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2.
J Med Virol ; 94(2): 521-530, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508796

ABSTRACT

Measles is one of the most infectious diseases of humans. It is caused by the measles virus (MeV) and can lead to serious illness, lifelong complications, and even death. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is now available to study molecular epidemiology and identify MeV transmission pathways. In the present study, WGS of 23 MeV strains of genotype H1, collected in Mainland China between 2006 and 2018, were generated and compared to 31 WGSs from the public domain to analyze genomic characteristics, evolutionary rates and date of emergence of H1 genotype. The noncoding region between M and F protein genes (M/F NCR) was the most variable region throughout the genome. Although the nucleotide substitution rate of H1 WGS was around 0.75 × 10-3 substitution per site per year, the M/F NCR had an evolutionary rate three times higher, with 2.44 × 10-3 substitution per site per year. Phylogenetic analysis identified three distinct genetic groups. The Time of the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) of H1 genotype was estimated at approximately 1988, while the first genetic group appeared around 1995 followed by two other genetic groups in 1999-2002. Bayesian skyline plot showed that the genetic diversity of the H1 genotype remained stable even though the number of MeV cases decreased 50 times between 2014 (52 628) and 2020 (993). The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might have some effect on the measles epidemic and further studies will be necessary to assess the genetic diversity of the H1 genotype in a post-COVID area.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Measles virus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genomics , Genotype , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/virology , Measles virus/classification , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21872, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506466

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious viral respiratory illness. This illness is spurred on by a coronavirus known as SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first detected in Asia in late February 2003. The genome of this virus is very similar to the SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the study of SARS-CoV disease and the identification of effective drugs to treat this disease can be new clues for the treatment of SARS-Cov-2. This study aimed to discover novel potential drugs for SARS-CoV disease in order to treating SARS-Cov-2 disease based on a novel systems biology approach. To this end, gene co-expression network analysis was applied. First, the gene co-expression network was reconstructed for 1441 genes, and then two gene modules were discovered as significant modules. Next, a list of miRNAs and transcription factors that target gene co-expression modules' genes were gathered from the valid databases, and two sub-networks formed of transcription factors and miRNAs were established. Afterward, the list of the drugs targeting obtained sub-networks' genes was retrieved from the DGIDb database, and two drug-gene and drug-TF interaction networks were reconstructed. Finally, after conducting different network analyses, we proposed five drugs, including FLUOROURACIL, CISPLATIN, SIROLIMUS, CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, and METHYLDOPA, as candidate drugs for SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus treatment. Moreover, ten miRNAs including miR-193b, miR-192, miR-215, miR-34a, miR-16, miR-16, miR-92a, miR-30a, miR-7, and miR-26b were found to be significant miRNAs in treating SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Computational Biology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genes, Viral , Genetic Techniques , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Systems Biology , Transcription Factors
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20471, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469980

ABSTRACT

Dual-labeled PNA probe used RT-LAMP molecular rapid assay targeting SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab and N genes was developed, and the analytical, clinical performances for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA extracted from clinical nasopharyngeal swab specimens were evaluated in this study. Data showed that this assay is highly specific for SARS-CoV-2, and the absolute detection limit is 1 genomic copy per microliter of viral RNA which can be considered to be comparable to gold-standard molecular diagnostic method real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Both clinical sensitivity and specificity against a commercial real-time RT-PCR assay were determined as identical. In conclusion, the PNA RT-LAMP assay showed high analytical and clinical accuracy which are identical to real-time RT-PCR which has been routinely used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genes, Viral , Humans , Limit of Detection , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
6.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 4129993, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440848

ABSTRACT

Hyperinflammation is related to the development of COVID-19. Resveratrol is considered an anti-inflammatory and antiviral agent. Herein, we used a network pharmacological approach and bioinformatic gene analysis to explore the pharmacological mechanism of Resveratrol in COVID-19 therapy. Potential targets of Resveratrol were obtained from public databases. SARS-CoV-2 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out via bioinformatic analysis Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets GSE147507, followed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis; then, protein-protein interaction network was constructed. The common targets, GO terms, and KEGG pathways of Resveratrol targets and SARS-CoV-2 DEGs were confirmed. KEGG Mapper queried the location of common targets in the key pathways. A notable overlap of the GO terms and KEGG pathways between Resveratrol targets and SARS-CoV-2 DEGs was revealed. The shared targets between Resveratrol targets and SARS-CoV-2 mainly involved the IL-17 signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and TNF signaling pathway. Our study uncovered that Resveratrol is a promising therapeutic candidate for COVID-19 and we also revealed the probable key targets and pathways involved. Ultimately, we bring forward new insights and encourage more studies on Resveratol to benefit COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Gene Ontology , Genes, Viral , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps , Resveratrol/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430978

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is crucial and mainly achieved by amplicon sequencing protocols. Overlapping tiled-amplicons are generated to establish contiguous SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, which enable the precise resolution of infection chains and outbreaks. We investigated a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a local hospital and used nanopore sequencing with a modified ARTIC protocol employing 1200 bp long amplicons. We detected a long deletion of 168 nucleotides in the ORF8 gene in 76 samples from the hospital outbreak. This deletion is difficult to identify with the classical amplicon sequencing procedures since it removes two amplicon primer-binding sites. We analyzed public SARS-CoV-2 sequences and sequencing read data from ENA and identified the same deletion in over 100 genomes belonging to different lineages of SARS-CoV-2, pointing to a mutation hotspot or to positive selection. In almost all cases, the deletion was not represented in the virus genome sequence after consensus building. Additionally, further database searches point to other deletions in the ORF8 coding region that have never been reported by the standard data analysis pipelines. These findings and the fact that ORF8 is especially prone to deletions, make a clear case for the urgent necessity of public availability of the raw data for this and other large deletions that might change the physiology of the virus towards endemism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genes, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Deletion , Genetic Variation , Humans , Nanopore Sequencing , Open Reading Frames , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
Genes Genomics ; 43(11): 1277-1288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is well known as a fatal disease, first discovered at Wuhan in China, ranging from mild to death, such as shortness of breath and fever. Early diagnosis of COVID-19 is a crucial point in preventing global prevalence. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic competency and efficiency with the Allplex™ 2019-nCoV Assay kit and the Dr. PCR 20 K COVID-19 Detection kit, designed based on the qRT-PCR and dPCR technologies, respectively. METHODS: A total of 30 negative and 20 COVID-19 positive specimens were assigned to the diagnostic test by using different COVID-19 diagnosis kits. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by statistical testing with sensitivity, specificity, and co-efficiency calculations. RESULTS: Comparing both diagnostic kits, we confirmed that the diagnostic results of 30 negative and 20 positive cases were the same pre-diagnostic results. The diagnostic statistics test results were perfectly matched with value (1). Cohen's Kappa coefficient was demonstrated that the given kits in two different ways were "almost perfect" with value (1). In evaluating the detection capability, the dilutional linearity experiments substantiate that the Dr. PCR 20 K COVID-19 Detection kit could detect SARS-CoV-2 viral load at a concentration ten times lower than that of the Allplex™ 2019-nCoV Assay kit. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we propose that the dPCR diagnosis using LOAA dPCR could be a powerful method for COVID-19 point-of-care tests requiring immediate diagnosis in a limited time and space through the advantages of relatively low sample concentration and small equipment size compared to conventional qRT-PCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
9.
Cell ; 184(20): 5189-5200.e7, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401295

ABSTRACT

The independent emergence late in 2020 of the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 lineages of SARS-CoV-2 prompted renewed concerns about the evolutionary capacity of this virus to overcome public health interventions and rising population immunity. Here, by examining patterns of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations that have accumulated in SARS-CoV-2 genomes since the pandemic began, we find that the emergence of these three "501Y lineages" coincided with a major global shift in the selective forces acting on various SARS-CoV-2 genes. Following their emergence, the adaptive evolution of 501Y lineage viruses has involved repeated selectively favored convergent mutations at 35 genome sites, mutations we refer to as the 501Y meta-signature. The ongoing convergence of viruses in many other lineages on this meta-signature suggests that it includes multiple mutation combinations capable of promoting the persistence of diverse SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the face of mounting host immune recognition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Codon/genetics , Genes, Viral , Genetic Drift , Host Adaptation/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion , Phylogeny , Public Health
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403612

ABSTRACT

Microbes and viruses are known to alter host transcriptomes by means of infection. In light of recent challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a deeper understanding of the disease at the transcriptome level is needed. However, research about transcriptome reprogramming by post-transcriptional regulation is very limited. In this study, computational methods developed by our lab were applied to RNA-seq data to detect transcript variants (i.e., alternative splicing (AS) and alternative polyadenylation (APA) events). The RNA-seq data were obtained from a publicly available source, and they consist of mock-treated and SARS-CoV-2 infected (COVID-19) lung alveolar (A549) cells. Data analysis results show that more AS events are found in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells than in mock-treated cells, whereas fewer APA events are detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. A combination of conventional differential gene expression analysis and transcript variants analysis revealed that most of the genes with transcript variants are not differentially expressed. This indicates that no strong correlation exists between differential gene expression and the AS/APA events in the mock-treated or SARS-CoV-2 infected samples. These genes with transcript variants can be applied as another layer of molecular signatures for COVID-19 studies. In addition, the transcript variants are enriched in important biological pathways that were not detected in the studies that only focused on differential gene expression analysis. Therefore, the pathways may lead to new molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genes, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , A549 Cells , Humans
11.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 273, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403239

ABSTRACT

The control of contagious or refractory diseases requires early, rapid diagnostic assays that are simple, fast, and easy-to-use. Here, easy-to-implement CRISPR/Cas12a-based diagnostic platform through Raman transducer generated by Raman enhancement effect, term as SERS-CRISPR (S-CRISPR), are described. The S-CRISPR uses high-activity noble metallic nanoscopic materials to increase the sensitivity in the detection of nucleic acids, without amplification. This amplification-free platform, which can be performed within 30-40 min of incubation time, is then used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 derived nucleic acids in RNA extracts obtained from nasopharyngeal swab specimens (n = 112). Compared with the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the sensitivity and specificity of S-CRISPR reaches 87.50% and 100%, respectively. In general, the S-CRISPR can rapidly identify the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 RNA without amplification and is a potential strategy for nucleic acid point of care test (POCT).


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Genes, Viral , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
J Vet Sci ; 22(1): e12, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bats have been considered natural reservoirs for several pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs) in the last two decades. Recently, a bat CoV was detected in the Republic of Korea; its entire genome was sequenced and reported to be genetically similar to that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and the two Korean bat CoV strains 16BO133 and B15-21, to estimate the likelihood of an interaction between the Korean bat CoVs and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. METHODS: The phylogenetic analysis was conducted with the maximum-likelihood (ML) method using MEGA 7 software. The Korean bat CoVs receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein was analyzed by comparative homology modeling using the SWISS-MODEL server. The binding energies of the complexes were calculated using PRODIGY and MM/GBGA. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses of the entire RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, spike regions, and the complete genome revealed that the Korean CoVs, along with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, belong to the subgenus Sarbecovirus, within BetaCoVs. However, the two Korean CoVs were distinct from SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, the spike gene of the Korean CoVs, which is involved in host infection, differed from that of SARS-CoV-2, showing only 66.8%-67.0% nucleotide homology and presented deletions within the RBD, particularly within regions critical for cross-species transmission and that mediate interaction with ACE2. Binding free energy calculation revealed that the binding affinity of Korean bat CoV RBD to hACE2 was drastically lower than that of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Korean bat CoVs are unlikely to bind to the human ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Phylogeny , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Attachment
13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009272, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388879

ABSTRACT

The Betacoronaviruses comprise multiple subgenera whose members have been implicated in human disease. As with SARS, MERS and now SARS-CoV-2, the origin and emergence of new variants are often attributed to events of recombination that alter host tropism or disease severity. In most cases, recombination has been detected by searches for excessively similar genomic regions in divergent strains; however, such analyses are complicated by the high mutation rates of RNA viruses, which can produce sequence similarities in distant strains by convergent mutations. By applying a genome-wide approach that examines the source of individual polymorphisms and that can be tested against null models in which recombination is absent and homoplasies can arise only by convergent mutations, we examine the extent and limits of recombination in Betacoronaviruses. We find that recombination accounts for nearly 40% of the polymorphisms circulating in populations and that gene exchange occurs almost exclusively among strains belonging to the same subgenus. Although experimental studies have shown that recombinational exchanges occur at random along the coronaviral genome, in nature, they are vastly overrepresented in regions controlling viral interaction with host cells.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host Specificity/genetics , Models, Genetic , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics
14.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378449

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus-based vectors are playing an important role as efficacious genetic vaccines to fight the current COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, they have an enormous potential as oncolytic vectors for virotherapy and as vectors for classic gene therapy. However, numerous vector-host interactions on a cellular and noncellular level, including specific components of the immune system, must be modulated in order to generate safe and efficacious vectors for virotherapy or classic gene therapy. Importantly, the current widespread use of Ad vectors as vaccines against COVID-19 will induce antivector immunity in many humans. This requires the development of strategies and techniques to enable Ad-based vectors to evade pre-existing immunity. In this review article, we discuss the current status of genetic and chemical capsid modifications as means to modulate the vector-host interactions of Ad-based vectors.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capsid/chemistry , Adenoviridae/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Genes, Viral , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunity , Oncolytic Virotherapy/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Immunobiology ; 226(5): 152130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368671

ABSTRACT

In this review, we highlight the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 virus and host genomes, reporting the current studies on the sequence analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates and host genomes from diverse world populations. The main genetic variants that are present in both the virus and host genomes were particularly focused on the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, and their impact on the patients' susceptibility to the virus infection and severity of the disease. Finally, the interaction of the virus and host non-coding RNAs is described in relation to their regulatory roles in target genes and/or signaling pathways critically associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, these studies provide a significant contribution to the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of infection and COVID-19 pathogenesis. The described genetic variants and molecular factors involved in host/virus genome interactions have significantly contributed to defining patient risk groups, beyond those based on patients' age and comorbidities, and they are promising candidates to be potentially targeted in treatment strategies for COVID-19 and other viral infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , RNA, Untranslated , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Genes, Viral , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
16.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 49(6): 848-852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353437

ABSTRACT

Molecular biology is an important course for medical postgraduates to understand the practice of modern molecular medicine. At present, molecular biology has been widely used in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of clinical medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic forced all universities suspending academic activities and online teaching all over the world, which is a kind of crisis and has become people's memory of the times. The efforts from all sectors of society, include government, research institutions, and enterprises, have gave medical students a profound impact. The integration of memory of the times into molecular biology teaching will enhance students' learning interest and understanding effect.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical/organization & administration , Molecular Biology/education , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , China , Genes, Viral , Humans
17.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 664-675, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352113

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of the COVID-19 disease, the research community is producing unprecedented efforts dedicated to better understand and mitigate the effects of the pandemic. In this context, we review the data integration efforts required for accessing and searching genome sequences and metadata of SARS-CoV2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 disease, which have been deposited into the most important repositories of viral sequences. Organizations that were already present in the virus domain are now dedicating special interest to the emergence of COVID-19 pandemics, by emphasizing specific SARS-CoV2 data and services. At the same time, novel organizations and resources were born in this critical period to serve specifically the purposes of COVID-19 mitigation while setting the research ground for contrasting possible future pandemics. Accessibility and integration of viral sequence data, possibly in conjunction with the human host genotype and clinical data, are paramount to better understand the COVID-19 disease and mitigate its effects. Few examples of host-pathogen integrated datasets exist so far, but we expect them to grow together with the knowledge of COVID-19 disease; once such datasets will be available, useful integrative surveillance mechanisms can be put in place by observing how common variants distribute in time and space, relating them to the phenotypic impact evidenced in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genes, Viral , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1430-1441, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343652

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease led to an unprecedented health emergency, still ongoing worldwide. Given the lack of a vaccine or a clear therapeutic strategy to counteract the infection as well as its secondary effects, there is currently a pressing need to generate new insights into the SARS-CoV-2 induced host response. Biomedical data can help to investigate new aspects of the COVID-19 pathogenesis, but source heterogeneity represents a major drawback and limitation. In this work, we applied data integration methods to develop a Unified Knowledge Space (UKS) and used it to identify a new set of genes associated with SARS-CoV-2 host response, both in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of these genes reveals possible long-term systemic effects of the infection, such as vascular remodelling and fibrosis. Finally, we identified a set of potentially relevant drugs targeting proteins involved in multiple steps of the host response to the virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Genes, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome
19.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1267-1278, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343631

ABSTRACT

Accessory proteins play important roles in the interaction between coronaviruses and their hosts. Accordingly, a comprehensive study of the compositional diversity and evolutionary patterns of accessory proteins is critical to understanding the host adaptation and epidemic variation of coronaviruses. Here, we developed a standardized genome annotation tool for coronavirus (CoroAnnoter) by combining open reading frame prediction, transcription regulatory sequence recognition and homologous alignment. Using CoroAnnoter, we annotated 39 representative coronavirus strains to form a compositional profile for all of the accessary proteins. Large variations were observed in the number of accessory proteins of 1-10 for different coronaviruses, with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV having the most (9 and 10, respectively). The variation between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins could be traced back to related coronaviruses in other hosts. The genomic distribution of accessory proteins had significant intra-genus conservation and inter-genus diversity and could be grouped into 1, 4, 2 and 1 types for alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-coronaviruses, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggested that accessory proteins are more conservative locating before the N-terminal of proteins E and M (E-M), while they are more diverse after these proteins. Furthermore, comparison of virus-host interaction networks of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV accessory proteins showed that they share multiple antiviral signaling pathways, those involved in the apoptotic process, viral life cycle and response to oxidative stress. In summary, our study provides a tool for coronavirus genome annotation and builds a comprehensive profile for coronavirus accessory proteins covering their composition, classification, evolutionary pattern and host interaction.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Genes, Viral , Humans , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Open Reading Frames , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1254-1266, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343630

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is accountable for the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that causes a major threat to humanity. As the spread of the virus is probably getting out of control on every day, the epidemic is now crossing the most dreadful phase. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a risk factor for COVID-19 as patients with long-term lung injuries are more likely to suffer in the severity of the infection. Transcriptomic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 infection and IPF patients in lung epithelium cell datasets were selected to identify the synergistic effect of SARS-CoV-2 to IPF patients. Common genes were identified to find shared pathways and drug targets for IPF patients with COVID-19 infections. Using several enterprising Bioinformatics tools, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) network was designed. Hub genes and essential modules were detected based on the PPIs network. TF-genes and miRNA interaction with common differentially expressed genes and the activity of TFs are also identified. Functional analysis was performed using gene ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway and found some shared associations that may cause the increased mortality of IPF patients for the SARS-CoV-2 infections. Drug molecules for the IPF were also suggested for the SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Datasets as Topic , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Ontology , Genes, Viral , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/virology , Transcriptome
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