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1.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101067, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595326

ABSTRACT

N 6 -methylation of adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification and is an important post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Here, we describe a protocol for methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) to detect and quantify m6A modifications in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. The protocol is optimized for low viral RNA levels and is readily adaptable for other applications. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Immunoprecipitation/methods , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Adenosine/analysis , Adenosine/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genetic Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Methylation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
2.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101051, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575581

ABSTRACT

Here we describe a protocol for identifying metabolites in respiratory specimens of patients that are SARS-CoV-2 positive, SARS-CoV-2 negative, or H1N1 positive. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions on sample collection from patients, followed by metabolite extraction. We use ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for data acquisition and describe the steps for data analysis. The protocol was standardized with specific customization for SARS-CoV-2-containing respiratory specimens. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Maras et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Metabolomics/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , Computational Biology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Techniques , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Metabolome , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Specimen Handling/methods
3.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101045, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537118

ABSTRACT

In this protocol, we describe global proteome profiling for the respiratory specimen of COVID-19 patients, patients suspected with COVID-19, and H1N1 patients. In this protocol, details for identifying host, viral, or bacterial proteome (Meta-proteome) are provided. Major steps of the protocol include virus inactivation, protein quantification and digestion, desalting of peptides, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)-based analysis, and downstream bioinformatics analysis. For complete details on the use and execution of this profile, please refer to Maras et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Genomics/methods , Proteomics/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Computational Biology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Techniques , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Peptides , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Specimen Handling/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Virome/genetics , Virome/physiology
4.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534242

ABSTRACT

CRISPR/Cas is a powerful tool for studying the role of genes in viral infections. The invention of CRISPR screening technologies has made it possible to untangle complex interactions between the host and viral agents. Moreover, whole-genome and pathway-specific CRISPR screens have facilitated identification of novel drug candidates for treating viral infections. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the fields of CRISPR/Cas with a focus on the use of CRISPR screens for studying viral infections and identifying new candidate genes to aid development of antivirals.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genetic Techniques , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/genetics , Drug Discovery , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans
5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(12): 1479-1482, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521715
6.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(12): 3595-3599, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517598

ABSTRACT

The novel respiratory virus SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly evolving across the world with the potential of increasing its transmission and the induced disease. Here, we applied the CRISPR-Cas12a system to detect, without the need of sequencing, SARS-CoV-2 genomes harboring the E484K mutation, first identified in the Beta variant and catalogued as an escape mutation. The E484K mutation creates a canonical protospacer adjacent motif for Cas12a recognition in the resulting DNA amplicon, which was exploited to obtain a differential readout. We analyzed a series of fecal samples from hospitalized patients in Valencia (Spain), finding one infection with SARS-CoV-2 harboring the E484K mutation, which was then confirmed by sequencing. Overall, these results suggest that CRISPR diagnostics can be a useful tool in epidemiology to monitor the spread of escape mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA, Viral/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/virology , DNA/analysis , Genetic Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Peptide Library , Polymers/chemistry , Spain/epidemiology , Surface Plasmon Resonance
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21872, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506466

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious viral respiratory illness. This illness is spurred on by a coronavirus known as SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first detected in Asia in late February 2003. The genome of this virus is very similar to the SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the study of SARS-CoV disease and the identification of effective drugs to treat this disease can be new clues for the treatment of SARS-Cov-2. This study aimed to discover novel potential drugs for SARS-CoV disease in order to treating SARS-Cov-2 disease based on a novel systems biology approach. To this end, gene co-expression network analysis was applied. First, the gene co-expression network was reconstructed for 1441 genes, and then two gene modules were discovered as significant modules. Next, a list of miRNAs and transcription factors that target gene co-expression modules' genes were gathered from the valid databases, and two sub-networks formed of transcription factors and miRNAs were established. Afterward, the list of the drugs targeting obtained sub-networks' genes was retrieved from the DGIDb database, and two drug-gene and drug-TF interaction networks were reconstructed. Finally, after conducting different network analyses, we proposed five drugs, including FLUOROURACIL, CISPLATIN, SIROLIMUS, CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, and METHYLDOPA, as candidate drugs for SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus treatment. Moreover, ten miRNAs including miR-193b, miR-192, miR-215, miR-34a, miR-16, miR-16, miR-92a, miR-30a, miR-7, and miR-26b were found to be significant miRNAs in treating SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Computational Biology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genes, Viral , Genetic Techniques , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Systems Biology , Transcription Factors
8.
Mol Cell ; 81(21): 4467-4480.e7, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473419

