Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 63
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(9): 2331-2337, 2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-860112

ABSTRACT

We report on using the synthetic aminoadamantane-CH2-aryl derivatives 1-6 as sensitive probes for blocking M2 S31N and influenza A virus (IAV) M2 wild-type (WT) channels as well as virus replication in cell culture. The binding kinetics measured using electrophysiology (EP) for M2 S31N channel are very dependent on the length between the adamantane moiety and the first ring of the aryl headgroup realized in 2 and 3 and the girth and length of the adamantane adduct realized in 4 and 5. Study of 1-6 shows that, according to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculations, all bind in the M2 S31N channel with the adamantyl group positioned between V27 and G34 and the aryl group projecting out of the channel with the phenyl (or isoxazole in 6) embedded in the V27 cluster. In this outward binding configuration, an elongation of the ligand by only one methylene in rimantadine 2 or using diamantane or triamantane instead of adamantane in 4 and 5, respectively, causes incomplete entry and facilitates exit, abolishing effective block compared to the amantadine derivatives 1 and 6. In the active M2 S31N blockers 1 and 6, the phenyl and isoxazolyl head groups achieve a deeper binding position and high kon/low koff and high kon/high koff rate constants, compared to inactive 2-5, which have much lower kon and higher koff. Compounds 1-5 block the M2 WT channel by binding in the longer area from V27-H37, in the inward orientation, with high kon and low koff rate constants. Infection of cell cultures by influenza virus containing M2 WT or M2 S31N is inhibited by 1-5 or 1-4 and 6, respectively. While 1 and 6 block infection through the M2 block mechanism in the S31N variant, 2-4 may block M2 S31N virus replication in cell culture through the lysosomotropic effect, just as chloroquine is thought to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Adamantane/pharmacology , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Ion Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Probes/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adamantane/analogs & derivatives , Adamantane/chemistry , Adamantane/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Binding Sites , Cells, Cultured , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Variation , Humans , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Kinetics , Molecular Probes/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789512

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is zoonotically transmissible among species, since BCoV-like viruses have been detected in wild ruminants and humans. BCoV causing enteric and respiratory disease is widespread in cattle farms worldwide; however, limited information is available regarding the molecular characterization of BCoV because of its large genome size, despite its significant economic impact. This study aimed to better understand the genomic characterization and evolutionary dynamics of BCoV via comparative sequence and phylogenetic analyses through whole genome sequence analysis using 67 BCoV isolates collected throughout Japan from 2006 to 2017. On comparing the genomic sequences of the 67 BCoVs, genetic variations were detected in 5 of 10 open reading frames (ORFs) in the BCoV genome. Phylogenetic analysis using whole genomes from the 67 Japanese BCoV isolates in addition to those from 16 reference BCoV strains, revealed the existence of two major genotypes (classical and US wild ruminant genotypes). All Japanese BCoV isolates originated from the US wild ruminant genotype, and they tended to form the same clusters based on the year and farm of collection, not the disease type. Phylogenetic trees on hemagglutinin-esterase protein (HE), spike glycoprotein (S), nucleocapsid protein (N) genes and ORF1 revealed clusters similar to that on whole genome, suggesting that the evolution of BCoVs may be closely associated with variations in these genes. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of BCoV S genes including those of European and Asian BCoVs and human enteric coronavirus along with the Japanese BCoVs revealed that BCoVs differentiated into two major types (European and American types). Moreover, the European and American types were divided into eleven and three genotypes, respectively. Our analysis also demonstrated that BCoVs with different genotypes periodically emerged and predominantly circulated within the country. These findings provide useful information to elucidate the detailed molecular characterization of BCoVs, which have spread worldwide. Further genomic analyses of BCoV are essential to deepen the understanding of the evolution of this virus.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 362, 2020 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical characteristics of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been progressively changed. Data reporting a viral intra-host and inter-host evolution favouring the appearance of mild SARS-CoV-2 strains are since being accumulating. To better understand the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity and its adaptation to the host, it is therefore crucial to investigate the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating lately in the epidemic. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs have been analyzed for viral load in the early (March 2020) and late (May 2020) phases of epidemic in Brescia, Italy. Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from 2 high viral load specimens identified on March 9 (AP66) and on May 8 (GZ69) was performed on Vero E6 cells. Amount of virus released was assessed by quantitative PCR. Genotypic characterization of AP66 and GZ69 was performed by next generation sequencing followed by an in-depth in silico analysis of nucleotide mutations. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 GZ69 strain, isolated in May from an asymptomatic healthcare worker, showed an unprecedented capability of replication in Vero E6 cells in the absence of any evident cytopathic effect. Vero E6 subculturing, up to passage 4, showed that SARS-CoV-2 GZ69 infection was as productive as the one sustained by the cytopathic strain AP66. Whole genome sequencing of the persistently replicating SARS-CoV-2 GZ69 has shown that this strain differs from the early AP66 variant in 9 nucleotide positions (C2939T; C3828T; G21784T; T21846C; T24631C; G28881A; G28882A; G28883C; G29810T) which lead to 6 non-synonymous substitutions spanning on ORF1ab (P892S; S1188L), S (K74N; I95T) and N (R203K, G204R) proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of the peculiar SARS-CoV-2 GZ69 strain in the late Italian epidemic highlights the need to better characterize viral variants circulating among asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic individuals. The current approach could unravel the ways for future studies aimed at analyzing the selection process which favours viral mutations in the human host.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Variation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/genetics , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/physiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Translational Medical Research , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/physiology , Virus Cultivation/methods , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2008, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781995

