their effects on the respiratory epithelium using human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. The results revealed that both compounds embedded into the polyP nanoparticles significantly increased the steady-state-expression of the MUC5AC gene. This mucin species is the major mucus glycoprotein present in the secreted gel-forming mucus. The level of gene expression caused by quercetin or with dexamethasone, if caged into polyP NP, is significantly higher compared to the individual drugs alone. Both quercetin and dexamethasone did not impair the growth-supporting effect of polyP on A549 cells even at concentrations of quercetin which are cytotoxic for the cells. A possible mechanism of the effects of the two drugs together with polyP on mucin expression is proposed based on the scavenging of free oxygen species and the generation of ADP/ATP from the polyP, which is needed for the organization of the protective mucin-based mucus layer.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Mucin 5AC/biosynthesis , Mucin 5AC/drug effects , Quercetin/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Magnesium/chemistry , Mucin 5AC/genetics , Mucins/biosynthesis , Mucins/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Plants/chemistry , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Quercetin/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674673

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused a massive health and societal crisis, although the fast development of effective vaccines reduced some of the impact. To prepare for future respiratory virus pandemics, a pan-viral prophylaxis could be used to control the initial virus outbreak in the period prior to vaccine approval. The liposomal vaccine adjuvant CAF®09b contains the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, which induces a type I interferon (IFN-I) response and an antiviral state in the affected tissues. When testing CAF09b liposomes as a potential pan-viral prophylaxis, we observed that intranasal administration of CAF09b liposomes to mice resulted in an influx of innate immune cells into the nose and lungs and upregulation of IFN-I-related gene expression. When CAF09b liposomes were administered prior to challenge with mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 virus, it protected from severe disease, although the virus was still detectable in the lungs. However, when CAF09b liposomes were administered after influenza challenge, the mice had a similar disease course to controls. In conclusion, CAF09b may be a suitable candidate as a pan-viral prophylactic treatment for epidemic viruses, but must be administered prior to virus exposure to be effective.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , /methods , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , /chemistry , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Chick Embryo , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Primary Prevention/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Sci Adv ; 8(5): eabl8920, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673337

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone is widely used as an immunosuppressive therapy and recently as COVID-19 treatment. Here, we demonstrate that dexamethasone sensitizes to ferroptosis, a form of iron-catalyzed necrosis, previously suggested to contribute to diseases such as acute kidney injury, myocardial infarction, and stroke, all of which are triggered by glutathione (GSH) depletion. GSH levels were significantly decreased by dexamethasone. Mechanistically, we identified that dexamethasone up-regulated the GSH metabolism regulating protein dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. DPEP1 knockdown reversed the phenotype of dexamethasone-induced ferroptosis sensitization. Ferroptosis inhibitors, the DPEP1 inhibitor cilastatin, or genetic DPEP1 inactivation reversed the dexamethasone-induced increase in tubular necrosis in freshly isolated renal tubules. Our data indicate that dexamethasone sensitizes to ferroptosis by a GR-mediated increase in DPEP1 expression and GSH depletion. Together, we identified a previously unknown mechanism of glucocorticoid-mediated sensitization to ferroptosis bearing clinical and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dipeptidases/genetics , Ferroptosis/drug effects , Ferroptosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Carbolines/adverse effects , Carbolines/pharmacology , Cell Line , Dipeptidases/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Piperazines/adverse effects , Piperazines/pharmacology
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 440, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641960

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are instrumental in severe COVID-19. However, the immune signatures associated with immunopathology are poorly understood. Here we use multi-omics single-cell analysis to probe the dynamic immune responses in hospitalized patients with stable or progressive course of COVID-19, explore V(D)J repertoires, and assess the cellular effects of tocilizumab. Coordinated profiling of gene expression and cell lineage protein markers shows that S100Ahi/HLA-DRlo classical monocytes and activated LAG-3hi T cells are hallmarks of progressive disease and highlights the abnormal MHC-II/LAG-3 interaction on myeloid and T cells, respectively. We also find skewed T cell receptor repertories in expanded effector CD8+ clones, unmutated IGHG+ B cell clones, and mutated B cell clones with stable somatic hypermutation frequency over time. In conclusion, our in-depth immune profiling reveals dyssynchrony of the innate and adaptive immune interaction in progressive COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Male , RNA-Seq/methods , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1472-1475, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629955