ABSTRACT

Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) are a target for broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutic agents. Recently, we demonstrated that incorporation of the T-1106 triphosphate, a pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotide, into nascent RNA increases pausing and backtracking by the poliovirus RdRp. Here, by monitoring enterovirus A-71 RdRp dynamics during RNA synthesis using magnetic tweezers, we identify the "backtracked" state as an intermediate used by the RdRp for copy-back RNA synthesis and homologous recombination. Cell-based assays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments further demonstrate that the pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotide stimulates these processes during infection. These results suggest that pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotides do not induce lethal mutagenesis or chain termination but function by promoting template switching and formation of defective viral genomes. We conclude that RdRp-catalyzed intra- and intermolecular template switching can be induced by pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotides, defining an additional mechanistic class of antiviral ribonucleotides with potential for broad-spectrum activity.


Subject(s)
Pyrazines/chemistry , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Ribonucleotides/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Catalysis , Cells, Cultured , Genetic Techniques , Genome , Genome, Viral , Homologous Recombination , Humans , Kinetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis , Nucleotides/genetics , Protein Conformation , RNA/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Transgenes , Virulence
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(1): e4, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450402

ABSTRACT

Efficient annotation of alterations in binding sequences of molecular regulators can help identify novel candidates for mechanisms study and offer original therapeutic hypotheses. In this work, we developed Somatic Binding Sequence Annotator (SBSA) as a full-capacity online tool to annotate altered binding motifs/sequences, addressing diverse types of genomic variants and molecular regulators. The genomic variants can be somatic mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, RNA editing, etc. The binding motifs/sequences involve transcription factors (TFs), RNA-binding proteins, miRNA seeds, miRNA-mRNA 3'-UTR binding target, or can be any custom motifs/sequences. Compared to similar tools, SBSA is the first to support miRNA seeds and miRNA-mRNA 3'-UTR binding target, and it unprecedentedly implements a personalized genome approach that accommodates joint adjacent variants. SBSA is empowered to support an indefinite species, including preloaded reference genomes for SARS-Cov-2 and 25 other common organisms. We demonstrated SBSA by annotating multi-omics data from over 30,890 human subjects. Of the millions of somatic binding sequences identified, many are with known severe biological repercussions, such as the somatic mutation in TERT promoter region which causes a gained binding sequence for E26 transformation-specific factor (ETS1). We further validated the function of this TERT mutation using experimental data in cancer cells. Availability:http://innovebioinfo.com/Annotation/SBSA/SBSA.php.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/instrumentation , Genomics/instrumentation , Mutation , Proteomics/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , 3' Untranslated Regions , Algorithms , Amino Acid Motifs , COVID-19/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Computers , Genetic Techniques , Genome, Human , Genomics/methods , Humans , Internet , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Phenotype , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Binding , Proteomics/methods , Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism
11.
OMICS ; 25(8): 484-494, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307504

ABSTRACT

Pandemics and environmental crises evident from the first two decades of the 21st century call for methods innovation in biosurveillance and early detection of risk signals in planetary ecosystems. In crises conditions, conventional methods in public health, biosecurity, and environmental surveillance do not work well. In addition, the standard laboratory amenities and procedures may become unavailable, irrelevant, or simply not feasible, for example, owing to disruptions in logistics and process supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a wakeup call in this sense to reintroduce point-of-need diagnostics with an eye to limited resource settings and biosurveillance solutions. We report here a methodology innovation, a fast, scalable, and alkaline DNA extraction pipeline for emergency microbiomics biosurveillance. We believe that the presented methodology is well poised for effective, resilient, and anticipatory responses to future pandemics and ecological crises while contributing to microbiome science and point-of-need diagnostics in nonelective emergency contexts. The alkaline DNA extraction pipeline can usefully expand the throughput in emergencies by deployment or to allow backup in case of instrumentation failure in vital facilities. The need for distributed public health genomics surveillance is increasingly evident in the 21st century. This study makes a contribution to these ends broadly, and for future pandemic preparedness in particular. We call for innovation in biosurveillance methods that remain important existentially on a planet under pressure from unchecked human growth and breach of the boundaries between human and nonhuman animal habitats.