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, is already responsible for more than 4.3 million confirmed cases and 295,000 deaths worldwide as of May 15, 2020. Ongoing efforts to control the pandemic include the development of peptide-based vaccines and diagnostic tests. In these approaches, HLA allelic diversity plays a crucial role. Despite its importance, current knowledge of HLA allele frequencies in South America is very limited. In this study, we have performed a literature review of datasets reporting HLA frequencies of South American populations, available in scientific literature and/or in the Allele Frequency Net Database. This allowed us to enrich the current scenario with more than 12.8 million data points. As a result, we are presenting updated HLA allelic frequencies based on country, including 91 alleles that were previously thought to have frequencies either under 5% or of an unknown value. Using alleles with an updated frequency of at least ≥5% in any South American country, we predicted epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 proteins using NetMHCpan (I and II) and MHC flurry. Then, the best predicted epitopes (class-I and -II) were selected based on their binding to South American alleles (Coverage Score). Class II predicted epitopes were also filtered based on their three-dimensional exposure. We obtained 14 class-I and four class-II candidate epitopes with experimental evidence (reported in the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource), having good coverage scores for South America. Additionally, we are presenting 13 HLA-I and 30 HLA-II novel candidate epitopes without experimental evidence, including 16 class-II candidates in highly exposed conserved areas of the NTD and RBD regions of the Spike protein. These novel candidates have even better coverage scores for South America than those with experimental evidence. Finally, we show that recent similar studies presenting candidate epitopes also predicted some of our candidates but discarded them in the selection process, resulting in candidates with suboptimal coverage for South America. In conclusion, the candidate epitopes presented provide valuable information for the development of epitope-based strategies against SARS-CoV-2, such as peptide vaccines and diagnostic tests. Additionally, the updated HLA allelic frequencies provide a better representation of South America and may impact different immunogenetic studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Gene Frequency , HLA Antigens/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Alleles , Amino Acid Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , South America/epidemiology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
7.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 57, 2020 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has caused a major epidemic worldwide; however, much is yet to be known about the epidemiology and evolution of the virus partly due to the scarcity of full-length SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) genomes reported. One reason is that the challenges underneath sequencing SARS-CoV-2 directly from clinical samples have not been completely tackled, i.e., sequencing samples with low viral load often results in insufficient viral reads for analyses. METHODS: We applied a novel multiplex PCR amplicon (amplicon)-based and hybrid capture (capture)-based sequencing, as well as ultra-high-throughput metatranscriptomic (meta) sequencing in retrieving complete genomes, inter-individual and intra-individual variations of SARS-CoV-2 from serials dilutions of a cultured isolate, and eight clinical samples covering a range of sample types and viral loads. We also examined and compared the sensitivity, accuracy, and other characteristics of these approaches in a comprehensive manner. RESULTS: We demonstrated that both amplicon and capture methods efficiently enriched SARS-CoV-2 content from clinical samples, while the enrichment efficiency of amplicon outran that of capture in more challenging samples. We found that capture was not as accurate as meta and amplicon in identifying between-sample variations, whereas amplicon method was not as accurate as the other two in investigating within-sample variations, suggesting amplicon sequencing was not suitable for studying virus-host interactions and viral transmission that heavily rely on intra-host dynamics. We illustrated that meta uncovered rich genetic information in the clinical samples besides SARS-CoV-2, providing references for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Taken all factors above and cost-effectiveness into consideration, we proposed guidance for how to choose sequencing strategy for SARS-CoV-2 under different situations. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first work systematically investigating inter- and intra-individual variations of SARS-CoV-2 using amplicon- and capture-based whole-genome sequencing, as well as the first comparative study among multiple approaches. Our work offers practical solutions for genome sequencing and analyses of SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Genetic Variation/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics
10.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 30, 2020 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751135

