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1.
J Surg Res ; 277: 92-99, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851661

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The oral general surgery certifying examination (CE) is required for board certification. A curriculum was designed to improve CE passage rates at an academic residency program. Limited literature exists that evaluates a long-term mock oral curriculum for senior residents. This study aims to evaluate the impact of this curriculum on essential elements for clinical practice and CE preparedness. METHODS: The curriculum consisted of weekly meetings with postgraduate year four and postgraduate year five residents (n = 10). Two residents were selected for a video-recorded board-style mock examination with a faculty examiner and peer audience. Each attendee completed a standard evaluation form that assessed score, anxiety, confidence, and medical knowledge. Blood pressure, pulse, and unused time were assessed. A postcurriculum survey was conducted. RESULTS: Medical knowledge had the greatest correlation with overall scores (R2 = 0.733). Positive correlations were seen between confidence and case number for faculty, self, and peer scores (R2 = 0.671, R2 = 0.566, and R2 = 0.729, respectively). There was a positive correlation between confidence and medical knowledge (R2 = 0.575). There was a significant difference between the overall score of nontachycardic versus tachycardic residents (P = 0.00994). CONCLUSIONS: Residents demonstrated increasing confidence as they progressed through the curriculum by self-reported and objective measures. Residents demonstrated improvements in overall scores. Future directions will examine results of the 2-y curriculum experience and CE passage rates to verify that a standardized, structured, weekly, longitudinal curriculum is beneficial for CE preparedness and clinical practice.


Subject(s)
General Surgery , Internship and Residency , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , General Surgery/education , Humans , Pilot Projects
2.
J Surg Educ ; 79(2): 426-430, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Prior to 2015 residents in our Accreditation Council for Graduation Medical Education (ACGME) colon and rectal surgery training program were in charge of managing, with faculty oversight, the outpatient anorectal clinic at our institution. Starting in 2015 advanced practice providers (APPs) working in the division assumed management of the clinic. The effect of APPs on ACGME resident index diagnostic case volumes has not been explored. Herein we examine ACGME case log graduate statistics to determine if the inclusion of APPs into our anorectal clinic practice has negatively affected resident index diagnostic anorectal case volumes. DESIGN: ACGME year-end program reports were obtained for the years 2011 to 2019. Program anorectal diagnostic index volumes were recorded and compared to division volumes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests were conducted to assess whether the number of cases per year (for each respective case type) prior to the introduction of APPs into the anorectal clinic (2011-2014) differed from the number of cases per year with the APP clinic in place (2015-2018). A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. SETTING: Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (quaternary referral center). PARTICIPANTS: Colon and rectal surgery resident year-end ACGME reports (2011-2019). RESULTS: ANOVAs revealed a marginally significant (p = 0.007) downtrend for hemorrhoid diagnostic codes, and a significant uptrend (p = 0.000) for fistula cases. Controlling for overall division volume, ANCOVA only reveled significance for fistula cases (p = 0.004) with the involvement of APPs. CONCLUSIONS: At our institution we found the inclusion of APPs into our anorectal clinic practice did not negatively affect colon and rectal surgery resident ACGME index diagnostic anorectal case volumes. Inclusion of APPs into a multidisciplinary practice can promote resident education by allowing trainees to pursue other educational opportunities without hindering ACGME index case volumes.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , General Surgery , Internship and Residency , Accreditation , Clinical Competence , Colon , Education, Medical, Graduate , General Surgery/education , Humans
3.
4.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(2): 191-202, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical patients with limited digital literacy may experience reduced telemedicine access. We investigated racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in telemedicine compared with in-person surgical consultation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of new visits within the Division of General & Gastrointestinal Surgery at an academic medical center occurring between March 24 through June 23, 2020 (Phase I, Massachusetts Public Health Emergency) and June 24 through December 31, 2020 (Phase II, relaxation of restrictions on healthcare operations) was performed. Visit modality (telemedicine/phone vs in-person) and demographic data were extracted. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and visit modality. RESULTS: During Phase I, 347 in-person and 638 virtual visits were completed. Multivariable modeling demonstrated no significant differences in virtual compared with in-person visit use across racial/ethnic or insurance groups. Among patients using virtual visits, Latinx patients were less likely to have video compared with audio-only visits than White patients (OR, 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.96). Black race and insurance type were not significant predictors of video use. During Phase II, 2,922 in-person and 1,001 virtual visits were completed. Multivariable modeling demonstrated that Black patients (OR, 1.52; 95% CI 1.12-2.06) were more likely to have virtual visits than White patients. No significant differences were observed across insurance types. Among patients using virtual visits, race/ethnicity and insurance type were not significant predictors of video use. CONCLUSION: Black patients used telemedicine platforms more often than White patients during the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Virtual consultation may help increase access to surgical care among traditionally under-resourced populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Computer Literacy , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Telephone/statistics & numerical data
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 59-65, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The outcomes of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection remain unknown. With a multicenter study in 361 hospitals from 52 countries, we sought to study the mortality and pulmonary complications of COVID-19 patients undergoing EGS. METHODS: All patients 17 years or older and diagnosed preoperatively with COVID-19 between February and July 2020 were included. Emergency general surgery was defined as the urgent/emergent performance of appendectomy, cholecystectomy, or laparotomy. The main outcomes were 30-day mortality and 30-day pulmonary complications (a composite of acute respiratory distress syndrome, unexpected mechanical ventilation, or pneumonia). Planned subgroup analyses were performed based on presence of preoperative COVID-related respiratory findings (e.g., cough, dyspnea, need for oxygen therapy, chest radiology abnormality). RESULTS: A total of 1,045 patients were included, of which 40.1% were female and 50.0% were older than 50 years; 461 (44.1%), 145 (13.9%), and 439 (42.0%) underwent appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and laparotomy, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (158 of 1,045 patients), and the overall pulmonary complication rate was 32.9% (344 of 1,045 patients); in the subgroup of laparotomy patients, the rates were 30.6% (134 of 438 patients) and 59.2% (260 of 439 patients), respectively. Subgroup analyses found mortality and pulmonary complication risk to be especially increased in patients with preoperative respiratory findings. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients undergoing EGS have significantly high rates of mortality and pulmonary complications, but the risk is most pronounced in those with preoperative respiratory findings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Surgery , Appendectomy/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Cholecystectomy/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Surg Res ; 270: 261-265, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social distancing recommendations from the WHO during the pandemic has resulted in a pivot point in the delivery of medical education. With the medical student clinical experience constantly under threat; novel methods to maintain adequate surgical patient exposure and student interaction on a platform amenable to the interactive format required were devised using a virtual platform to compliment current pedagogical approaches. METHODS: A parallel randomized controlled trial evaluated the perceived use of remote learning in place of bedside teaching. Participants were randomized to undergo surgical bedside teaching in person or virtually. Feedback questionnaires and exit interviews carried out following each session. Content analysis of transcripts was performed to evaluate the presence and quality of perceived learning, benefits and limitations to each modality. RESULTS: Feedback demonstrated greater engagement, satisfaction, involvement and learning (P < 0.001) in the bedside teaching group. Content analysis yielded three main themes; Technological, Interpersonal Component, Provision of Content. Participants in the virtual group reported a limited ability to elicit clinically relevant findings in surgical patients. Students however reported the virtual teaching was an acceptable method of learning with 90% satisfaction reported for learning via the virtual platform. DISCUSSION: The pandemic posed challenges to adequate student-patient exposure. Delivering surgical bedside teaching remotely is a method amenable to learning for students, with advantages including convenience, fewer reports of information fatigue, and decreased perceived pressure identified with this learning modality.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , General Surgery/education , Students, Medical , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics
8.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(2): e601, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1543099

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Desde el inicio de la pandemia Covid-19 la enseñanza de clínica quirúrgica ha representado un gran desafío y motivó el desarrollo de encuentros clínicos virtuales. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comunicar una forma novedosa en Uruguay de docencia virtual de Clínica Quirúrgica y su evaluación de los estudiantes. Métodos: Los encuentros clínicos virtuales son una herramienta educativa basada en situaciones clínicas reales donde el estudiante fue protagonista de la actividad. Los encuentros se realizaron con frecuencia semanal y 2 horas de duración, utilizado la plataforma Zoom. Al finalizar la actividad se realizó una encuesta de satisfacción a los estudiantes y los resultados resumidos en porcentajes. Resultados: Participaron 90 estudiantes y 10 docentes. Se realizaron 12 encuentros clínicos virtuales. Esta actividad fue considerada importante por el 88,5% de los estudiantes en su proceso de aprendizaje. La dinámica con mayor aceptación fue las viñetas con preguntas en tiempo real (59,6%), seguido de bases teóricas con preguntas en tiempo real (17,3%) y el análisis de caso clínico por grupo (15,4%). La sugerencia más importante es que se mantenga esta actividad independientemente del reintegro a la presencialidad en el futuro. Conclusión: La utilización de los encuentros clínicos virtuales ha demostrado ser una herramienta alternativa a las actividades presenciales durante la pandemia Covid-19 y en el futuro se convertirá en un complemento significativo dada la alta aceptación tanto por parte de los estudiantes como docentes.


Introduction: Since the beginning of the covid-19 pandemic, teaching surgical clinics has represented a great challenge and this motivated the development of virtual clinical meetings. The objective of this work is to communicate a new way in Uruguay of approaching the virtual teaching of Surgical Clinics and its evaluation by students. Methods: Virtual clinical encounters is an educational tool based on real clinical situations where the student was the protagonist of the activity. With a weekly frequency and 2 hours of duration, using the Zoom platform. At the end of the activity, a student satisfaction survey was carried out and the results summarized in percentages. Results: 90 students and 10 teachers participated.12 virtual clinical meetings were held. This activity was considered important by 88.5% of the students in their learning process. The dynamics with the highest acceptance were the vignettes with questions in real time (59.6%), followed by theoretical bases with questions in real time (17.3%) and the analysis of clinical case by group (15.4%). The most important suggestion is that this activity be maintained regardless of the reinstatement to the presence in the future. Conclusion: The use of virtual clinical meetings has proven to be an alternative tool to face-to-face activities during the covid-19 pandemic and in the future it will become a significant complement given the high acceptance by both students and teachers.


Introdução: Desde o início da pandemia covid-19, ensinar clínica cirúrgica tem representado um grande desafio e isso motivou o desenvolvimento de reuniões clínicas virtuais. O objetivo deste trabalho é comunicar uma nova forma no Uruguai de abordar o ensino virtual de Clínicas Cirúrgicas e sua avaliação pelos alunos. Métodos: O Encontro Clínico Virtual é uma ferramenta educacional baseada em situações clínicas reais onde o aluno foi o protagonista da atividade. Com frequência semanal e 2 horas de duração, utilizando a plataforma Zoom. No final da atividade, foi realizado um inquérito de satisfação dos alunos e os resultados resumidos em percentagens. Resultados: Participaram 90 alunos e 10 professores.12 reuniões clínicas virtuais foram realizadas. Essa atividade foi considerada importante por 88,5% dos alunos em seu processo de aprendizagem. As dinâmicas com maior aceitação foram as vinhetas com questões em tempo real (59,6%), seguidas das bases teóricas com questões em tempo real (17,3%) e a análise do caso clínico por grupo (15,4%). A sugestão mais importante é que essa atividade seja mantida independentemente de um retorno à presença no futuro. Conclusão: O uso de reuniões clínicas virtuais provou ser uma ferramenta alternativa às atividades presenciais durante a pandemia covid-19 e, no futuro, se tornará um complemento significativo, dada a alta aceitação por alunos e professores.


Subject(s)
Humans , General Surgery/education , Education, Medical/trends , Uruguay , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Distance , Evaluation Study , COVID-19/epidemiology
9.
Surg Clin North Am ; 102(1): 1-21, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525955

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to rampage around the world. Noncritical care-trained physicians may be deployed into the intensive care unit to manage these complex patients. Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, it is also associated with significant pathology in the brain, heart, vasculature, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. This article provides an overview of COVID-19 using an organ-based, systematic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , General Surgery , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units
10.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 73(5): 460-466, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513377

ABSTRACT

Inevitably, along with other healthcare specializations, pediatric surgery was affected by the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Children were reported to manifest mild to moderate symptoms and mortality was primarily observed in patients aged <1 year and having underlying comorbidities. Most of the cases were asymptomatic in children, hence, posing a challenge for pediatric surgery centers to take drastic measures to reduce the virus transmission. Telemedicine was introduced and out-patient consultations were conducted online as out-patient clinics were closed. Elective surgeries were postponed with delayed appointments while the healthcare sector was diverted towards tackling COVID-19. Case urgency was classified and triaged, leading to limited surgeries being performed only in COVID-19 negative patients following an extensive screening process. The screening process consisted of online history taking and RT-PCR tests. Newer practices such as mouth rinse, video laryngoscopy, and anesthesia were introduced to restrict patients from crying, coughing, and sneezing, as an attempt to avoid aerosolization of viral particles and safely conduct pediatric surgeries during the pandemic. Surgical trainees were also affected as the smaller number of surgeries conducted reduced the clinical experience available to medical enthusiasts. There is still room for advanced practices to be introduced in pediatric surgery and restore all kinds of surgeries to improve the quality of life of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Elective Surgical Procedures , General Surgery/education , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Patient Selection , Pediatrics/education , Preoperative Care/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Triage
11.
Can J Surg ; 64(6): E613-E614, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511844

ABSTRACT

Most institutions have mitigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on residency education by transitioning to web-based educational platforms and using innovative solutions, such as surgical video libraries, telehealth clinics, online question banks via social media platforms, and procedural simulations. Here, we assess the perceived impact of COVID-19 on Canadian surgical residency education and discuss the unique challenges in adapting to a virtual format and how novel training methods implemented during the pandemic may be useful in the future of surgical education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Canada , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Distance/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 489-497, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has caused significant surgical delays as institutions minimize patient exposure to hospital settings and utilization of health care resources. We aimed to assess changes in surgical case mix and outcomes due to restructuring during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients undergoing surgery at a single tertiary care institution in the Deep South were identified using institutional ACS-NSQIP data. Primary outcome was case mix. Secondary outcomes were post-operative complications. Chi-square, ANOVA, logistic regression, and linear regression were used to compare the control (pre-COVID, Mar 2018-Mar 2020) and case (during COVID, Mar 2020-Mar 2021) groups. RESULTS: Overall, there were 6912 patients (control: 4,800 and case: 2112). Patients were 70% white, 29% black, 60% female, and 39% privately insured. Mean BMI was 30.2 (SD = 7.7) with mean age of 58.3 years (SD = 14.8). Most surgeries were with general surgery (48%), inpatient (68%), and elective (83%). On multivariable logistic regression, patients undergoing surgery during the pandemic were more likely to be male (OR: 1.14) and in SIRS (OR: 2.07) or sepsis (OR: 2.28) at the time of surgery. Patients were less likely to have dyspnea with moderate exertion (OR: .75) and were less dependent on others (partially dependent OR: .49 and totally dependent OR: .15). Surgeries were more likely to be outpatient (OR: 1.15) and with neurosurgery (OR: 1.19). On bivariate analysis, there were no differences in post-operative outcomes. CONCLUSION: Surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic were more often outpatient without differences in post-operative outcomes. Additional analysis is needed to determine the impact of duration of operative delay on surgical outcomes with restructuring focusing more on outpatient surgeries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Pandemics , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alabama , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Can J Surg ; 64(5): E543-E549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to many new provincial public health measures to reallocate resources in response to an impending surge of cases. These necessary decisions had several downstream effects on general surgery training. We surveyed the actions taken by Canadian general surgery training programs in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A mixed-methods survey was sent to all general surgery program directors to assess various domains in surgical education and modifications made because of the pandemic. Responses were quantified as proportions or qualitative narratives describing those changes. RESULTS: Most programs (13/15) recalled residents from planned rotations and redistributed them to rotations considered as core required services, including acute care surgery, trauma surgery and intensive care. Many programs also restructured their acute care surgery models to allow for a group of "reserve" residents to replace trainees who became infected with SARS-CoV-2. In terms of clinical experience, there was a reduction in both clinical and operative exposure among trainees. The reduction in clinical exposure disproportionately affected junior residents, whose involvement in COVID-19 cases was restricted. Formal educational sessions were maintained, but delivered virtually. Many programs instituted a program of increased frequency of communication with trainees. CONCLUSION: Many programs embraced using virtual platforms for teaching. The demonstrated utility of virtual teaching may lead to rethinking how training programs deliver didactic teaching and expand teaching opportunities. However, many programs also perceived a decrease in clinical and procedural exposure, primarily affecting junior residents. More information is needed to quantify the deficit in learning incurred as a result of the pandemic as well as its long-term effects on resident competency.


Subject(s)
General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Canada , Education, Distance , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Minerva Surg ; 77(1): 50-56, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485663

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this systematic review was to report and to analyze if there is and what is the impact of telemedicine in the surgical practice during COVID-19 pandemic. Many authors have posited that the pandemic urged a high implementation of the telemedicine service even in surgical specialties, however, the impact of this change of the clinical practice has been variably reported and its utilization in general surgery is uncertain. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: All articles from any country written in English, Italian, Spanish, or French, about the use of telemedicine for indication to surgical treatment or for 30-day postoperative follow-up in general surgery during the COVID 19 outbreak, from the March 1, 2020, to December 1, 2020, were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Two hundred nine articles were fully analyzed, and 207 further articles were excluded. Finally, 2 articles, both published in October 2020, were included in the present systematic review. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced to review the traditional methods to deliver surgical assistance and urged surgeons to find alternative methods to continue their practice. The literature about this topic is yet scarce and many questions regarding its efficacy in improving patients' health, cost-effectiveness and user satisfaction remain unsolved.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19 , General Surgery , Telemedicine , Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Postoperative Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
15.
J Surg Res ; 270: 187-194, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A core tenet of medical education is the expectation that senior residents will teach junior residents and medical students. However, many general surgery residency programs lack a formalized curriculum to equip trainees with necessary teaching skills. We evaluated the impact of resident-led residents-as-teachers (RAT) workshops (RATW) and assessed adaptability from in-person to virtual delivery. We hypothesized these courses would improve trainees' confidence in their roles as resident-teachers. METHODS: Pre-COVID-19, an in-person workshop for residents (PGY1-5) was conducted over two days. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a virtual RATW for incoming interns (PGY1) was conducted during intern boot camp. Topic fidelity was preserved between the two RATWs. Resident-educators were responsible for content and delivery; the program director and associate program directors served as facilitators only. Surveys were used to evaluate residents' confidence in four core topics. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare quantitative data. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in confidence in all areas following RATW attendance, except for "Teaching in the OR". In sub-analysis, there was a significant improvement in this category among incoming interns post-RATW (P < 0.001). The majority of interns agreed that the RATW helped them transition into their new teaching role and agreed that the resident-led RATW was effective. CONCLUSIONS: A resident-designed and resident-led RAT curriculum in general surgery effectively improves residents' confidence in teaching and is well received by residents. We recommend the implementation of a RAT curriculum in general surgery residency and intern boot camp. The RATW was well adapted to distance-learning format.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Graduate , General Surgery , Internship and Residency , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , General Surgery/education , Humans , Pandemics
16.
J Surg Res ; 270: 208-213, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: MATCH 2021 was short of the classic "in-person" component. Herein, we assess the impact of virtual interviews (VIs) on resident selection, from the perspectives of program directors (PDs) across all surgical specialties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey-based study of ACGME-accredited US residency program directors (PDs) of all surgical specialties. The survey was designed based on a review of relevant literature and inquired about the strengths, limitations, and overall utility of VIs. RESULTS: A total of 365 PDs responded to our survey. Almost all respondents (90%) found VIs to be less expensive than in-person interviews, while only 34% agree that VIs were less time-consuming. Only a median of 5% of interviews was complicated by technical difficulties. Most PDs found it more challenging to assess applicants' fit (75%), personality and communication skills (71%), and commitment to specialty (60%). Only 14% found VIs to be overall better for assessing residency applicants. In future cycles, most PDs are planning to host both virtual and in-person interviews (57%), while 35% and 8% will host exclusive in-person and virtual interviews, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: VIs are a novel way of dealing with the restrictions imposed by COVID-19. Despite their cost and time benefit, they present particular challenges in evaluating residency applicants. A combination of both virtual and in-person interviews will likely be implemented in the coming cycles.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Interviews as Topic , Videoconferencing , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , General Surgery/education , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Surg Res ; 270: 145-150, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 17, 2020 the Association of American Medical Colleges recommended dismissal of medical students from clinical settings due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Third-year (M3) and fourth-year (M4) medical students were at home, M4s were interested in teaching, and residents and faculty had fewer clinical responsibilities due to elective surgery cancellations. To continue M3 access to education, we created a virtual surgery elective (VSE) that aimed to broaden students' exposure to, and elicit interest in, general surgery (GS). METHODS: Faculty, surgical residents, and M4s collaborated to create a 2-wk VSE focusing on self-directed learning and direct interactions with surgery faculty. Each day was dedicated to a specific pathology commonly encountered in GS. A variety of teaching methods were employed including self-directed readings and videos, M4 peer lectures, case-based learning and operative video review with surgery faculty, and weekly surgical conferences. A VSE skills lab was also conducted to teach basic suturing and knot-tying. All lectures and skills labs were via Zoom videoconference (Zoom Video Communications Inc). A post-course anonymous survey sent to all participants assessed changes in their understanding of GS and their interest in GS and surgery overall. RESULTS: Fourteen M3s participated in this elective over two consecutive iterations. The survey response rate was 79%. Ninety-one percent of students believed the course met its learning objectives "well" or "very well." Prior to the course, 27% reported a "good understanding" and 0% a "very good" understanding of GS. Post-course, 100% reported a "good" or "very good" understanding of GS, a statistically significant increase (P = 0.0003). Eighty-two percent reported increased interest in GS and 64% reported an increase in pursuing GS as a career. CONCLUSIONS: As proof of concept, this online course successfully demonstrated virtual medical student education can increase student understanding of GS topics, increase interest in GS, and increase interest in careers in surgery. To broaden student exposure to GS, we plan to integrate archived portions of this course into the regular third-year surgery clerkship and these can also be used to introduce GS in the preclinical years.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , General Surgery/education , Students, Medical , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Humans , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Videoconferencing
18.
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 505-507, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467731

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is reducing the ability to perform surgical procedures worldwide, giving rise to a multitude of ethical, practical and medical dilemmas. Adapting to crisis conditions requires a rethink of traditional best practices in surgical management, delving into an area of unknown risk profiles. Key challenging areas include cancelling elective operations, modifying procedures to adapt local services and updating the consenting process. We aim to provide an ethical rationale to support change in practice and guide future decision-making. Using the four principles approach as a structure, Medline was searched for existing ethical frameworks aimed at resolving conflicting moral duties. Where insufficient data were available, best guidance was sought from educational institutions: National Health Service England and The Royal College of Surgeons. Multiple papers presenting high-quality, reasoned, ethical theory and practice guidance were collected. Using this as a basis to assess current practice, multiple requirements were generated to ensure preservation of ethical integrity when making management decisions. Careful consideration of ethical principles must guide production of local guidance ensuring consistent patient selection thus preserving equality as well as quality of clinical services. A critical issue is balancing the benefit of surgery against the unknown risk of developing COVID-19 and its associated complications. As such, the need for surgery must be sufficiently pressing to proceed with conventional or non-conventional operative management; otherwise, delaying intervention is justified. For delayed operations, it is our duty to quantify the long-term impact on patients' outcome within the constraints of pandemic management and its long-term outlook.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Decision Making/ethics , Ethics, Medical , General Surgery/ethics , Health Equity/ethics , Pandemics/ethics , Patient Selection/ethics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , England , Ethical Analysis , Ethical Theory , Humans , Informed Consent/ethics , Moral Obligations , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Principle-Based Ethics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Surgeons , Surgical Procedures, Operative
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(22)2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456323

ABSTRACT

Skill mix refers to the number and educational experience of nurses working in clinical settings. Authors have used several measures to determine the skill mix, which includes nurse-to-patient ratio and the proportion of baccalaureate-prepared nurses. Observational studies have tested the association between nursing skill mix and patient outcomes (mortality). To date, this body of research has not been subject to systematic review or meta-analysis. The aim of this study is to systematically review and meta-analyse observational and experimental research that tests the association between nursing skill mix and patient mortality in medical and surgical settings. We will search four key electronic databases-MEDLINE [OVID], EMBASE [OVID], CINAHL [EBSCOhost], and ProQuest Central (five databases)-from inception. Title, abstract, and full-text screening will be undertaken independently by at least two researchers using COVIDENCE review management software. We will include studies where the authors report an association between nursing skill mix and outcomes in adult medical and surgical inpatients. Extracted data from included studies will consist measures of nursing skill mix and inpatient mortality outcomes. A meta-analysis will be undertaken if there are at least two studies with similar designs, exposures, and outcomes. The findings will inform future research and workforce planning in health systems internationally.


Subject(s)
Nursing Staff, Hospital , Patients , Adult , Databases, Factual , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nursing Staff, Hospital/standards , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Workforce/statistics & numerical data
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