Subject(s)
Biosurveillance/methods , DNA/isolation & purification , Microbiological Techniques , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Genetic Techniques/economics , Humans , Microbiological Techniques/economics , Plants/microbiology
12.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 180: 153-182, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210761

ABSTRACT

CRISPR technology has revolutionized biological research in the last decade and many academic institutions and companies have patented CRISPR systems and applications. Several patents have been filed for various applications of CRISPR in different industries such as agriculture, synthetic biology, bio-nanotechnology and precision medicine. Despite tremendous pressure on the technology transfer teams, several startups and spin-out companies are already using CRISPR technologies for commercial applications. In this chapter, we discuss the different CRISPR nucleases and their applications. Secondly, we detail our current opinion and perspective on the CRISPR patent and technology landscape for non-mammalian systems. We present two case-studies on CRISPR diagnostics companies, SHERLOCK and Mammoth Biosciences, who are currently at the forefront of establishing diagnostics platforms for coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) detection. Finally, our chapter identifies future advancements and possible challenges that CRISPR technology might face in non-mammalian systems.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Genetic Techniques , Patents as Topic , Technology Transfer , Animals , Licensure , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Genetics ; 216(2): 263-268, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890215

ABSTRACT

The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes an individual who has had a significant impact on genetics education at any education level. Seth R. Bordenstein, Ph.D., Centennial Professor of Biological Sciences at Vanderbilt University and Founding Director of the Vanderbilt Microbiome Initiative, is the 2020 recipient in recognition of his cofounding, developing, and expanding Discover the Microbes Within! The Wolbachia Project.


Subject(s)
Citizen Science/methods , Genetics/education , Microbiota , Wolbachia/genetics , Animals , Awards and Prizes , Citizen Science/organization & administration , Genetic Techniques , Genetics/organization & administration , Humans , Wolbachia/pathogenicity
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 81: 104215, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822250

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic viruses are viruses that can infect and replicate within human cells and cause diseases. The continuous emergence and re-emergence of pathogenic viruses has become a major threat to public health. Whenever pathogenic viruses emerge, their rapid detection is critical to enable implementation of specific control measures and the limitation of virus spread. Further molecular characterization to better understand these viruses is required for the development of diagnostic tests and countermeasures. Advances in molecular biology techniques have revolutionized the procedures for detection and characterization of pathogenic viruses. The development of PCR-based techniques together with DNA sequencing technology, have provided highly sensitive and specific methods to determine virus circulation. Pathogenic viruses potentially having global catastrophic consequences may emerge in regions where capacity for their detection and characterization is limited. Development of a local capacity to rapidly identify new viruses is therefore critical. This article reviews the molecular biology of pathogenic viruses and the basic principles of molecular techniques commonly used for their detection and characterization. The principles of good laboratory practices for handling pathogenic viruses are also discussed. This review aims at providing researchers and laboratory personnel with an overview of the molecular biology of pathogenic viruses and the principles of molecular techniques and good laboratory practices commonly implemented for their detection and characterization.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/genetics , Animals , Genetic Techniques , Humans , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
15.
Nat Protoc ; 15(11): 3699-3715, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797534

ABSTRACT

Pseudotyped viruses are useful virological tools because of their safety and versatility. On the basis of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped virus production system, we developed a pseudotyped virus-based neutralization assay against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in biosafety level 2 facilities. Compared with the binding antibody test, the neutralization assay could discriminate the protective agents from the antibody family. This protocol includes production and titration of the SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotyped virus and the neutralization assay based on it. Various types of samples targeting virus attachment and entry could be evaluated for their potency, including serum samples derived from animals and humans, monoclonal antibodies and fusion inhibitors (peptides or small molecules). If the pseudotyped virus stock has been prepared in advance, it will take 2 days to get the potency data for the candidate samples. Experience in handling cells is needed before implementing this protocol.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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