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1.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 305(3): 555-565, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499442

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Synthesis of available evidence on clinical practice in gynaecological oncology during the COVID-19 pandemic is highly warranted, as women with cancer are at increased risk due to their systemic immunosuppressed state and changes in their care are inevitable. Rapid review of available data is a quick way of providing useful information and insight into the way medical practice has been affected by the COVID pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a systematic rapid review, based on a literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. We considered all studies on gynaecological oncology care during the COVID-19 pandemic using relevant keywords and MeSH terms. Selection criteria were English language, studies with more than five cases and publication in peer-review journal. RESULTS: Nine retrospective studies, one systematic review and five questionnaire surveys were included. Quality of the studies has been assessed. Development of higher quality evidence is warranted. Mortality of COVID-19 infection is higher in patients with gynaecological cancer than in non-cancer patients. Reported delays in diagnosis and management of cancer and changes in treatments, may affect the natural history of cancer and increase patients' anxiety and fear of disease progression while causing concerns to healthcare professionals affecting their clinical practice. The number of new diagnoses has declined. Prioritization is important, face-to-face interactions should be limited, and appropriate protective measures are essential. Cancer surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy should continue as high priority practices. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected clinical practice significantly. Adaptations in clinical practice may improve mortality and complication rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Phobic Disorders , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(1): 4-11, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has quickly transformed healthcare systems with expansion of telemedicine. The past year has highlighted risks to immunosuppressed cancer patients and shown the need for health equity among vulnerable groups. In this study, we describe the utilization of virtual visits by patients with gynecologic malignancies and assess their social vulnerability. METHODS: Virtual visit data of 270 gynecology oncology patients at a single institution from March 1, 2020 to August 31, 2020 was obtained by querying a cohort discovery tool. Through geocoding, the CDC Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) was utilized to assign social vulnerability indices to each patient and the results were analyzed for trends and statistical significance. RESULTS: African American patients were the most vulnerable with a median SVI of 0.71, Asian 0.60, Hispanic 0.41, and Caucasian 0.21. Eighty-seven percent of patients in this study were Caucasian, 8.9% African American, 3.3% Hispanic, and 1.1% Asian, which is comparable to the baseline institutional gynecologic cancer population. The mean census tract SVI variable when comparing patients to all census tracts in the United States was 0.31 (range 0.00 least vulnerable to 0.98 most vulnerable). CONCLUSIONS: Virtual visits were utilized by patients of all ages and gynecologic cancer types. African Americans were the most socially vulnerable patients of the cohort. Telemedicine is a useful platform for cancer care across the social vulnerability spectrum during the pandemic and beyond. To ensure continued access, further research and outreach efforts are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Gynecology/organization & administration , Gynecology/standards , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/standards , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(1): 12-17, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare gynecologic oncology surgical treatment modifications and delays during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic between a publicly funded Canadian versus a privately funded American cancer center. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all planned gynecologic oncology surgeries at University Health Network (UHN) in Toronto, Canada and Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) in Boston, USA, between March 22,020 and July 302,020. Surgical treatment delays and modifications at both centers were compared to standard recommendations. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: A total of 450 surgical gynecologic oncology patients were included; 215 at UHN and 235 at BWH. There was a significant difference in median time from decision-to-treat to treatment (23 vs 15 days, p < 0.01) between UHN and BWH and a significant difference in treatment delays (32.56% vs 18.29%; p < 0.01) and modifications (8.37% vs 0.85%; p < 0.01), respectively. On multivariable analysis adjusting for age, race, treatment site and surgical priority status, treatment at UHN was an independent predictor of treatment modification (OR = 9.43,95% CI 1.81-49.05, p < 0.01). Treatment delays were higher at UHN (OR = 1.96,95% CI 1.14-3.36 p = 0.03) and for uterine disease (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.11-5.33, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: During the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic, gynecologic oncology patients treated at a publicly funded Canadian center were 9.43 times more likely to have a surgical treatment modification and 1.96 times more likely to have a surgical delay compared to an equal volume privately funded center in the United States.


