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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760649

ABSTRACT

For tiling of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, the ARTIC Network provided a V4 protocol using 99 pairs of primers for amplicon production and is currently the widely used amplicon-based approach. However, this technique has regions of low sequence coverage and is labour-, time-, and cost-intensive. Moreover, it requires 14 pairs of primers in two separate PCRs to obtain spike gene sequences. To overcome these disadvantages, we proposed a single PCR to efficiently detect spike gene mutations. We proposed a bioinformatic protocol that can process FASTQ reads into spike gene consensus sequences to accurately call spike protein variants from sequenced samples or to fairly express the cases of missing amplicons. We evaluated the in silico detection rate of primer sets that yield amplicon sizes of 400, 1200, and 2500 bp for spike gene sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 to be 59.49, 76.19, and 92.20%, respectively. The in silico detection rate of our proposed single PCR primers was 97.07%. We demonstrated the robustness of our analytical protocol against 3000 Oxford Nanopore sequencing runs of distinct datasets, thus ensuring high-integrity sequencing of spike genes for variant SARS-CoV-2 determination. Our protocol works well with the data yielded from versatile primer designs, making it easy to determine spike protein variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Computational Biology , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , Humans , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sequence Analysis, DNA
2.
Gene ; 823: 146387, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719767

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly swept over the world, becoming one of the most devastating outbreaks in human history. Being the first pandemic in the post-genomic era, advancements in genomics contributed significantly to scientific understanding and public health response to COVID-19. Genomic technologies have been employed by researchers all over the world to better understand the biology of SARS-CoV-2 and its origin, genomic diversity, and evolution. Worldwide genomic resources have greatly aided in the investigation of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has ushered in a new era of genomic surveillance, wherein scientists are tracking the changes of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in real-time at the international and national levels. Availability of genomic and proteomic information enables the rapid development of molecular diagnostics and therapeutics. The advent of high-throughput sequencing and genome editing technologies led to the development of modern vaccines. We briefly discuss the impact of genomics in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705877

ABSTRACT

Recombination creates mosaic genomes containing regions with mixed ancestry, and the accumulation of such events over time can complicate greatly many aspects of evolutionary inference. Here, we developed a sliding window bootstrap (SWB) method to generate genomic bootstrap (GB) barcodes to highlight the regions supporting phylogenetic relationships. The method was applied to an alignment of 56 sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the SARS epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The SWB analyses were also used to construct a consensus tree showing the most reliable relationships and better interpret hidden phylogenetic signals. Our results revealed that most relationships were supported by just a few genomic regions and confirmed that three divergent lineages could be found in bats from Yunnan: SCoVrC, which groups SARS-CoV related coronaviruses from China; SCoV2rC, which includes SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses from Southeast Asia and Yunnan; and YunSar, which contains a few highly divergent viruses recently described in Yunnan. The GB barcodes showed evidence for ancient recombination between SCoV2rC and YunSar genomes, as well as more recent recombination events between SCoVrC and SCoV2rC genomes. The recombination and phylogeographic patterns suggest a strong host-dependent selection of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 appears as a mosaic genome composed of regions sharing recent ancestry with three bat SCoV2rCs from Yunnan (RmYN02, RpYN06, and RaTG13) or related to more ancient ancestors in bats from Yunnan and Southeast Asia. Finally, our results suggest that viral circular RNAs may be key molecules for the mechanism of recombination.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics/methods , Recombination, Genetic , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , China , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeography
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(8): 1419-1428, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants concerning for enhanced transmission, evasion of immune responses, or associated with severe disease have motivated the global increase in genomic surveillance. In the current study, large-scale whole-genome sequencing was performed between November 2020 and the end of March 2021 to provide a phylodynamic analysis of circulating variants over time. In addition, we compared the viral genomic features of March 2020 and March 2021. METHODS: A total of 1600 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes were analyzed. Genomic analysis was associated with laboratory diagnostic volumes and positivity rates, in addition to an analysis of the association of selected variants of concern/variants of interest with disease severity and outcomes. Our real-time surveillance features a cohort of specimens from patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after completion of vaccination. RESULTS: Our data showed genomic diversity over time that was not limited to the spike sequence. A significant increase in the B.1.1.7 lineage (alpha variant) in March 2021 as well as a transient circulation of regional variants that carried both the concerning S: E484K and S: P681H substitutions were noted. Lineage B.1.243 was significantly associated with intensive care unit admission and mortality. Genomes recovered from fully vaccinated individuals represented the predominant lineages circulating at specimen collection time, and people with those infections recovered with no hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasize the importance of genomic surveillance coupled with laboratory, clinical, and metadata analysis for a better understanding of the dynamics of viral spread and evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Virology ; 568: 56-71, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665518

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the seventh coronavirus known to infect humans, can cause severe life-threatening respiratory pathologies. To better understand SARS-CoV-2 evolution, genome-wide analyses have been made, including the general characterization of its codons usage profile. Here we present a bioinformatic analysis of the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 codon usage over time using complete genomes collected since December 2019. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 codon usage pattern is antagonistic to, and it is getting farther away from that of the human host. Further, a selection of deoptimized codons over time, which was accompanied by a decrease in both the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons, was observed. All together, these findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could be evolving, at least from the perspective of the synonymous codon usage, to become less pathogenic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Codon Usage , Codon , Evolution, Molecular , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , Humans , Open Reading Frames , Organ Specificity , Phylogeny
7.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651072

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is driven by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in 2019 and quickly spread worldwide. Genomic surveillance has become the gold standard methodology used to monitor and study this fast-spreading virus and its constantly emerging lineages. The current deluge of SARS-CoV-2 genomic data generated worldwide has put additional pressure on the urgent need for streamlined bioinformatics workflows. Here, we describe a workflow developed by our group to process and analyze large-scale SARS-CoV-2 Illumina amplicon sequencing data. This workflow automates all steps of SARS-CoV-2 reference-based genomic analysis: data processing, genome assembly, PANGO lineage assignment, mutation analysis and the screening of intrahost variants. The pipeline is capable of processing a batch of around 100 samples in less than half an hour on a personal laptop or in less than five minutes on a server with 50 threads. The workflow presented here is available through Docker or Singularity images, allowing for implementation on laptops for small-scale analyses or on high processing capacity servers or clusters. Moreover, the low requirements for memory and CPU cores and the standardized results provided by ViralFlow highlight it as a versatile tool for SARS-CoV-2 genomic analysis.


Subject(s)
Automation, Laboratory/methods , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Workflow , Computational Biology/instrumentation , Computational Biology/methods , Genomics/instrumentation , Genomics/methods , Humans , Phylogeny , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Assembly/genetics
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622333

ABSTRACT

High viral transmission in the COVID-19 pandemic has enabled SARS-CoV-2 to acquire new mutations that may impact genome sequencing methods. The ARTIC.v3 primer pool that amplifies short amplicons in a multiplex-PCR reaction is one of the most widely used methods for sequencing the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We observed that some genomic intervals are poorly captured with ARTIC primers. To improve the genomic coverage and variant detection across these intervals, we designed long amplicon primers and evaluated the performance of a short (ARTIC) plus long amplicon (MRL) sequencing approach. Sequencing assays were optimized on VR-1986D-ATCC RNA followed by sequencing of nasopharyngeal swab specimens from fifteen COVID-19 positive patients. ARTIC data covered 94.47% of the virus genome fraction in the positive control and patient samples. Variant analysis in the ARTIC data detected 217 mutations, including 209 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and eight insertions & deletions. On the other hand, long-amplicon data detected 156 mutations, of which 80% were concordant with ARTIC data. Combined analysis of ARTIC + MRL data improved the genomic coverage to 97.03% and identified 214 high confidence mutations. The combined final set of 214 mutations included 203 SNVs, 8 deletions and 3 insertions. Analysis showed 26 SARS-CoV-2 lineage defining mutations including 4 known variants of concern K417N, E484K, N501Y, P618H in spike gene. Hybrid analysis identified 7 nonsynonymous and 5 synonymous mutations across the genome that were either ambiguous or not called in ARTIC data. For example, G172V mutation in the ORF3a protein and A2A mutation in Membrane protein were missed by the ARTIC assay. Thus, we show that while the short amplicon (ARTIC) assay provides good genomic coverage with high throughput, complementation of poorly captured intervals with long amplicon data can significantly improve SARS-CoV-2 genomic coverage and variant detection.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis/methods
9.
Cells ; 11(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580991

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spreads mainly through close contact of infected persons, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis and transmission remain unknown. Here, we propose a statistical physics model to coalesce all molecular entities into a cohesive network in which the roadmap of how each entity mediates the disease can be characterized. We argue that the process of how a transmitter transforms the virus into a recipient constitutes a triad unit that propagates COVID-19 along reticulate paths. Intrinsically, person-to-person transmissibility may be mediated by how genes interact transversely across transmitter, recipient, and viral genomes. We integrate quantitative genetic theory into hypergraph theory to code the main effects of the three genomes as nodes, pairwise cross-genome epistasis as edges, and high-order cross-genome epistasis as hyperedges in a series of mobile hypergraphs. Charting a genome-wide atlas of horizontally epistatic hypergraphs can facilitate the systematic characterization of the community genetic mechanisms underlying COVID-19 spread. This atlas can typically help design effective containment and mitigation strategies and screen and triage those more susceptible persons and those asymptomatic carriers who are incubation virus transmitters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gene Expression Regulation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Epistasis, Genetic , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Humans , Models, Genetic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence/genetics
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 733539, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572288

ABSTRACT

The response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is largely impacted by the level of virus exposure and status of the host immunity. The nature of protection shown by direct asymptomatic contacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive patients is quite intriguing. In this study, we have characterized the antibody titer, SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization, cytokine levels, single-cell T-cell receptor (TCR), and B-cell receptor (BCR) profiling in asymptomatic direct contacts, infected cases, and controls. We observed significant increase in antibodies with neutralizing amplitude in asymptomatic contacts along with cytokines such as Eotaxin, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin 7 (IL-7), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). Upon single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing, we explored the dynamics of the adaptive immune response in few representative asymptomatic close contacts and COVID-19-infected patients. We reported direct asymptomatic contacts to have decreased CD4+ naive T cells with concomitant increase in CD4+ memory and CD8+ Temra cells along with expanded clonotypes compared to infected patients. Noticeable proportions of class switched memory B cells were also observed in them. Overall, these findings gave an insight into the nature of protection in asymptomatic contacts.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Male , /metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Young Adult
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6782-6787, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544298

ABSTRACT

Sao Paulo State, currently experiences a second COVID-19 wave overwhelming the healthcare system. Due to the paucity of SARS-CoV-2 complete genome sequencing, we established a Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants to rapidly understand and monitor the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants into the state. Through analysis of 210 SARS-CoV-2 complete genomes obtained from the largest regional health departments we identified cocirculation of multiple SARS-CoV-2 lineages such as B.1.1 (0.5%), B.1.1.28 (23.2%), B.1.1.7 (alpha variant, 6.2%), B.1.566 (1.4%), B.1.544 (0.5%), C.37 (0.5%) P.1 (gamma variant, 66.2%), and P.2 (zeta variant, 1.0%). Our analysis allowed also the detection, for the first time in Brazil, the South African B.1.351 (beta) variant of concern, B.1.351 (501Y.V2) (0.5%), characterized by the following mutations: ORF1ab: T265I, R724K, S1612L, K1655N, K3353R, SGF 3675_F3677del, P4715L, E5585D; spike: D80A, D215G, L242_L244del, A262D, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V, C1247F; ORF3a: Q57H, S171L, E: P71L; ORF7b: Y10F, N: T205I; ORF14: L52F. The most recent common ancestor of the identified strain was inferred to be mid-October to late December 2020. Our analysis demonstrated the P.1 lineage predominance and allowed the early detection of the South African strain for the first time in Brazil. We highlight the importance of SARS-CoV-2 active monitoring to ensure the rapid detection of potential variants for pandemic control and vaccination strategies. Highlights Identification of B.1.351 (beta) variant of concern in the Sao Paulo State. Dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and interest in the Sao Paulo State. Mutational Profile of the circulating variants of concern and interest.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Genomics/methods , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Mutation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101045, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537118

ABSTRACT

In this protocol, we describe global proteome profiling for the respiratory specimen of COVID-19 patients, patients suspected with COVID-19, and H1N1 patients. In this protocol, details for identifying host, viral, or bacterial proteome (Meta-proteome) are provided. Major steps of the protocol include virus inactivation, protein quantification and digestion, desalting of peptides, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)-based analysis, and downstream bioinformatics analysis. For complete details on the use and execution of this profile, please refer to Maras et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Genomics/methods , Proteomics/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Computational Biology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Techniques , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Peptides , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Specimen Handling/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Virome/genetics , Virome/physiology
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533885

ABSTRACT

Host genomic information, specifically genomic variations, may characterize susceptibility to disease and identify people with a higher risk of harm, leading to better targeting of care and vaccination. Italy was the epicentre for the spread of COVID-19 in Europe, the first country to go into a national lockdown and has one of the highest COVID-19 associated mortality rates. Qatar, on the other hand has a very low mortality rate. In this study, we compared whole-genome sequencing data of 14398 adults and Qatari-national to 925 Italian individuals. We also included in the comparison whole-exome sequence data from 189 Italian laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. We focused our study on a curated list of 3619 candidate genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction. Two population-gene metric scores, the Delta Singleton-Cohort variant score (DSC) and Sum Singleton-Cohort variant score (SSC), were applied to estimate the presence of selective constraints in the Qatari population and in the Italian cohorts. Results based on DSC and SSC metrics demonstrated a different selective pressure on three genes (MUC5AC, ABCA7, FLNA) between Qatari and Italian populations. This study highlighted the genetic differences between Qatari and Italian populations and identified a subset of genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Adult , Alleles , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Exome/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology , Genetics, Population , Genomics/methods , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Exome Sequencing/methods , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533884

ABSTRACT

Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is the basis for almost all sequence comparison and molecular phylogenetic inferences. Large-scale genomic analyses are typically associated with automated progressive MSA without subsequent manual adjustment, which itself is often error-prone because of the lack of a consistent and explicit criterion. Here, I outlined several commonly encountered alignment errors that cannot be avoided by progressive MSA for nucleotide, amino acid, and codon sequences. Methods that could be automated to fix such alignment errors were then presented. I emphasized the utility of position weight matrix as a new tool for MSA refinement and illustrated its usage by refining the MSA of nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The main advantages of the position weight matrix approach include (1) its use of information from all sequences, in contrast to other commonly used methods based on pairwise alignment scores and inconsistency measures, and (2) its speedy computation, making it suitable for a large number of long viral genomic sequences.


Subject(s)
Automation, Laboratory/methods , Genomics/methods , Sequence Alignment/methods , Algorithms , Animals , Automation, Laboratory/standards , Genomics/standards , Humans , Phylogeny , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Alignment/standards , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Sequence Analysis, DNA/standards , Sequence Analysis, Protein/methods , Sequence Analysis, Protein/standards
16.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(5)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528156

ABSTRACT

The low capture rate of expressed RNAs from single-cell sequencing technology is one of the major obstacles to downstream functional genomics analyses. Recently, a number of imputation methods have emerged for single-cell transcriptome data, however, recovering missing values in very sparse expression matrices remains a substantial challenge. Here, we propose a new algorithm, WEDGE (WEighted Decomposition of Gene Expression), to impute gene expression matrices by using a biased low-rank matrix decomposition method. WEDGE successfully recovered expression matrices, reproduced the cell-wise and gene-wise correlations and improved the clustering of cells, performing impressively for applications with sparse datasets. Overall, this study shows a potent approach for imputing sparse expression matrix data, and our WEDGE algorithm should help many researchers to more profitably explore the biological meanings embedded in their single-cell RNA sequencing datasets. The source code of WEDGE has been released at https://github.com/QuKunLab/WEDGE.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , RNA-Seq/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cluster Analysis , Computer Simulation , Genomics/methods , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/classification , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512375

ABSTRACT

Adult rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents an uncommon entity with an incidence of less than 3% of all soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Consequently, the natural history and the clinical management of this disease are infrequently reported. In order to fill this gap, we investigated the molecular biology of an adult RMS case series. The expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related gene and chemoresistance-related gene panels were evaluated. Moreover, taking advantage of our STS translational model combining patient-derived primary culture and 3D-scaffold, the pharmacological profile of an adult head and neck sclerosing RMS was assessed. Furthermore, NGS, microsatellite instability, and in silico analyses were carried out. RT-PCR identified the upregulation of CDH1, SLUG, MMP9, RAB22a, S100P, and LAPTM4b, representing promising biomarkers for this disease. Pharmacological profiling showed the highest sensitivity with anthracycline-based regimen in both 2D and 3D culture systems. NGS analysis detected RAB3IP-HMGA2 in frame gene rearrangement and FGFR4 mutation; microsatellite instability analysis did not detect any alteration. In silico analysis confirmed the mutation of FGFR4 as a promising marker for poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target. We report for the first time the molecular and pharmacological characterization of rare entities of adult head and neck and posterior trunk RMS. These preliminary data could shed light on this poorly understood disease.


Subject(s)
Rhabdomyosarcoma/genetics , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Female , Genomics/methods , Humans , Male , Microsatellite Instability , Mutation/genetics , Sarcoma/genetics , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/genetics , Up-Regulation
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009835, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468151

ABSTRACT

The sharp increase of COVID-19 cases in late 2020 has made Brazil the new epicenter of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The novel viral lineages P.1 (Variant of Concern Gamma) and P.2, respectively identified in the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro, have been associated with potentially higher transmission rates and antibody neutralization escape. In this study, we performed the whole-genome sequencing of 185 samples isolated from three out of the five Brazilian regions, including Amazonas (North region), Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba and Bahia (Northeast region), and Rio de Janeiro (Southeast region) in order to monitor the spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Brazil in the first months of 2021. Here, we showed a widespread dispersal of P.1 and P.2 across Brazilian regions and, except for Amazonas, P.2 was the predominant lineage identified in the sampled states. We estimated the origin of P.2 lineage to have happened in February, 2020 and identified that it has differentiated into new clades. Interstate transmission of P.2 was detected since March, but reached its peak in December, 2020 and January, 2021. Transmission of P.1 was also high in December and its origin was inferred to have happened in August 2020. We also confirmed the presence of lineage P.7, recently described in the southernmost region of Brazil, to have spread across the Northeastern states. P.1, P.2 and P.7 are descended from the ancient B.1.1.28 strain, which co-dominated the first phase of the pandemic in Brazil with the B.1.1.33 strain. We also identified the occurrence of a new lineage descending from B.1.1.33 that convergently carries the E484K mutation, N.9. Indeed, the recurrent report of many novel SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants in Brazil could be due to the absence of effective control measures resulting in high SARS-CoV2 transmission rates. Altogether, our findings provided a landscape of the critical state of SARS-CoV-2 across Brazil and confirm the need to sustain continuous sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 isolates worldwide in order to identify novel variants of interest and monitor for vaccine effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Genetic Variation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(R2): R274-R284, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455301

ABSTRACT

The mouse is the pre-eminent model organism for studies of mammalian gene function and has provided an extraordinarily rich range of insights into basic genetic mechanisms and biological systems. Over several decades, the characterization of mouse mutants has illuminated the relationship between gene and phenotype, providing transformational insights into the genetic bases of disease. However, if we are to deliver the promise of genomic and precision medicine, we must develop a comprehensive catalogue of mammalian gene function that uncovers the dark genome and elucidates pleiotropy. Advances in large-scale mouse mutagenesis programmes allied to high-throughput mouse phenomics are now addressing this challenge and systematically revealing novel gene function and multi-morbidities. Alongside the development of these pan-genomic mutational resources, mouse genetics is employing a range of diversity resources to delineate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and to explore genetic context. Critically, mouse genetics is a powerful tool for assessing the functional impact of human genetic variation and determining the causal relationship between variant and disease. Together these approaches provide unique opportunities to dissect in vivo mechanisms and systems to understand pathophysiology and disease. Moreover, the provision and utility of mouse models of disease has flourished and engages cumulatively at numerous points across the translational spectrum from basic mechanistic studies to pre-clinical studies, target discovery and therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome , Genomics , Alleles , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Discovery , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Association Studies/methods , Genetic Engineering , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Mice , Mutagenesis , Mutation , Phenomics/methods , Phenotype , Precision Medicine , Signal Transduction
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