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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9604456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential pharmacological value of extracts from honeysuckle on patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: The active components and targets of honeysuckle were screened by Traditional Chinese Medicine Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). SwissADME and pkCSM databases predict pharmacokinetics of ingredients. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database collected transcriptome data for mild COVID-19. Data quality control, differentially expressed gene (DEG) identification, enrichment analysis, and correlation analysis were implemented by R toolkit. CIBERSORT evaluated the infiltration of 22 immune cells. RESULTS: The seven active ingredients of honeysuckle had good oral absorption and medicinal properties. Both the active ingredient targets of honeysuckle and differentially expressed genes of mild COVID-19 were significantly enriched in immune signaling pathways. There were five overlapping immunosignature genes, among which RELA and MAP3K7 expressions were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Finally, immune cell infiltration and correlation analysis showed that RELA, MAP3K7, and natural killer (NK) cell are with highly positive correlation and highly negatively correlated with hematopoietic stem cells. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggested that honeysuckle extract had a safe and effective protective effect against mild COVID-19 by regulating a complex molecular network. The main mechanism was related to the proportion of infiltration between NK cells and hematopoietic stem cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lonicera , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology , Databases, Pharmaceutical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lonicera/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580401

ABSTRACT

Medicinal chemistry optimization of a previously described stilbene inhibitor of HIV-1, 5350150 (2-(2-(5-nitro-2-thienyl)vinyl)quinoline), led to the identification of the thiazole-5-carboxamide derivative (GPS491), which retained potent anti-HIV-1 activity with reduced toxicity. In this report, we demonstrate that the block of HIV-1 replication by GPS491 is accompanied by a drastic inhibition of viral gene expression (IC50 ~ 0.25 µM), and alterations in the production of unspliced, singly spliced, and multiply spliced HIV-1 RNAs. GPS491 also inhibited the replication of adenovirus and multiple coronaviruses. Low µM doses of GPS491 reduced adenovirus infectious yield ~1000 fold, altered virus early gene expression/viral E1A RNA processing, blocked viral DNA amplification, and inhibited late (hexon) gene expression. Loss of replication of multiple coronaviruses (229E, OC43, SARS-CoV2) upon GPS491 addition was associated with the inhibition of viral structural protein expression and the formation of virus particles. Consistent with the observed changes in viral RNA processing, GPS491 treatment induced selective alterations in the accumulation/phosphorylation/function of splicing regulatory SR proteins. Our study establishes that a compound that impacts the activity of cellular factors involved in RNA processing can prevent the replication of several viruses with minimal effect on cell viability.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , HIV-1/drug effects , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenoviridae/physiology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/physiology , Gene Expression/drug effects , HIV-1/physiology , Humans , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Thiazoles/chemistry
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1 Suppl): 81-89, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new coronavirus responsible for the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This virus attacks cells of the airway epithelium by binding transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Hydroxytyrosol has anti-viral properties. Alpha-cyclodextrin can deplete sphingolipids and phospholipids from cell membranes. The aim of the present experimental study was to evaluate the efficacy of α-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol in improving defenses against SARS-CoV-2 infection in in vitro cell models and humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For in vitro experiments on Vero E6 cells, RNA for RT-qPCR analysis was extracted from Caco2 and human fibroblast cell lines. For study in humans, the treatment group consisted of 149 healthy volunteers in Northern Cyprus, considered at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than the general population. The volunteers used nasal spray containing α-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol for 4 weeks. The control group consisted of 76 healthy volunteers who did not use the spray. RESULTS: RT-qPCR experiments on targeted genes involved in endocytosis showed a reduction in gene expression, whereas cytotoxicity and cytoprotective tests showed that the compounds exerted a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection at non-cytotoxic concentrations. None of the volunteers became positive to SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR assay during the 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with α-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol nasal spray improved defenses against SARS-CoV-2 infection and reduced synthesis of viral particles.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , alpha-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal , Adult , Aged , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenylethyl Alcohol/administration & dosage , Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult , alpha-Cyclodextrins/administration & dosage
5.
Cytokine ; 140: 155430, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385381

ABSTRACT

In vitro interferon (IFN)α treatment of primary human upper airway basal cells has been shown to drive ACE2 expression, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. The protease furin is also involved in mediating SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections, although its association with early IFN response has not been evaluated yet. In order to assess the in vivo relationship between ACE2 and furin expression and the IFN response in nasopharyngeal cells, we first examined ACE2 and furin levels and their correlation with the well-known marker of IFNs' activation, ISG15, in children (n = 59) and adults (n = 48), during respiratory diseases not caused by SARS-CoV-2. A strong positive correlation was found between ACE2 expression, but not of furin, and ISG15 in all patients analyzed. In addition, type I and III IFN stimulation experiments were performed to examine the IFN-mediated activation of ACE2 isoforms (full-length and truncated) and furin in epithelial cell lines. Following all the IFNs treatments, only the truncated ACE2 levels, were upregulated significantly in the A549 and Calu3 cells, in particular by type I IFNs. If confirmed in vivo following IFNs' activation, the induction of the truncated ACE2 isoform only would not enhance the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Interferons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Adult , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Child , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitins/genetics
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104820, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318923

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a huge threaten to global health, which raise urgent demand of developing efficient therapeutic strategy. The aim of the present study is to dissect the chemical composition and the pharmacological mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QFPD), a clinically used Chinese medicine for treating COVID-19 patients in China. Through comprehensive analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 129 compounds of QFPD were putatively identified. We also constructed molecular networking of mass spectrometry data to classify these compounds into 14 main clusters, in which exhibited specific patterns of flavonoids (45 %), glycosides (15 %), carboxylic acids (10 %), and saponins (5 %). The target network model of QFPD, established by predicting and collecting the targets of identified compounds, indicated a pivotal role of Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction (MXSG) in the therapeutic efficacy of QFPD. Supportively, through transcriptomic analysis of gene expression after MXSG administration in rat model of LPS-induced pneumonia, the thrombin and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway were suggested to be essential pathways for MXSG mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, changes in content of major compounds in MXSG during decoction were found by the chemical analysis. We also validate that one major compound in MXSG, i.e. glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited TLR agonists induced IL-6 production in macrophage. In conclusion, the integration of in silico and experimental results indicated that the therapeutic effects of QFPD against COVID-19 may be attributed to the anti-inflammatory effects of MXSG, which supports the rationality of the compatibility of TCM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopeptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thrombin/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 304, 2021 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is widely used in human and animal medicine to treat and prevent parasite nematode infections. It has been suggested that its mode of action requires the host immune system, as it is difficult to reproduce its clinical efficacy in vitro. We therefore studied the effects of a single dose of ivermectin (Stromectol®-0.15 mg/kg) on cytokine levels and immune cell gene expression in human volunteers. This dose reduces bloodstream microfilariae rapidly and for several months when given in mass drug administration programmes. METHODS: Healthy volunteers with no travel history to endemic regions were given 3-4 tablets, depending on their weight, of either ivermectin or a placebo. Blood samples were drawn immediately prior to administration, 4 h and 24 h afterwards, and complete blood counts performed. Serum levels of 41 cytokines and chemokines were measured using Luminex® and expression levels of 770 myeloid-cell-related genes determined using the NanoString nCounter®. Cytokine levels at 4 h and 24 h post-treatment were compared to the levels pre-treatment using simple t tests to determine if any individual results required further investigation, taking p = < 0.05 as the level of significance. NanoString data were analysed on the proprietary software, nSolver™. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in complete blood counts or cytokine levels at either time point between people given ivermectin versus placebo. Only three genes showed a significant change in expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells 4 h after ivermectin was given; there were no significant changes 24 h after drug administration or in polymorphonuclear cells at either time point. Leukocytes isolated from those participants given ivermectin showed no difference in their ability to kill Brugia malayi microfilariae in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data do not support a direct effect of ivermectin, when given at the dose used in current filarial elimination programmes, on the human immune system. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03459794 Registered 9th March 2018, Retrospectively registered https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03459794?term=NCT03459794&draw=2&rank=1 .


Subject(s)
Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Ivermectin/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Neutrophils/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Brugia malayi/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Human Experimentation , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/parasitology , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/parasitology , Young Adult
8.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 86: 106982, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187825

ABSTRACT

Despite reports that quinoline antimalarials including chloroquine (Chq) exhibit idiosyncratic neuropsychiatric effects even at low doses, the drug continues to be in widespread use during pregnancy. Surprisingly, very few studies have examined the potential neurotoxic action of Chq exposure at different points of gestation or how this phenomenon may affect neurophysiological well-being in later life. We therefore studied behavior, and the expression of specific genes and neurochemicals modulating crucial neural processes in offspring of rats exposed to prophylactic dose of Chq during different stages of gestation. Pregnant rats were injected 5 mg/kg/day (3 times) of Chq either during early- (first week), mid- (second week), late- (third week), or throughout- (all weeks) gestation, while controls received PBS injection. Behavioral characterization of offspring between postnatal days 15-20 in the open field, Y-maze, elevated plus and elevated zero mazes revealed that Chq evoked anxiogenic responses and perturbed spatial memory in rats, although locomotor activity was generally unaltered. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and cerebellum of rats prenatally exposed to Chq, RT-qPCR analysis revealed decreased mRNA expression of presynaptic marker synaptophysin, which was accompanied by downregulation of postsynaptic marker PSD95. Synaptic marker PICK1 expression was also downregulated in the hippocampus but was unperturbed in the PFC and cerebellum. In addition to recorded SOD downregulation in cortical and hippocampal lysates, induction of oxidative stress in rats prenatally exposed to Chq was corroborated by lipid peroxidation as evinced by increased MDA levels. Offspring of rats infused with Chq at mid-gestation and weekly treatment throughout gestation were particularly susceptible to neurotoxic changes, especially in the hippocampus. Interestingly, Chq did not cause histopathological changes in any of the brain areas. Taken together, our findings causally link intrauterine exposure to Chq with postnatal behavioral impairment and neurotoxic changes in rats.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Chloroquine/toxicity , Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Animals , Anxiety/chemically induced , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gestational Age , Maze Learning/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pregnancy , Rats , Spatial Memory/drug effects
9.
Endocrinology ; 162(8)2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259229

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a gender disparity in severity, with men exhibiting higher hospitalization and mortality rates than women. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19, infects cells following recognition and attachment of the viral spike glycoprotein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transmembrane protein, followed by spike protein cleavage and activation by cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). In prostate cancer cells, androgen acting on the androgen receptor increases TMPRSS2 expression, which has led to the hypothesis that androgen-dependent expression of TMPRSS2 in the lung may increase men's susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and that, accordingly, suppressing androgen production or action may mitigate COVID-19 severity by reducing SARS-CoV-2 amplification. Several ongoing clinical trials are testing the ability of androgen deprivation therapies or anti-androgens to mitigate COVID-19. This perspective discusses clinical and molecular advances on the rapidly evolving field of androgen receptor (AR) action on cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) expression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and the potential effect of anti-androgens on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity in male patients. It discusses limitations of current studies and offers insight for future directions.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Androgen/drug effects , Receptors, Androgen/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Sex Factors
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231496

ABSTRACT

In addition to its canonical functions, vitamin D has been proposed to be an important mediator of the immune system. Despite ample sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent (>80%) in the Middle East, resulting in a high rate of supplementation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the specific regimen prescribed and the potential factors affecting an individual's response to vitamin D supplementation are not well characterized. Our objective is to describe the changes in the blood transcriptome and explore the potential mechanisms associated with vitamin D3 supplementation in one hundred vitamin D-deficient women who were given a weekly oral dose (50,000 IU) of vitamin D3 for three months. A high-throughput targeted PCR, composed of 264 genes representing the important blood transcriptomic fingerprints of health and disease states, was performed on pre and post-supplementation blood samples to profile the molecular response to vitamin D3. We identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were strongly modulated by vitamin D3 supplementation. Network analyses showed significant changes in the immune-related pathways such as TLR4/CD14 and IFN receptors, and catabolic processes related to NF-kB, which were subsequently confirmed by gene ontology enrichment analyses. We proposed a model for vitamin D3 response based on the expression changes of molecules involved in the receptor-mediated intra-cellular signaling pathways and the ensuing predicted effects on cytokine production. Overall, vitamin D3 has a strong effect on the immune system, G-coupled protein receptor signaling, and the ubiquitin system. We highlighted the major molecular changes and biological processes induced by vitamin D3, which will help to further investigate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation among individuals in the Middle East as well as other regions.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol/genetics , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Vitamin D/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nutrition Therapy , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Young Adult
11.
Life Sci ; 276: 119437, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157592

ABSTRACT

In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a decreased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells and their mediated factors lead to a hyperinflammatory state due to overactivation of the inflammatory cells and factors during the infection. In the current study, we evaluated the Nanocurcumin effects on the Treg cell population and corresponding factors in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. To investigate the Nanocurcumin effects, 80 COVID-19 patients (40 at the severe stage and 40 at the mild stage) were selected and classified into Nanocurcumin and placebo arms. In both the Nanocurcumin and placebo groups, the Treg cell frequency, the gene expression of Treg transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), and cytokines (IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-ß), as well as the serum levels of cytokines were measured before and after treatment. In both mild and severe COVID-19 patients, Nanocurcumin could considerably upregulate the frequency of Treg cells, the expression levels of FoxP3, IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-ß, as well as the serum secretion levels of cytokines in the Nanocurcumin-treated group compared to the placebo group. The abovementioned factors were remarkably increased in the post-treatment with Nanocurcumin before pre-treatment conditions. By contrast, it has been observed no notable alteration in the placebo group. Our findings revealed the SinaCurcumin® effective function in a significant increase in the number of Treg cells and their mediated factors in the Nanocurcumin group than in the placebo group in both mild and severe patients. Hence, it would be an efficient therapeutic agent in rehabilitating COVID-19 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nanomedicine/methods , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology
12.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(2): 245-249, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggested that pharmacological inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by ACE inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase local angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the effect of ACEi or ARB treatment on expression of ACE2, ACE, and AGTR1 in 3-month protocol kidney allograft biopsies of stable patients using RT-qPCR (n = 48). Protein ACE2 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry from paraffin sections. RESULTS: The therapy with RAAS blockers was not associated with increased ACE2, ACE, or ATGR1 expression in kidney allografts and also ACE2 protein immunohistochemistry did not reveal differences among groups. CONCLUSIONS: ACEis or ARBs in kidney transplant recipients do not affect local ACE2 expression. This observation supports long-term RAAS treatment in kidney transplant recipients, despite acute complications such as COVID-19 where ACE2 serves as the entry protein for infection.


Subject(s)
Allografts/drug effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Gene Expression/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Allografts/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects
13.
Hypertens Res ; 44(8): 955-968, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139738

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protects against organ damage in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases by counter regulating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). ACE2 is also the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Based on the claim that RAS inhibitors (RASIs) cause ACE2 overexpression in some animal experiments, concerns have arisen that RASIs may aggravate SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease-2019 severity in RASI-treated patients. To achieve a comprehensive review, a systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted regarding the effects of RASIs on tissue ACE2 mRNA/protein expression in healthy animals and animal models of human diseases. We identified 88 eligible articles involving 168 experiments in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and other organs. Three of 38 experiments involving healthy animals showed ACE2 expression greater than twice that of the control (overexpression). Among 102 disease models (130 experiments), baseline ACE2 was overexpressed in 16 models (18 experiments) and less than half the control level (repression) in 28 models (40 experiments). In 72 experiments, RASIs did not change ACE2 levels from the baseline levels of disease models. RASIs caused ACE2 overexpression compared to control levels in seven experiments, some of which were unsupported by other experiments under similar conditions. In 36 experiments, RASIs reversed or prevented disease-induced ACE2 repression, yielding no or marginal changes. Therefore, ACE2 overexpression appears to be a rare rather than common consequence of RASI treatment in healthy animals and disease models. Future studies should clarify the pathophysiological significance of RASI-induced reversal or prevention of ACE2 repression in disease models.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , MEDLINE , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects
14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(2): L246-L253, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088311

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing threat to public health. Since the identification of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, no drugs have been developed to specifically target SARS-CoV-2. To develop effective and safe treatment options, a better understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection is required. To fill this knowledge gap, researchers require reliable experimental systems that express the host factor proteins necessary for the cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2. These proteins include the viral receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the proteases, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and furin. A number of studies have reported cell-type-specific expression of the genes encoding these molecules. However, less is known about the protein expression of these molecules. We assessed the suitability of primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells maintained in an air-liquid interface (ALI) as an experimental system for studying SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. During cellular differentiation, we measured the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and furin over progressive ALI days by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining. We also explored the effect of the fibrotic cytokine TGF-ß on the expression of these proteins in well-differentiated HBE cells. Like ACE2, TMPRSS2 and furin proteins are localized in differentiated ciliated cells, as confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. These data suggest that well-differentiated HBE cells maintained in ALI are a reliable in vitro system for investigating cellular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We further identified that the profibrotic mediators, TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß2, increase the expression of furin, which is a protease required for the cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , Furin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/drug effects , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Disease Susceptibility , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Furin/genetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta2/pharmacology , Virus Internalization
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 866, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069107

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a global public health threat. The efficacy of several repurposed drugs has been evaluated in clinical trials. Among these drugs, a second-generation antiandrogen agent, enzalutamide, was proposed because it reduces the expression of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a key component mediating SARS-CoV-2-driven entry, in prostate cancer cells. However, definitive evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of enzalutamide in COVID-19 is lacking. Here, we evaluated the antiviral efficacy of enzalutamide in prostate cancer cells, lung cancer cells, human lung organoids and Ad-ACE2-transduced mice. Tmprss2 knockout significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. Enzalutamide effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in human prostate cells, however, such antiviral efficacy was lacking in human lung cells and organoids. Accordingly, enzalutamide showed no antiviral activity due to the AR-independent TMPRSS2 expression in mouse and human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, we observed distinct AR binding patterns between prostate cells and lung cells and a lack of direct binding of AR to TMPRSS2 regulatory locus in human lung cells. Thus, our findings do not support the postulated protective role of enzalutamide in treating COVID-19 through reducing TMPRSS2 expression in lung cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Organ Specificity/genetics , Phenylthiohydantoin/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Benzamides , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mice, Knockout , Nitriles , Pandemics , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5453, 2020 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894390

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the ongoing severe acute respiratory disease pandemic COVID-19. Tissue and cellular tropism is one key to understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. We investigate the expression and subcellular localization of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), within the upper (nasal) and lower (pulmonary) respiratory tracts of human donors using a diverse panel of banked tissues. Here, we report our discovery that the ACE2 receptor protein robustly localizes within the motile cilia of airway epithelial cells, which likely represents the initial or early subcellular site of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry during host respiratory transmission. We further determine whether ciliary ACE2 expression in the upper airway is influenced by patient demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, or medication use, and show the first mechanistic evidence that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) does not increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection through enhancing the expression of ciliary ACE2 receptor. These findings are crucial to our understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 for prevention and control of this virulent pathogen.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cilia/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelial Cells , Goblet Cells/metabolism , Humans , Lung/pathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , Sex Factors , Sinusitis/metabolism , Smoking
17.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873466

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence shows that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sensitive to interferons (IFNs). However, the most effective types of IFNs and the underlying antiviral effectors remain to be defined. Here, we show that zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP), which preferentially targets CpG dinucleotides in viral RNA sequences, restricts SARS-CoV-2. We further demonstrate that ZAP and its cofactors KHNYN and TRIM25 are expressed in human lung cells. Type I, II, and III IFNs all strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and further induced ZAP expression. Comprehensive sequence analyses revealed that SARS-CoV-2 and its closest relatives from horseshoe bats showed the strongest CpG suppression among all known human and bat coronaviruses, respectively. Nevertheless, endogenous ZAP expression restricted SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells, particularly upon treatment with IFN-α or IFN-γ. Both the long and the short isoforms of human ZAP reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA expression levels, but the former did so with greater efficiency. Finally, we show that the ability to restrict SARS-CoV-2 is conserved in ZAP orthologues of the reservoir bat and potential intermediate pangolin hosts of human coronaviruses. Altogether, our results show that ZAP is an important effector of the innate response against SARS-CoV-2, although this pandemic pathogen emerged from zoonosis of a coronavirus that was preadapted to the low-CpG environment in humans.IMPORTANCE Although interferons inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and have been evaluated for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the most effective types and antiviral effectors remain to be defined. Here, we show that IFN-γ is particularly potent in restricting SARS-CoV-2 and in inducing expression of the antiviral factor ZAP in human lung cells. Knockdown experiments revealed that endogenous ZAP significantly restricts SARS-CoV-2. We further show that CpG dinucleotides which are specifically targeted by ZAP are strongly suppressed in the SARS-CoV-2 genome and that the two closest horseshoe bat relatives of SARS-CoV-2 show the lowest genomic CpG content of all coronavirus sequences available from this reservoir host. Nonetheless, both the short and long isoforms of human ZAP reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels, and this activity was conserved in horseshoe bat and pangolin ZAP orthologues. Our findings indicating that type II interferon is particularly efficient against SARS-CoV-2 and that ZAP restricts this pandemic viral pathogen might promote the development of effective immune therapies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , CpG Islands , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/physiology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genome, Viral , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Protein Isoforms , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110816, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856479

ABSTRACT

After the first case of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, COVID-19 has rapidly spread to almost all parts of world. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor can bind to spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Then, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 can be cleaved and activated by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) of the host cells for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are potential antiviral targets for treatment of prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we discovered that 10-250 µg/mL of GB-2, from Tian Shang Sheng Mu of Chiayi Puzi Peitian Temple, can inhibit ACE2 mRNA expression and ACE2 and TMPRSS2 protein expression in HepG2 and 293 T cells without cytotoxicity. GB-2 treatment could decrease ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression level of lung tissue and kidney tissue without adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, in animal model. In the compositions of GB-2, we discovered that 50 µg/mL of theaflavin could inhibit protein expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Theaflavin could inhibit the mRNA expression of ACE2. In conclusion, our results suggest that GB-2 and theaflavin could act as potential compounds for ACE2 and TMPRSS2 inhibitors in the further clinical study.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Gene Expression/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(16): 2511-2530, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823620

ABSTRACT

ShuFeng JieDu capsule (SFJDC), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been recommended for the treatment of COVID-19 infections. However, the pharmacological mechanism of SFJDC still remains vague to date. The active ingredients and their target genes of SFJDC were collected from TCMSP. COVID-19 is a type of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP). NCP-related target genes were collected from GeneCards database. The ingredients-targets network of SFJDC and PPI networks were constructed. The candidate genes were screened by Venn diagram package for enrichment analysis. The gene-pathway network was structured to obtain key target genes. In total, 124 active ingredients, 120 target genes of SFJDC and 251 NCP-related target genes were collected. The functional annotations cluster 1 of 23 candidate genes (CGs) were related to lung and Virus infection. RELA, MAPK1, MAPK14, CASP3, CASP8 and IL6 were the key target genes. The results suggested that SFJDC cloud be treated COVID-19 by multi-compounds and multi-pathways, and this study showed that the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of disease from the overall perspective.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19 , Capsules/pharmacology , Caspase 3/genetics , Caspase 8/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factor RelA/genetics
20.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(3)2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827715

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of pneumonia, including coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-induced pneumonia. Evidence of the benefits of vitamin C (VC) for the treatment of sepsis is accumulating. However, data revealing the targets and molecular mechanisms of VC action against sepsis are limited. In this report, a bioinformatics analysis of network pharmacology was conducted to demonstrate screening targets, biological functions, and the signaling pathways of VC action against sepsis. As shown in network assays, 63 primary causal targets for the VC action against sepsis were identified from the data, and four optimal core targets for the VC action against sepsis were identified. These core targets were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPK1), proto-oncogene c (JUN), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). In addition, all biological processes (including a top 20) and signaling pathways (including a top 20) potentially involved in the VC action against sepsis were identified. The hub genes potentially involved in the VC action against sepsis and interlaced networks from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Mapper assays were highlighted. Considering all the bioinformatic findings, we conclude that VC antisepsis effects are mechanistically and pharmacologically implicated with suppression of immune dysfunction-related and inflammation-associated functional processes and other signaling pathways. These primary predictive biotargets may potentially be used to treat sepsis in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Computational Biology , Sepsis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/metabolism
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