Subject(s)
Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Genital Neoplasms, Female/surgery , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Canada/epidemiology , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Cancer Care Facilities/standards , Cancer Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Gynecology/economics , Gynecology/organization & administration , Gynecology/standards , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Private/economics , Hospitals, Private/organization & administration , Hospitals, Private/standards , Hospitals, Public/economics , Hospitals, Public/organization & administration , Hospitals, Public/standards , Humans , Medical Oncology/economics , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/standards , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/economics , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Tertiary Care Centers/standards , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Triage/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 618-622, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Elevated inflammatory markers are predictive of COVID-19 infection severity and mortality. It is unclear if these markers are associated with severe infection in patients with cancer due to underlying tumor related inflammation. We sought to further understand the inflammatory response related to COVID-19 infection in patients with gynecologic cancer. METHODS: Patients with a history of gynecologic cancer hospitalized for COVID-19 infection with available laboratory data were identified. Admission laboratory values and clinical outcomes were abstracted from electronic medical records. Severe infection was defined as infection requiring ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or resulting in death. RESULTS: 86 patients with gynecologic cancer were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection with a median age of 68.5 years (interquartile range (IQR), 59.0-74.8). Of the 86 patients, 29 (33.7%) patients required ICU admission and 25 (29.1%) patients died of COVID-19 complications. Fifty (58.1%) patients had active cancer and 36 (41.9%) were in remission. Patients with severe infection had significantly higher ferritin (median 1163.0 vs 624.0 ng/mL, p < 0.01), procalcitonin (median 0.8 vs 0.2 ng/mL, p < 0.01), and C-reactive protein (median 142.0 vs 62.3 mg/L, p = 0.02) levels compared to those with moderate infection. White blood cell count, lactate, and creatinine were also associated with severe infection. D-dimer levels were not significantly associated with severe infection (p = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory markers ferritin, procalcitonin, and CRP were associated with COVID-19 severity in gynecologic cancer patients and may be used as prognostic markers at the time of admission.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/immunology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/blood , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(11): 1667-1671, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 16, 2020, the federal government of Austria declared a nationwide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the lockdown, screening examinations and routine checkups have been restricted to prevent the spread of the virus and to increase the hospitals' bed capacity across the country. This resulted in a severe decline of patient referrals to the hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the rate of newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers in Austria. METHODS: Data of 2077 patients from 18 centers in Austria with newly diagnosed gynecological or breast cancer between January and May 2019 and January and May 2020 were collected. Clinical parameters, including symptoms, performance status, co-morbidities, and referral status, were compared between the time before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Our results showed a slight increase of newly diagnosed cancers in January and February 2020 as compared with 2019 (+2 and +35%, respectively) and a strong decline in newly diagnosed tumors since the lockdown: -24% in March 2020 versus March 2019, -49% in April 2020 versus April 2019, -49% in May 2020 versus May 2019. Two-thirds of patients diagnosed during the pandemic presented with tumor-specific symptoms compared with less than 50% before the pandemic (p<0.001). Moreover, almost 50% of patients in 2020 had no co-morbidities compared with 35% in 2019 (p<0.001). Patients, who already had a malignant disease, were rarely diagnosed with a new cancer in 2020 as compared with 2019 (11% vs 6%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown led to a decreased number of newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers. The decreased accessibility of the medical services and postponed diagnosis of potentially curable cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic may be a step backwards in our healthcare system and might impair cancer treatment outcomes. Therefore, new strategies to manage early cancer detection are needed to optimize cancer care in a time of pandemic in the future.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Austria/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19 , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(6): 914-919, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835512

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the management of patients with gynecologic cancers. Many centers have reduced access to routine visits to avoid crowded waiting areas and specially to reduce the infection risk for oncologic patients. The goal of this review is to propose a surveillance algorithm for patients with gynecologic cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic based on existing evidence and established guidelines. It is time to consider strategies based on telemedicine and to adapt protocols in this new era. We hereby propose a strategy for routine surveillance both during and beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Algorithms , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Future Oncol ; 16(28): 2191-2195, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732936

ABSTRACT

Background: Telemedicine is seen as a savior during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials & methods: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with cancer patients who were interviewed via telemedicine from a tertiary care comprehensive oncology center. Results: A total of 421 patients were included in the study and 118 of them (28.0%) were >65 years old. Communication was provided most frequently by voice call (n = 213; 50.5%). The majority of the patients contacted by telemedicine had breast cancer (n = 270; 64.1%). For 135 patients (32.1%) no further examination or intervention was required and the previously planned follow-up visit was postponed by the clinician. Conclusion: This study showed that telemedicine could open a new era for medical oncology specialists.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cancer Survivors , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/organization & administration , Aftercare/standards , Aftercare/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Breast Neoplasms, Male , COVID-19 , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Cancer Care Facilities/standards , Cancer Care Facilities/trends , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/drug therapy , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Medical Oncology/methods , Medical Oncology/standards , Medical Oncology/trends , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Medication Therapy Management/trends , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/trends
10.
ESMO Open ; 5(Suppl 3)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688771

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and its related disease (COVID-19) has required an immediate and coordinate healthcare response to face the worldwide emergency and define strategies to maintain the continuum of care for the non-COVID-19 diseases while protecting patients and healthcare providers. The dimension of the COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented risk especially for the more vulnerable populations. To manage patients with cancer adequately, maintaining the highest quality of care, a definition of value-based priorities is necessary to define which interventions can be safely postponed without affecting patients' outcome. The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has endorsed a tiered approach across three different levels of priority (high, medium, low) incorporating information on the value-based prioritisation and clinical cogency of the interventions that can be applied for different disease sites. Patients with gynaecological cancer are at particular risk of COVID-19 complications because of their age and prevalence of comorbidities. The definition of priority level should be based on tumour stage and histology, cancer-related symptoms or complications, aim (curative vs palliative) and magnitude of benefit of the oncological intervention, patients' general condition and preferences. The decision-making process always needs to consider the disease-specific national and international guidelines and the local healthcare system and social resources, and a changing situation in relation to COVID-19 infection. These recommendations aim to provide guidance for the definition of deferrable and undeferrable interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic for ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers within the context of the ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Medical Oncology/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/epidemiology , Endometrial Neoplasms/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Humans , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Ovarian Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(3): 372-378, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-658728

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has altered medical practice in unprecedented ways. Although much of the emphasis in obstetrics and gynecology to date has been on the as yet uncertain effects of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy and on changes to surgical management, the pandemic has broad implications for ambulatory gynecologic care. In this article, we review important ambulatory gynecologic topics such as safety and mental health, reproductive life planning, sexually transmitted infections, and routine screening for breast and cervical cancer. For each topic, we review how care may be modified during the pandemic, provide recommendations when possible on how to ensure continued access to comprehensive healthcare at this time, and discuss ways that future practice may change. Social distancing requirements may place patients at higher risk for intimate partner violence and mental health concerns, threaten continued access to contraception and abortion services, affect prepregnancy planning, interrupt routine screening for breast and cervical cancer, increase risk of sexually transmitted infection acquisition and decrease access to treatment, and exacerbate already underlying racial and minority disparities in care and health outcomes. We advocate for increased use of telemedicine services with increased screening for intimate partner violence and depression using validated questionnaires. Appointments for long-acting contraceptive insertions can be prioritized. Easier access to patient-controlled injectable contraception and pharmacist-provided hormonal contraception can be facilitated. Reproductive healthcare access can be ensured through reducing needs for ultrasonography and laboratory testing for certain eligible patients desiring abortion and conducting phone follow-up for medication abortions. Priority for in-person appointments should be given to patients with sexually transmitted infection symptoms, particularly if at risk for complications, while also offering expedited partner therapy. Although routine mammography screening and cervical cancer screening may be safely delayed, we discuss society guideline recommendations for higher-risk populations. There may be an increasing role for patient-collected human papillomavirus self-samples using new cervical cancer screening guidelines that can be expanded considering the pandemic situation. Although the pandemic has strained our healthcare system, it also affords ambulatory clinicians with opportunities to expand care to vulnerable populations in ways that were previously underutilized to improve health equity.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gynecology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Contraception , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Offenses , Sexual Health
12.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(8): 1101-1107, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has affected gynecologic cancer management. The goal of this survey was to evaluate changes that occurred in gynecologic oncology practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A anonymous survey consisting of 33 questions (https://sites.google.com/view/gyncacovidfmartinelli) regarding interaction between gynecologic cancers and COVID-19 was distributed online via social media from April 9 to April 30, 2020. Basic descriptive statistics were applied. Analytics of survey-diffusion and generated-interest (visualizations, engagement rates, response rate) were analyzed. RESULTS: The survey received 20 836 visualizations, generating an average engagement rates by reach of 4.7%. The response rate was 30%. A total of 86% of respondents completed the survey, for a total of 187 physicians surveyed across 49 countries. The majority (143/187; 76%) were gynecologic oncologists, and most were ≤50 years old (146/187; 78%). A total of 49.7% (93/187) were facing the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, while 26.7% (50/187) and 23.5% (44/187) were in the peak and plateau phases, respectively. For 97.3% (182/187) of respondents COVID-19 affected or changed their respective clinical practice. Between 16% (27/165) (before surgery) and 25% (26/102) (before medical treatment) did not perform any tests to rule out COVID-19 infection among patients. The majority of respondents did not alter indications of treatment if patients were COVID-19-negative, while treatments were generally postponed in COVID-19-positive patients. Treatments were considered priority for: early stage high-risk uterine cancers (85/187; 45%), newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer (76/187; 41%), and locally advanced cervical cancer (76/187; 41%). Treatment of early stage low-grade endometrioid endometrial cancer was deferred according to 49% (91/187) of respondents, with hormonal treatment as the option of therapy (31%; 56/178). A total of 77% (136/177) of respondents reported no changes in (surgical) treatment for early stage cervical cancer in COVID-19-negative patients, while treatment was postponed by 54% (96/177) of respondent, if the patient tested COVID-19-positive. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancers was considered by over one-third of respondents as well as hypofractionation of radiation treatment for locally advanced cervical cancers. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 affected the treatment of gynecologic cancers patients, both in terms of prioritization and identification of strategies to reduce hospital access and length of stay. Social media is a reliable tool to perform fast-tracking, worldwide surveys.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Gynecology/trends , Medical Oncology/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Global Health , Gynecology/methods , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/trends , Male , Medical Oncology/methods , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media
14.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(4): 221-226, 2020 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8634

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the management strategies for patients with gynecological malignant tumors during the outbreak and transmission of COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment, and disease outcomes of three patients with gynecological malignancies associated with COVID-19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, and proposed management strategies for patients with gynecological tumors underriskof COVID-19. Results: Based on the national diagnosis and treatment protocol as well as research progress for COVID-19, three patients with COVID-19 were treated. Meanwhile, they were also appropriately adjusted the treatment plan in accordance with the clinical guidelines for gynecological tumors. Pneumonia was cured in 2 patients, and one patient died of COVID-19. Conclusions: Patients with gynecological malignant tumors are high-risk groups prone to COVID-19, and gynecological oncologists need to carry out education, prevention, control and treatment according to specific conditions. While, actively preventing and controlling COVID-19, the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological malignant tumors should be carried out in an orderly and safe manner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/surgery , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Management , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
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