ABSTRACT

Human lives and nations' economies have been adversely affected worldwide by the COVID-19 pandemic. The hyperinflammatory state associated with the disease may be related to mortality. Systemic glucocorticoid is the first-line therapy for cytokine storm. Various immunomodulatory drugs such as tocilizumab and baricitinib have been used in those not responding to glucocorticoid monotherapy. Amid the peak crisis of COVID-19 in India, there was an extreme paucity of medications, oxygen, and hospital beds. We describe three patients with COVID-19 who received low-dose tofacitinib (an oral Janus kinase inhibitor) in addition to moderate-dose glucocorticoid. These patients were treated at their homes, as the hospitals were short of beds. Rapid reduction in hypoxemia along with gradual resolution of other signs of the disease were observed. The results are reassuring regarding the feasibility of managing of severe COVID-19 outside the hospital setting when healthcare resources are overwhelmed by pandemic-related caseload.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633064

ABSTRACT

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) belong to the innate and adaptive immune system and are highly sensitive and responsive to changes in their systemic environment. In this study, we focused on the time course of transcriptional changes in freshly isolated human PBMCs 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after onset of stimulation with the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Taking all four time points together, 662 target genes were identified and segregated either by time of differential gene expression into 179 primary and 483 secondary targets or by driver of expression change into 293 direct and 369 indirect targets. The latter classification revealed that more than 50% of target genes were primarily driven by the cells' response to ex vivo exposure than by the nuclear hormone and largely explained its down-regulatory effect. Functional analysis indicated vitamin D's role in the suppression of the inflammatory and adaptive immune response by down-regulating ten major histocompatibility complex class II genes, five alarmins of the S100 calcium binding protein A family and by affecting six chemokines of the C-X-C motif ligand family. Taken together, studying time-resolved responses allows to better contextualize the effects of vitamin D on the immune system.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Transcriptome , Vitamin D/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/pharmacology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595807

ABSTRACT

The IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine pathways play integral roles in stimulating IgE inflammation, with the IL-4 cytokine being a major cytokine in the etiology of thunderstorm asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. The increasing prevalence of thunderstorm asthma in the younger population and the lessening efficacy of corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatories has created a need for more effective pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes the IL-4 and IL-13 pathways while highlighting and discussing the current pathway inhibitors aimed at treating thunderstorm asthma and atopic dermatitis, as well as the potential efficacy of peptide therapeutics in this field.


Subject(s)
Allergens/adverse effects , Asthma/immunology , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Allergens/immunology , Asthma/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-13/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects
8.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575478

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1, TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Vero Cells
9.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(11): 1617-1634, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551286