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has strengthened the interest in the biological mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between infectious agents and the human host. The spectrum of phenotypes associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, ranging from the absence of symptoms to severe systemic complications, raised the question as to what extent the variable response to coronaviruses (CoVs) is influenced by the variability of the hosts' genetic background.To explore the current knowledge about this question, we designed a systematic review encompassing the scientific literature published from Jan. 2003 to June 2020, to include studies on the contemporary outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (namely SARS, MERS and COVID-19 diseases). Studies were eligible if human genetic variants were tested as predictors of clinical phenotypes.An ad hoc protocol for the rapid review process was designed according to the PRISMA paradigm and registered at the PROSPERO database (ID: CRD42020180860). The systematic workflow provided 32 articles eligible for data abstraction (28 on SARS, 1 on MERS, 3 on COVID-19) reporting data on 26 discovery cohorts. Most studies considered the definite clinical diagnosis as the primary outcome, variably coupled with other outcomes (severity was the most frequently analysed). Ten studies analysed HLA haplotypes (1 in patients with COVID-19) and did not provide consistent signals of association with disease-associated phenotypes. Out of 22 eligible articles that investigated candidate genes (2 as associated with COVID-19), the top-ranked genes in the number of studies were ACE2, CLEC4M (L-SIGN), MBL, MxA (n = 3), ACE, CD209, FCER2, OAS-1, TLR4, TNF-α (n = 2). Only variants in MBL and MxA were found as possibly implicated in CoV-associated phenotypes in at least two studies. The number of studies for each predictor was insufficient to conduct meta-analyses.Studies collecting large cohorts from different ancestries are needed to further elucidate the role of host genetic variants in determining the response to CoVs infection. Rigorous design and robust statistical methods are warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics
11.
Genome Res ; 30(10): 1434-1448, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744668

ABSTRACT

The human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the major pandemic of the twenty-first century. We analyzed more than 4700 SARS-CoV-2 genomes and associated metadata retrieved from public repositories. SARS-CoV-2 sequences have a high sequence identity (>99.9%), which drops to >96% when compared to bat coronavirus genome. We built a mutation-annotated reference SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny with two main macro-haplogroups, A and B, both of Asian origin, and more than 160 sub-branches representing virus strains of variable geographical origins worldwide, revealing a rather uniform mutation occurrence along branches that could have implications for diagnostics and the design of future vaccines. Identification of the root of SARS-CoV-2 genomes is not without problems, owing to conflicting interpretations derived from either using the bat coronavirus genomes as an outgroup or relying on the sampling chronology of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and TMRCA estimates; however, the overall scenario favors haplogroup A as the ancestral node. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a TMRCA for SARS-CoV-2 genomes dating to November 12, 2019, thus matching epidemiological records. Sub-haplogroup A2 most likely originated in Europe from an Asian ancestor and gave rise to subclade A2a, which represents the major non-Asian outbreak, especially in Africa and Europe. Multiple founder effect episodes, most likely associated with super-spreader hosts, might explain COVID-19 pandemic to a large extent.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Asia/epidemiology , Base Sequence/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Chromosome Mapping , Europe/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238344, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742540

ABSTRACT

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 pandemic in humans, recently emerged and has exported in more than 200 countries as a result of rapid spread. In this study, we have made an attempt to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 genome reported from 13 different countries, identification of mutations in major coronavirus proteins of these different SARS-CoV-2 genomes and compared with SARS-CoV. These thirteen complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 showed high identity (>99%) to each other, while they shared 82% identity with SARS-CoV. Here, we performed a very systematic mutational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from different geographical locations, which enabled us to identify numerous unique features of this viral genome. This includes several important country-specific unique mutations in the major proteins of SARS-CoV-2 namely, replicase polyprotein, spike glycoprotein, envelope protein and nucleocapsid protein. Indian strain showed mutation in spike glycoprotein at R408I and in replicase polyprotein at I671T, P2144S and A2798V,. While the spike protein of Spain & South Korea carried F797C and S221W mutation, respectively. Likewise, several important country specific mutations were analyzed. The effect of mutations of these major proteins were also investigated using various in silico approaches. Main protease (Mpro), the therapeutic target protein of SARS with maximum reported inhibitors, was thoroughly investigated and the effect of mutation on the binding affinity and structural dynamics of Mpro was studied. It was found that the R60C mutation in Mpro affects the protein dynamics, thereby, affecting the binding of inhibitor within its active site. The implications of mutation on structural characteristics were determined. The information provided in this manuscript holds great potential in further scientific research towards the design of potential vaccine candidates/small molecular inhibitor against COVID19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Genome, Viral , Mutation , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Betacoronavirus/classification , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Genetic Variation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Phylogeny , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
13.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(19): 2944-2961, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739109

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of people who test positive for COVID-19 have chemosensory deficits. However, the reported prevalence of these deficits in smell and taste varies widely, and the reason for the differences between studies is unclear. We determined the pooled prevalence of such chemosensory deficits in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the COVID-19 portfolio of the National Institutes of Health for studies that reported the prevalence of smell or taste deficits or both in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. One-hundred-four studies reporting on 38 198 patients qualified and were subjected to a systematic review and meta-analysis. Estimated random prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was 43.0%, that of taste dysfunction was 44.6%, and that of overall chemosensory dysfunction was 47.4%. We examined the effects of age, gender, disease severity, and ethnicity on chemosensory dysfunction. Prevalence of smell or taste dysfunction or both decreased with older age, male gender, and disease severity. Ethnicity was highly significant: Caucasians had a three times higher prevalence of chemosensory dysfunctions (54.8%) than Asians (17.7%). The finding of geographic differences points to two causes that are not mutually exclusive. A virus mutation (D614G) may cause differing infectivity, while at the host level genetic, ethnicity-specific variants of the virus-binding entry proteins may facilitate virus entry in the olfactory epithelium and taste buds. Both explanations have major implications for infectivity, diagnosis, and management of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Olfaction Disorders/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Ethnic Groups , Genetic Variation , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23652-23662, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737878

ABSTRACT

The magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic underscores the urgency for a safe and effective vaccine. Many vaccine candidates focus on the Spike protein, as it is targeted by neutralizing antibodies and plays a key role in viral entry. Here we investigate the diversity seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences and compare it to the sequence on which most vaccine candidates are based. Using 18,514 sequences, we perform phylogenetic, population genetics, and structural bioinformatics analyses. We find limited diversity across SARS-CoV-2 genomes: Only 11 sites show polymorphisms in >5% of sequences; yet two mutations, including the D614G mutation in Spike, have already become consensus. Because SARS-CoV-2 is being transmitted more rapidly than it evolves, the viral population is becoming more homogeneous, with a median of seven nucleotide substitutions between genomes. There is evidence of purifying selection but little evidence of diversifying selection, with substitution rates comparable across structural versus nonstructural genes. Finally, the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference sequence for the Spike protein, which is the basis for different vaccine candidates, matches optimized vaccine inserts, being identical to an ancestral sequence and one mutation away from the consensus. While the rapid spread of the D614G mutation warrants further study, our results indicate that drift and bottleneck events can explain the minimal diversity found among SARS-CoV-2 sequences. These findings suggest that a single vaccine candidate should be efficacious against currently circulating lineages.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Variation , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Point Mutation , Selection, Genetic
15.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736047

