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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409701

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recognized as stress's cardiomyopathy, or as left ventricular apical balloon syndrome in recent years, is a rare pathology, described for the first time by Japanese researchers in 1990. TTS is characterized by an interindividual heterogeneity in onset and progression, and by strong predominance in postmenopausal women. The clear causes of these TTS features are uncertain, given the limited understanding of this intriguing syndrome until now. However, the increasing frequency of TTS cases in recent years, and particularly correlated to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, leads us to the imperative necessity both of a complete knowledge of TTS pathophysiology for identifying biomarkers facilitating its management, and of targets for specific and effective treatments. The suspect of a genetic basis in TTS pathogenesis has been evidenced. Accordingly, familial forms of TTS have been described. However, a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the genetic or epigenetic factors significantly associated with TTS is lacking. Thus, we here conducted a systematic review of the literature before June 2021, to contribute to the identification of potential genetic and epigenetic factors associated with TTS. Interesting data were evidenced, but few in number and with diverse limitations. Consequently, we concluded that further work is needed to address the gaps discussed, and clear evidence may arrive by using multi-omics investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Epigenesis, Genetic/immunology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/genetics , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , DNA Copy Number Variations/immunology , Genetic Loci/immunology , Heart Ventricles/immunology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Medical History Taking , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/pathology
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 652, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397868

ABSTRACT

Injury and loss of oligodendrocytes can cause demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. To improve our understanding of human oligodendrocyte development, which could facilitate development of remyelination-based treatment strategies, here we describe time-course single-cell-transcriptomic analysis of developing human stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells (hOLLCs). The study includes hOLLCs derived from both genome engineered embryonic stem cell (ESC) reporter cells containing an Identification-and-Purification tag driven by the endogenous PDGFRα promoter and from unmodified induced pluripotent (iPS) cells. Our analysis uncovers substantial transcriptional heterogeneity of PDGFRα-lineage hOLLCs. We discover sub-populations of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hOPCs) including a potential cytokine-responsive hOPC subset, and identify candidate regulatory genes/networks that define the identity of these sub-populations. Pseudotime trajectory analysis defines developmental pathways of oligodendrocytes vs astrocytes from PDGFRα-expressing hOPCs and predicts differentially expressed genes between the two lineages. In addition, pathway enrichment analysis followed by pharmacological intervention of these pathways confirm that mTOR and cholesterol biosynthesis signaling pathways are involved in maturation of oligodendrocytes from hOPCs.


Subject(s)
Genetic Heterogeneity , Genetic Variation , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transcriptome/genetics , Astrocytes/cytology , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Line , Cell Lineage/genetics , Cholesterol/biosynthesis , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells/cytology , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
5.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5440-5451, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916884

ABSTRACT

Four GI-1/Massachusetts-type (GI-1/Mass-type) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were isolated and the complete genomes of these isolates, coupled with the Mass-type live-attenuated vaccine H120 and the Mass-type pathogenic M41 strains, were sequenced in the present study. Our results show that isolates LJL/140820 and I0306/17 may be derived from the Ma5 (another Mass-type live-attenuated vaccine strain) and H120 vaccine strains, respectively. The I1124/16 strain was found to be a M41 variant that likely resulted from nucleotide accumulated mutations in the genome. Consistently, the results of the virus neutralization test showed that isolate I1124/16 was antigenically related but slight different from the M41. Our results from the protection experiments pointed out that chickens immunized with H120 failed to eliminate viral shedding after infection with the isolate I1124/16, which was different from that of M41; this result was consistent to the field observation and further implicated that the variant IBV isolate I1124/16 was antigenic different from the M41 strain. Furthermore, the I1124/16 was found to have comparable but slightly lower pathogenicity with the M41 strain. More studies based on the reverse genetic techniques are needed to elucidate the amino acids in the S1 subunit of spike protein contributing to the altered antigenicity of the isolate I1124/16. In addition, an IBV isolate, LJL/130609, was found to be originated from recombination events between the I1124/16- and Connecticut-like strains. Our results from the virus neutralization test also showed that isolates LJL/130609 and I1124/16 were antigenic closely related. Hence, there are at least 3 different genetic evolution patterns for the circulation of the GI-1/Mass-type IBV field strains in China. The differences of vaccines used, the field conditions and genetic pressures between different flocks, likely account for the emergence, evolution patterns, and characteristics of the Mass-type IBV strains.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Genetic Heterogeneity , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Chickens , China , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 50, 2021 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the immune function of neutrophils in sepsis has been well described, the heterogeneity of neutrophils remains unclear during the process of sepsis. METHODS: In this study, we used a mouse CLP model to simulate the clinical scenario of patients with sepsis, neutrophil infiltration, abnormal distribution and dysfunction was analyzed. LPS was used to stimulate neutrophils in vitro to simulate sepsis; single-cell gene sequencing technology was used to explore the immunological typing. To explore the immunological function of immunosuppressive neutrophils, PD-L1 knockout neutrophils were cocultured with lymphocytes from wild-type mice. RESULTS: We found that neutrophils presented variant dysfunction at the late stage of sepsis, including inhibition of apoptosis, seriously damaged chemotaxis and extensive infiltration into the tissues. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that multiple subclusters of neutrophils were differentiated after LPS stimulation. The two-dimensional spatial distribution analysis showed that Foxp3+ T cells were much closer to Ly-6G than the CD4+ and CD8+ cells, indicating that infiltrated neutrophils may play immunomodulatory effect on surrounding T-regs. Further observations showed that LPS mediates PD-L1 over expression through p38α-MSK1/-MK2 pathway in neutrophils. The subsets of highly expressed PD-L1 exert immunosuppressive effect under direct contact mode, including inhibition of T cell activation and induction of T cell apoptosis and trans-differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data identify a previously unknown immunosuppressive subset of neutrophils as inhibitory neutrophil in order to more accurately describe the phenotype and characteristics of these cells in sepsis.


Subject(s)
Genetic Heterogeneity , Neutrophils/classification , Sepsis/blood , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Leukocyte Count/methods , Leukocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/physiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sepsis/genetics
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14004, 2020 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724698

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel evolutionary divergent RNA virus, is responsible for the present devastating COVID-19 pandemic. To explore the genomic signatures, we comprehensively analyzed 2,492 complete and/or near-complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains reported from across the globe to the GISAID database up to 30 March 2020. Genome-wide annotations revealed 1,516 nucleotide-level variations at different positions throughout the entire genome of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, nucleotide (nt) deletion analysis found twelve deletion sites throughout the genome other than previously reported deletions at coding sequence of the ORF8 (open reading frame), spike, and ORF7a proteins, specifically in polyprotein ORF1ab (n = 9), ORF10 (n = 1), and 3´-UTR (n = 2). Evidence from the systematic gene-level mutational and protein profile analyses revealed a large number of amino acid (aa) substitutions (n = 744), demonstrating the viral proteins heterogeneous. Notably, residues of receptor-binding domain (RBD) showing crucial interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and cross-reacting neutralizing antibody were found to be conserved among the analyzed virus strains, except for replacement of lysine with arginine at 378th position of the cryptic epitope of a Shanghai isolate, hCoV-19/Shanghai/SH0007/2020 (EPI_ISL_416320). Furthermore, our results of the preliminary epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infections revealed that frequency of aa mutations were relatively higher in the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences of Europe (43.07%) followed by Asia (38.09%), and North America (29.64%) while case fatality rates remained higher in the European temperate countries, such as Italy, Spain, Netherlands, France, England and Belgium. Thus, the present method of genome annotation employed at this early pandemic stage could be a promising tool for monitoring and tracking the continuously evolving pandemic situation, the associated genetic variants, and their implications for the development of effective control and prophylaxis strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Base Pair Mismatch , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19 , Climate , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Hum Genet ; 139(6-7): 681-694, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381746

ABSTRACT

Multicellular eukaryotes emerged late in evolution from an ocean of viruses, bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes. These macroorganisms are exposed to and infected by a tremendous diversity of microorganisms. Those that are large enough can even be infected by multicellular fungi and parasites. Each interaction is unique, if only because it operates between two unique living organisms, in an infinite diversity of circumstances. This is neatly illustrated by the extraordinarily high level of interindividual clinical variability in human infections, even for a given pathogen, ranging from a total absence of clinical manifestations to death. We discuss here the idea that the determinism of human life-threatening infectious diseases can be governed by single-gene inborn errors of immunity, which are rarely Mendelian and frequently display incomplete penetrance. We briefly review the evidence in support of this notion obtained over the last two decades, referring to a number of focused and thorough reviews published by eminent colleagues in this issue of Human Genetics. It seems that almost any life-threatening infectious disease can be driven by at least one, and, perhaps, a great many diverse monogenic inborn errors, which may nonetheless be immunologically related. While the proportions of monogenic cases remain unknown, a picture in which genetic heterogeneity is combined with physiological homogeneity is emerging from these studies. A preliminary sketch of the human genetic architecture of severe infectious diseases is perhaps in sight.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/genetics , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Humans , Models, Genetic
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