ABSTRACT

The CYP3A subfamily, which includes isoforms CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 in humans, plays important roles in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous substances. Gene and protein expression of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 show large inter-individual differences, which are caused by many endogenous and exogenous factors. Inter-individual differences can cause negative outcomes, such as adverse drug events and disease development. Therefore, it is important to understand the variations in CYP3A expression caused by endo- and exogenous factors, as well as the variation in the metabolism and kinetics of endo- and exogenous substrates. In this review, we summarize the factors regulating CYP3A expression, such as bile acids, hormones, microRNA, inflammatory cytokines, drugs, environmental chemicals, and dietary factors. In addition, variations in CYP3A expression under pathological conditions, such as coronavirus disease 2019 and liver diseases, are described as examples of the physiological effects of endogenous factors. We also summarize endogenous and exogenous substrates metabolized by CYP3A isoforms, such as cholesterol, bile acids, hormones, arachidonic acid, vitamin D, and drugs. The relationship between the changes in the kinetics of these substrates and the toxicological effects in our bodies are discussed. The usefulness of these substrates and metabolites as endogenous biomarkers for CYP3A activity is also discussed. Notably, we focused on discrimination between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 to understand inter-individual differences in CYP3A expression and function.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Humans , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism
10.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish an acute treatment protocol to increase serum vitamin D, evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation, and reveal the potential mechanisms in COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 867 COVID-19 cases. Then, a prospective study was conducted, including 23 healthy individuals and 210 cases. A total of 163 cases had vitamin D supplementation, and 95 were followed for 14 days. Clinical outcomes, routine blood biomarkers, serum levels of vitamin D metabolism, and action mechanism-related parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Our treatment protocol increased the serum 25OHD levels significantly to above 30 ng/mL within two weeks. COVID-19 cases (no comorbidities, no vitamin D treatment, 25OHD <30 ng/mL) had 1.9-fold increased risk of having hospitalization longer than 8 days compared with the cases with comorbidities and vitamin D treatment. Having vitamin D treatment decreased the mortality rate by 2.14 times. The correlation analysis of specific serum biomarkers with 25OHD indicated that the vitamin D action in COVID-19 might involve regulation of INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D treatment shortened hospital stay and decreased mortality in COVID-19 cases, even in the existence of comorbidities. Vitamin D supplementation is effective on various target parameters; therefore, it is essential for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/pharmacology
11.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211054481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511642

ABSTRACT

Biological and cellular interleukin-6 (IL-6)-related therapies have been used to treat severe COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammatory syndrome and acute respiratory failure, which prompted further exploration of the role of IL-6 in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were responders cocultured with hUCMSCs or exogenous IL-6. A PBMC suppression assay was used to analyze the anti-inflammatory effects via MTT assay. The IL-6 concentration in the supernatant was measured using ELISA. The correlation between the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSCs and IL-6 levels and the relevant roles of IL-6 and IL-6 mRNA expression was analyzed using the MetaCore functional network constructed from gene microarray data. The location of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression was further evaluated. We reported that hUCMSCs did not initially exert any inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation; however, a potent inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation was observed, and the IL-6 concentration reached approximately 1000 ng/mL after 72 hours. Exogenous 1000 ng/mL IL-6 inhibited PHA-stimulated inflammation but less so than hUCMSCs. The inhibitory effects of hUCMSCs on PHA-stimulated PBMCs disappeared after adding an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or pretreatment with tocilizumab (TCZ), an IL-6R antagonist. hUCMSCs exert excellent anti-inflammatory effects by inducing higher IL-6 levels, which is different from TCZ. High concentration of IL-6 cytokine secretion plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSC therapy. Initial hUCMSC therapy, followed by TCZ, seems to optimize the therapeutic potential to treat COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Umbilical Cord/cytology
12.
J Cell Physiol ; 237(2): 1521-1531, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490820

ABSTRACT

Mechanical forces can modulate the immune response, mostly described as promoting the activation of immune cells, but the role and mechanism of pathological levels of mechanical stress in lymphocyte activation have not been focused on before. By an ex vivo experimental approach, we observed that mechanical stressing of murine spleen lymphocytes with 50 mmHg for 3 h induced the nuclear localization of NFAT1, increased C-Jun, and increased the expression of early activation marker CD69 in resting CD8+ cells. Interestingly, 50 mmHg mechanical stressing induced the nuclear localization of NFAT1; but conversely decreased C-Jun and inhibited the expression of CD69 in lymphocytes under lipopolysaccharide or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin stimulation. Additionally, we observed similar changes trends when comparing RNA-seq data of hypertensive and normotensive COVID-19 patients. Our results indicate a biphasic effect of mechanical stress on lymphocyte activation, which provides insight into the variety of immune responses in pathologies involving elevated mechanical stress.


Subject(s)
Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Stress, Mechanical , Animals , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Comorbidity , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Protein Transport/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114701, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446835

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD), one of the "three medicines and three prescriptions" for the clinically effective treatment of COVID-19 in China, plays an important role in the treatment of mild and/or common patients with dampness-toxin obstructing lung syndrome. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work aims to elucidate the protective effects and the possible mechanism of XFBD against the acute inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We use TGF-ß1 induced fibroblast activation model and LPS/IL-4 induced macrophage inflammation model as in vitro cell models. The mice model of lung fibrosis was induced by BLM via endotracheal drip, and then XFBD (4.6 g/kg, 9.2 g/kg) were administered orally respectively. The efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of XFBD were investigated. RESULTS: The results proved that XFBD can effectively inhibit fibroblast collagen deposition, down-regulate the level of α-SMA and inhibit the migration of fibroblasts. IL-4 induced macrophage polarization was also inhibited and the secretions of the inflammatory factors including IL6, iNOS were down-regulated. In vivo experiments, the results proved that XFBD improved the weight loss and survival rate of the mice. The XFBD high-dose administration group had a significant effect in inhibiting collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA in the lungs of mice. XFBD can reduce bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 activation and related macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction protects against macrophages induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NIH 3T3 Cells , Phytotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , RAW 264.7 Cells , STAT3 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
14.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403545

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality in women and it kills twice as many women as breast cancer. A key role in the pathophysiology of stroke plays the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) within the neurovascular unit. While estrogen induces vascular protective actions, its influence on stroke remains unclear. Moreover, experiments assessing its impact on endothelial cells to induce barrier integrity are non-conclusive. Since pericytes play an active role in regulating BBB integrity and function, we hypothesize that estradiol may influence BBB by regulating their activity. In this study using human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) we investigated the impact of estradiol on key pericyte functions known to influence BBB integrity. HBVPs expressed estrogen receptors (ER-α, ER-ß and GPER) and treatment with estradiol (10 nM) inhibited basal cell migration but not proliferation. Since pericyte migration is a hallmark for BBB disruption following injury, infection and inflammation, we investigated the effects of estradiol on TNFα-induced PC migration. Importantly, estradiol prevented TNFα-induced pericyte migration and this effect was mimicked by PPT (ER-α agonist) and DPN (ER-ß agonist), but not by G1 (GPR30 agonist). The modulatory effects of estradiol were abrogated by MPP and PHTPP, selective ER-α and ER-ß antagonists, respectively, confirming the role of ER-α and ER-ß in mediating the anti-migratory actions of estrogen. To delineate the intracellular mechanisms mediating the inhibitory actions of estradiol on PC migration, we investigated the role of AKT and MAPK activation. While estradiol consistently reduced the TNFα-induced MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, only the inhibition of MAPK, but not Akt, significantly abrogated the migratory actions of TNFα. In transendothelial electrical resistance measurements, estradiol induced barrier function (TEER) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with pericytes, but not in HBMECs cultured alone. Importantly, transcriptomics analysis of genes modulated by estradiol in pericytes showed downregulation of genes known to increase cell migration and upregulation of genes known to inhibit cell migration. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that estradiol modulates pericyte activity and thereby improves endothelial integrity.


Subject(s)
Brain/blood supply , Cell Movement/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Gene Expression Profiling , Pericytes/cytology , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Pericytes/drug effects , Pericytes/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
15.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 105, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination programs have been launched worldwide to halt the spread of COVID-19. However, the identification of existing, safe compounds with combined treatment and prophylactic properties would be beneficial to individuals who are waiting to be vaccinated, particularly in less economically developed countries, where vaccine availability may be initially limited. METHODS: We used a data-driven approach, combining results from the screening of a large transcriptomic database (L1000) and molecular docking analyses, with in vitro tests using a lung organoid model of SARS-CoV-2 entry, to identify drugs with putative multimodal properties against COVID-19. RESULTS: Out of thousands of FDA-approved drugs considered, we observed that atorvastatin was the most promising candidate, as its effects negatively correlated with the transcriptional changes associated with infection. Atorvastatin was further predicted to bind to SARS-CoV-2's main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and was shown to inhibit viral entry in our lung organoid model. CONCLUSIONS: Small clinical studies reported that general statin use, and specifically, atorvastatin use, are associated with protective effects against COVID-19. Our study corroborrates these findings and supports the investigation of atorvastatin in larger clinical studies. Ultimately, our framework demonstrates one promising way to fast-track the identification of compounds for COVID-19, which could similarly be applied when tackling future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Organoids/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Atorvastatin/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Line , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Drug Approval , Drug Repositioning , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Lung/virology , Models, Biological , Molecular Docking Simulation , Organoids/virology , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/chemistry , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Trifluoperazine/chemistry , Trifluoperazine/pharmacology , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vesiculovirus/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112095, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392164