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability across the three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes (human leukocyte antigen A [HLA-A], -B, and -C genes) may affect susceptibility to and severity of the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed a comprehensive in silico analysis of viral peptide-MHC class I binding affinity across 145 HLA-A, -B, and -C genotypes for all SARS-CoV-2 peptides. We further explored the potential for cross-protective immunity conferred by prior exposure to four common human coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome was successfully sampled and was represented by a diversity of HLA alleles. However, we found that HLA-B*46:01 had the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that individuals with this allele may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS (M. Lin, H.-T. Tseng, J. A. Trejaut, H.-L. Lee, et al., BMC Med Genet 4:9, 2003, https://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-4-9). Conversely, we found that HLA-B*15:03 showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting that it could enable cross-protective T-cell-based immunity. Finally, we reported global distributions of HLA types with potential epidemiological ramifications in the setting of the current pandemic.IMPORTANCE Individual genetic variation may help to explain different immune responses to a virus across a population. In particular, understanding how variation in HLA may affect the course of COVID-19 could help identify individuals at higher risk from the disease. HLA typing can be fast and inexpensive. Pairing HLA typing with COVID-19 testing where feasible could improve assessment of severity of viral disease in the population. Following the development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, individuals with high-risk HLA types could be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Haplotypes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
16.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 321, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), through its surface spike glycoprotein (S-protein) recognition on the receptor Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in humans. However, it remains unclear how genetic variations in ACE2 may affect its function and structure, and consequently alter the recognition by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We have systemically characterized missense variants in the gene ACE2 using data from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD; N = 141,456). To investigate the putative deleterious role of missense variants, six existing functional prediction tools were applied to evaluate their impact. We further analyzed the structural flexibility of ACE2 and its protein-protein interface with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 using our developed Legion Interfaces Analysis (LiAn) program. RESULTS: Here, we characterized a total of 12 ACE2 putative deleterious missense variants. Of those 12 variants, we further showed that p.His378Arg could directly weaken the binding of catalytic metal atom to decrease ACE2 activity and p.Ser19Pro could distort the most important helix to the S-protein. Another seven missense variants may affect secondary structures (i.e. p.Gly211Arg; p.Asp206Gly; p.Arg219Cys; p.Arg219His, p.Lys341Arg, p.Ile468Val, and p.Ser547Cys), whereas p.Ile468Val with AF = 0.01 is only present in Asian. CONCLUSIONS: We provide strong evidence of putative deleterious missense variants in ACE2 that are present in specific populations, which could disrupt the function and structure of ACE2. These findings provide novel insight into the genetic variation in ACE2 which may affect the SARS-CoV-2 recognition and infection, and COVID-19 susceptibility and treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Mutation, Missense , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , Databases, Genetic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ethnology , Genetic Variation , Geography , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22311-22322, 2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724266

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of COVID-19. The main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is now undergoing extensive scrutiny to understand the routes of transmission and sensitivity in different species. Here, we utilized a unique dataset of ACE2 sequences from 410 vertebrate species, including 252 mammals, to study the conservation of ACE2 and its potential to be used as a receptor by SARS-CoV-2. We designed a five-category binding score based on the conservation properties of 25 amino acids important for the binding between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Only mammals fell into the medium to very high categories and only catarrhine primates into the very high category, suggesting that they are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We employed a protein structural analysis to qualitatively assess whether amino acid changes at variable residues would be likely to disrupt ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding and found the number of predicted unfavorable changes significantly correlated with the binding score. Extending this analysis to human population data, we found only rare (frequency <0.001) variants in 10/25 binding sites. In addition, we found significant signals of selection and accelerated evolution in the ACE2 coding sequence across all mammals, and specific to the bat lineage. Our results, if confirmed by additional experimental data, may lead to the identification of intermediate host species for SARS-CoV-2, guide the selection of animal models of COVID-19, and assist the conservation of animals both in native habitats and in human care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Amino Acids , Animals , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vertebrates
19.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(9): 2331-2337, 2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714371

ABSTRACT

We report on using the synthetic aminoadamantane-CH2-aryl derivatives 1-6 as sensitive probes for blocking M2 S31N and influenza A virus (IAV) M2 wild-type (WT) channels as well as virus replication in cell culture. The binding kinetics measured using electrophysiology (EP) for M2 S31N channel are very dependent on the length between the adamantane moiety and the first ring of the aryl headgroup realized in 2 and 3 and the girth and length of the adamantane adduct realized in 4 and 5. Study of 1-6 shows that, according to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculations, all bind in the M2 S31N channel with the adamantyl group positioned between V27 and G34 and the aryl group projecting out of the channel with the phenyl (or isoxazole in 6) embedded in the V27 cluster. In this outward binding configuration, an elongation of the ligand by only one methylene in rimantadine 2 or using diamantane or triamantane instead of adamantane in 4 and 5, respectively, causes incomplete entry and facilitates exit, abolishing effective block compared to the amantadine derivatives 1 and 6. In the active M2 S31N blockers 1 and 6, the phenyl and isoxazolyl head groups achieve a deeper binding position and high kon/low koff and high kon/high koff rate constants, compared to inactive 2-5, which have much lower kon and higher koff. Compounds 1-5 block the M2 WT channel by binding in the longer area from V27-H37, in the inward orientation, with high kon and low koff rate constants. Infection of cell cultures by influenza virus containing M2 WT or M2 S31N is inhibited by 1-5 or 1-4 and 6, respectively. While 1 and 6 block infection through the M2 block mechanism in the S31N variant, 2-4 may block M2 S31N virus replication in cell culture through the lysosomotropic effect, just as chloroquine is thought to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Adamantane/pharmacology , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Ion Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Probes/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adamantane/analogs & derivatives , Adamantane/chemistry , Adamantane/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Binding Sites , Cells, Cultured , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Variation , Humans , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Kinetics , Molecular Probes/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104498, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696004

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is capable to infect humans and cause a novel disease COVID-19. Aiming to understand a host genetic component of COVID-19, we focused on variants in genes encoding proteases and genes involved in innate immunity that could be important for susceptibility and resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Analysis of sequence data of coding regions of FURIN, PLG, PRSS1, TMPRSS11a, MBL2 and OAS1 genes in 143 unrelated individuals from Serbian population identified 22 variants with potential functional effect. In silico analyses (PolyPhen-2, SIFT, MutPred2 and Swiss-Pdb Viewer) predicted that 10 variants could impact the structure and/or function of proteins. These protein-altering variants (p.Gly146Ser in FURIN; p.Arg261His and p.Ala494Val in PLG; p.Asn54Lys in PRSS1; p.Arg52Cys, p.Gly54Asp and p.Gly57Glu in MBL2; p.Arg47Gln, p.Ile99Val and p.Arg130His in OAS1) may have predictive value for inter-individual differences in the response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, we performed comparative population analysis for the same variants using extracted data from the 1000 Genomes project. Population genetic variability was assessed using delta MAF and Fst statistics. Our study pointed to 7 variants in PLG, TMPRSS11a, MBL2 and OAS1 genes with noticeable divergence in allelic frequencies between populations worldwide. Three of them, all in MBL2 gene, were predicted to be damaging, making them the most promising population-specific markers related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing allelic frequencies between Serbian and other populations, we found that the highest level of genetic divergence related to selected loci was observed with African, followed by East Asian, Central and South American and South Asian populations. When compared with European populations, the highest divergence was observed with Italian population. In conclusion, we identified 4 variants in genes encoding proteases (FURIN, PLG and PRSS1) and 6 in genes involved in the innate immunity (MBL2 and OAS1) that might be relevant for the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Metagenomics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Alleles , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Eye Proteins/genetics , Eye Proteins/immunology , Furin/genetics , Furin/immunology , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Genome, Human , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Plasminogen/genetics , Plasminogen/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trypsin/genetics , Trypsin/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL