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1.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742339

ABSTRACT

To develop adenoviral cell- or tissue-specific gene delivery, understanding of the infection mechanisms of adenoviruses is crucial. Several adenoviral attachment proteins such as CD46, CAR and sialic acid have been identified and studied. However, most receptor studies were performed on non-human cells. Combining our reporter gene-tagged adenovirus library with an in vitro human gene knockout model, we performed a systematic analysis of receptor usage comparing different adenoviruses side-by-side. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to knockout CD46 and CAR in the human lung epithelial carcinoma cell line A549. Knockout cells were infected with 22 luciferase-expressing adenoviruses derived from adenovirus species B, C, D and E. HAdV-B16, -B21 and -B50 from species B1 as well as HAdV-B34 and -B35 were found to be CD46-dependent. HAdV-C5 and HAdV-E4 from species E were found to be CAR-dependent. Regarding cell entry of HAdV-B3 and -B14 and all species D viruses, both CAR and CD46 play a role, and here, other receptors or attachment structures may also be important since transductions were reduced but not completely inhibited. The established human knockout cell model enables the identification of the most applicable adenovirus types for gene therapy and to further understand adenovirus infection biology.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Adenoviruses, Human , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , Cell Communication , Cell Line , Gene Library , Humans
2.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110242, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588137

ABSTRACT

Characterization of COVID-19 antibodies has largely focused on memory B cells; however, it is the antibody-secreting plasma cells that are directly responsible for the production of serum antibodies, which play a critical role in resolving SARS-CoV-2 infection. Little is known about the specificity of plasma cells, largely because plasma cells lack surface antibody expression, thereby complicating their screening. Here, we describe a technology pipeline that integrates single-cell antibody repertoire sequencing and mammalian display to interrogate the specificity of plasma cells from 16 convalescent patients. Single-cell sequencing allows us to profile antibody repertoire features and identify expanded clonal lineages. Mammalian display screening is used to reveal that 43 antibodies (of 132 candidates) derived from expanded plasma cell lineages are specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including antibodies with high affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) that exhibit potent neutralization and broad binding to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 variants (of concern/interest).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Plasma Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Gene Library , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Mammals , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Library , Plasma Cells/chemistry
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463835

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we provide a retrospective genomic epidemiology analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We gathered publicly available data from GISAID and sequenced 1927 new genomes sampled periodically from March 2021 to June 2021 from 91 out of the 92 cities of the state. Our results showed that the pandemic was characterized by three different phases driven by a successive replacement of lineages. Interestingly, we noticed that viral supercarriers accounted for the overwhelming majority of the circulating virus (>90%) among symptomatic individuals in the state. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance also revealed the emergence and spread of two new variants (P.5 and P.1.2), firstly reported in this study. Our findings provided important lessons learned from the different epidemiological aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 dynamic in Rio de Janeiro. Altogether, this might have a strong potential to shape future decisions aiming to improve public health management and understanding mechanisms underlying virus dispersion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Hotspot , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Gene Library , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
Elife ; 102021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441361

ABSTRACT

High-throughput genomics of SARS-CoV-2 is essential to characterize virus evolution and to identify adaptations that affect pathogenicity or transmission. While single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) are commonly considered as driving virus adaption, RNA recombination events that delete or insert nucleic acid sequences are also critical. Whole genome targeting sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 is typically achieved using pairs of primers to generate cDNA amplicons suitable for next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, paired-primer approaches impose constraints on where primers can be designed, how many amplicons are synthesized and requires multiple PCR reactions with non-overlapping primer pools. This imparts sensitivity to underlying SNVs and fails to resolve RNA recombination junctions that are not flanked by primer pairs. To address these limitations, we have designed an approach called 'Tiled-ClickSeq', which uses hundreds of tiled-primers spaced evenly along the virus genome in a single reverse-transcription reaction. The other end of the cDNA amplicon is generated by azido-nucleotides that stochastically terminate cDNA synthesis, removing the need for a paired-primer. A sequencing adaptor containing a Unique Molecular Identifier (UMI) is appended to the cDNA fragment using click-chemistry and a PCR reaction generates a final NGS library. Tiled-ClickSeq provides complete genome coverage, including the 5'UTR, at high depth and specificity to the virus on both Illumina and Nanopore NGS platforms. Here, we analyze multiple SARS-CoV-2 isolates and clinical samples to simultaneously characterize minority variants, sub-genomic mRNAs (sgmRNAs), structural variants (SVs) and D-RNAs. Tiled-ClickSeq therefore provides a convenient and robust platform for SARS-CoV-2 genomics that captures the full range of RNA species in a single, simple assay.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Coronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , DNA, Complementary , Gene Library , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Nanopores , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Whole Genome Sequencing
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(1): 44-57.e9, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385265

ABSTRACT

Antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) are being developed as therapeutics and are a major contributor to neutralizing antibody responses elicited by infection. Here, we describe a deep mutational scanning method to map how all amino-acid mutations in the RBD affect antibody binding and apply this method to 10 human monoclonal antibodies. The escape mutations cluster on several surfaces of the RBD that broadly correspond to structurally defined antibody epitopes. However, even antibodies targeting the same surface often have distinct escape mutations. The complete escape maps predict which mutations are selected during viral growth in the presence of single antibodies. They further enable the design of escape-resistant antibody cocktails-including cocktails of antibodies that compete for binding to the same RBD surface but have different escape mutations. Therefore, complete escape-mutation maps enable rational design of antibody therapeutics and assessment of the antigenic consequences of viral evolution.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Library , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7267-7279, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298981

ABSTRACT

We performed in vitro selection experiments to identify DNA aptamers for the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1 protein). Using a pool of pre-structured random DNA sequences, we obtained over 100 candidate aptamers after 13 cycles of enrichment under progressively more stringent selection pressure. The top 10 sequences all exhibited strong binding to the S1 protein. Two aptamers, named MSA1 (Kd = 1.8 nM) and MSA5 (Kd = 2.7 nM), were assessed for binding to the heat-treated S1 protein, untreated S1 protein spiked into 50% human saliva and the trimeric spike protein of both the wildtype and the B.1.1.7 variant, demonstrating comparable affinities in all cases. MSA1 and MSA5 also recognized the pseudotyped lentivirus of SARS-CoV-2 with respective Kd values of 22.7 pM and 11.8 pM. Secondary structure prediction and sequence truncation experiments revealed that both MSA1 and MSA5 adopted a hairpin structure, which was the motif pre-designed into the original library. A colorimetric sandwich assay was developed using MSA1 as both the recognition element and detection element, which was capable of detecting the pseudotyped lentivirus in 50% saliva with a limit of detection of 400 fM, confirming the potential of these aptamers as diagnostic tools for COVID-19 detection.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19/virology , Gene Library , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/genetics , Base Pairing , Base Sequence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , SELEX Aptamer Technique
7.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256665

ABSTRACT

Several recently developed high-throughput techniques have changed the field of molecular virology. For example, proteomics studies reveal complete interactomes of a viral protein, genome-wide CRISPR knockout and activation screens probe the importance of every single human gene in aiding or fighting a virus, and ChIP-seq experiments reveal genome-wide epigenetic changes in response to infection. Deep mutational scanning is a relatively novel form of protein science which allows the in-depth functional analysis of every nucleotide within a viral gene or genome, revealing regions of importance, flexibility, and mutational potential. In this review, we discuss the application of this technique to RNA viruses including members of the Flaviviridae family, Influenza A Virus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. We also briefly discuss the reverse genetics systems which allow for analysis of viral replication cycles, next-generation sequencing technologies and the bioinformatics tools that facilitate this research.


Subject(s)
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation/genetics , RNA Viruses/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Computational Biology , Gene Library , Genome, Viral/genetics , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/physiology , Reverse Genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
8.
Cell ; 184(11): 2927-2938.e11, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213071

ABSTRACT

Defining long-term protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is one of the most pressing questions of our time and will require a detailed understanding of potential ways this virus can evolve to escape immune protection. Immune protection will most likely be mediated by antibodies that bind to the viral entry protein, spike (S). Here, we used Phage-DMS, an approach that comprehensively interrogates the effect of all possible mutations on binding to a protein of interest, to define the profile of antibody escape to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein using coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma. Antibody binding was common in two regions, the fusion peptide and the linker region upstream of the heptad repeat region 2. However, escape mutations were variable within these immunodominant regions. There was also individual variation in less commonly targeted epitopes. This study provides a granular view of potential antibody escape pathways and suggests there will be individual variation in antibody-mediated virus evolution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Algorithms , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Gene Library , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1577, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132068

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new recently emerged sarbecovirus. This virus uses the human ACE2 enzyme as receptor for cell entry, recognizing it with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the viral spike protein. We present the use of phage display to select anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies from the human naïve antibody gene libraries HAL9/10 and subsequent identification of 309 unique fully human antibodies against S1. 17 antibodies are binding to the RBD, showing inhibition of spike binding to cells expressing ACE2 as scFv-Fc and neutralize active SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of VeroE6 cells. The antibody STE73-2E9 is showing neutralization of active SARS-CoV-2 as IgG and is binding to the ACE2-RBD interface. Thus, universal libraries from healthy human donors offer the advantage that antibodies can be generated quickly and independent from the availability of material from recovering patients in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Library , Healthy Volunteers , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptide Library , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
10.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066793

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), has emerged as the cause of a global pandemic. We used RNA sequencing to analyze 286 nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and 53 whole-blood (WB) samples from 333 patients with COVID-19 and controls. Overall, a muted immune response was observed in COVID-19 relative to other infections (influenza, other seasonal coronaviruses, and bacterial sepsis), with paradoxical down-regulation of several key differentially expressed genes. Hospitalized patients and outpatients exhibited up-regulation of interferon-associated pathways, although heightened and more robust inflammatory responses were observed in hospitalized patients with more clinically severe illness. Two-layer machine learning-based host classifiers consisting of complete (>1000 genes), medium (<100), and small (<20) gene biomarker panels identified COVID-19 disease with 85.1-86.5% accuracy when benchmarked using an independent test set. SARS-CoV-2 infection has a distinct biosignature that differs between NP swabs and WB and can be leveraged for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Library , Humans , Machine Learning , RNA, Viral/blood , ROC Curve , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transcriptome
11.
Elife ; 102021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006839

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. T cells play a key role in the adaptive antiviral immune response by killing infected cells and facilitating the selection of virus-specific antibodies. However, neither the dynamics and cross-reactivity of the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response nor the diversity of resulting immune memory is well understood. In this study, we use longitudinal high-throughput T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing to track changes in the T-cell repertoire following two mild cases of COVID-19. In both donors, we identified CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell clones with transient clonal expansion after infection. We describe characteristic motifs in TCR sequences of COVID-19-reactive clones and show preferential occurrence of these motifs in publicly available large dataset of repertoires from COVID-19 patients. We show that in both donors, the majority of infection-reactive clonotypes acquire memory phenotypes. Certain T-cell clones were detected in the memory fraction at the pre-infection time point, suggesting participation of pre-existing cross-reactive memory T cells in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Female , Gene Library , Histocompatibility Testing , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
13.
Virus Res ; 291: 198201, 2021 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867169

ABSTRACT

Here a bioinformatic pipeline VVV has been developed to analyse viral populations in a given sample from Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data. To date, handling large amounts of data from NGS requires the expertise of bioinformaticians, both for data processing and result analysis. Consequently, VVV was designed to help non-bioinformaticians to perform these tasks. By providing only the NGS data file, the developed pipeline generated consensus sequences and determined the composition of the viral population for an avian Metapneumovirus (AMPV) and three different animal coronaviruses (Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Turkey Coronavirus (TCoV) and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV)). In all cases, the pipeline produced viral consensus genomes corresponding to known consensus sequence and made it possible to highlight the presence of viral genetic variants through a single graphic representation. The method was validated by comparing the viral populations of an AMPV field sample, and of a copy of this virus produced from a DNA clone. VVV demonstrated that the cloned virus population was homogeneous (as designed) at position 2934 where the wild-type virus demonstrated two variant populations at a ratio of almost 50:50. A total of 18, 10, 3 and 28, viral genetic variants were detected for AMPV, PEDV, TCoV and IBV respectively. The simplicity of this pipeline makes the study of viral genetic variants more accessible to a wide variety of biologists, which should ultimately increase the rate of understanding of the mechanisms of viral genetic evolution.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/instrumentation , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Animals , Computer Graphics , Coronavirus/genetics , Gene Library , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Metapneumovirus/genetics , RNA, Viral , Recombination, Genetic
14.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-532726

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory illness in humans; the second-largest and most deadly outbreak to date occurred in Saudi Arabia. The dromedary camel is considered a possible host of the virus and also to act as a reservoir, transmitting the virus to humans. Here, we studied evolutionary relationships for 31 complete genomes of betacoronaviruses, including eight newly sequenced MERS-CoV genomes isolated from dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. Through bioinformatics tools, we also used available sequences and 3D structure of MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein to predict MERS-CoV epitopes and assess antibody binding affinity. Phylogenetic analysis showed the eight new sequences have close relationships with existing strains detected in camels and humans in Arabian Gulf countries. The 2019-nCov strain appears to have higher homology to both bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV than to MERS-CoV strains. The spike protein tree exhibited clustering of MERS-CoV sequences similar to the complete genome tree, except for one sequence from Qatar (KF961222). B cell epitope analysis determined that the MERS-CoV spike protein has 24 total discontinuous regions from which just six epitopes were selected with score values of >80%. Our results suggest that the virus circulates by way of camels crossing the borders of Arabian Gulf countries. This study contributes to finding more effective vaccines in order to provide long-term protection against MERS-CoV and identifying neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biological Evolution , DNA, Complementary/chemistry , DNA, Viral/chemistry , Epitopes/analysis , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Gene Library , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia
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