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is one of the major components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and participates in the physiological functions of the cardiovascular system and lungs. Recent studies identified ACE2 as the receptor for the S-protein of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and thus acts as the gateway for viral entry into the human body. Virus infection causes an imbalance in the RAS axis and induces acute lungs injury and fibrosis. Various factors regulate ACE2 expression patterns as well as control its epigenetic status at both transcription and translational levels. This review is mainly focused on the impact of environmental toxicants, drugs, endocrine disruptors, and hypoxia as controlling parameters for ACE2 expression and its possible modulation by epigenetic changes which are marked by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) profile. Furthermore, we have emphasized on interventions of various phytochemicals and bioactive compounds as epidrugs that regulate ACE2-S-protein interaction and thereby curb viral infection. Since ACE2 is an important component of the RAAS axis and a crucial entry point of SARS-CoV-2, the dynamics of ACE2 expression in response to various extrinsic and intrinsic factors are of contemporary relevance. We have collated updated information on ACE2 expression modulated by epidrugs, and urge to take over further studies on these important physiological regulators to unravel many more systemic linkages related to both metabolic and infectious diseases, in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular for further development of targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Epigenesis, Genetic , Hazardous Substances , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Hazardous Substances/adverse effects , Hazardous Substances/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 218, 2020 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387198

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cardiac Glycosides/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bufanolides/chemistry , Bufanolides/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cardiac Glycosides/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Digoxin/chemistry , Digoxin/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Phenanthrenes/chemistry , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 633-636, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369995

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular disease may affect COVID-19 progression. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypertension on viral replication and COVID-19 progression using a hypertensive mouse model infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results revealed that SARS-CoV-2 replication was delayed in hypertensive mouse lungs. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 replication in hypertensive mice treated with the antihypertensive drug captopril demonstrated similar virus replication as SARS-CoV-2-infected normotensive mice. Furthermore, antihypertensive treatment alleviated lung inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 replication (interleukin (IL)-1ß up-regulation and increased immune cell infiltration). No differences in lung inflammation were observed between the SARS-CoV-2-infected normotensive mice and hypertensive mice. Our findings suggest that captopril treatment may alleviate COVID-19 progression but not affect viral replication.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Captopril/therapeutic use , Hypertension/complications , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Mice , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16629, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361646

ABSTRACT

Since understanding molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection is extremely important for developing effective therapies against COVID-19, we focused on the internalization mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 via ACE2. Although cigarette smoke is generally believed to be harmful to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) treatments were surprisingly found to suppress the expression of ACE2 in HepG2 cells. We thus tried to clarify the mechanism of CSE effects on expression of ACE2 in mammalian cells. Because RNA-seq analysis suggested that suppressive effects on ACE2 might be inversely correlated with induction of the genes regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), the AHR agonists 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) and omeprazole (OMP) were tested to assess whether those treatments affected ACE2 expression. Both FICZ and OMP clearly suppressed ACE2 expression in a dose-dependent manner along with inducing CYP1A1. Knock-down experiments indicated a reduction of ACE2 by FICZ treatment in an AHR-dependent manner. Finally, treatments of AHR agonists inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection into Vero E6 cells as determined with immunoblotting analyses detecting SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleocapsid protein. We here demonstrate that treatment with AHR agonists, including FICZ, and OMP, decreases expression of ACE2 via AHR activation, resulting in suppression of SARS-CoV-2 infection in mammalian cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/agonists , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Omeprazole/pharmacology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/agonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL