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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(4): 790-809, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172367

ABSTRACT

In tandem with the ever-increasing aging population in low and middle-income countries, the burden of dementia is rising on the African continent. Dementia prevalence varies from 2.3% to 20.0% and incidence rates are 13.3 per 1000 person-years with increasing mortality in parts of rapidly transforming Africa. Differences in nutrition, cardiovascular factors, comorbidities, infections, mortality, and detection likely contribute to lower incidence. Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated neurocognitive disorders are the most common dementia subtypes. Comprehensive longitudinal studies with robust methodology and regional coverage would provide more reliable information. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is most studied but has shown differential effects within African ancestry compared to Caucasian. More candidate gene and genome-wide association studies are needed to relate to dementia phenotypes. Validated culture-sensitive cognitive tools not influenced by education and language differences are critically needed for implementation across multidisciplinary groupings such as the proposed African Dementia Consortium.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Dementia, Vascular , Dementia , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/genetics , Dementia, Vascular/complications , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2312-2315, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162882

ABSTRACT

We report 5 clustered acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Utah, USA, that were linked to healthcare employees working at multiple facilities. Four outbreaks were caused by norovirus genotype GIX. We recommend continued norovirus surveillance and genotyping to determine contributions of this genotype to norovirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections , Norovirus , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Utah/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(6): 1052-1055, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with a serologic weak D phenotype may demonstrate variable RhD expression. We present a case in which clinical management would have been simplified if RHD genotyping had been performed previously. CASE: A 33-year-old patient, G11P4155, presented with an incomplete miscarriage and was transfused RhD-positive packed red blood cells after typing RhD-positive. The patient had been historically typed RhD-negative by a different testing methodology. Indirect antiglobulin testing was performed, which revealed a serologic weak D phenotype. The patient was given 9,600 micrograms of Rh immune globulin. Molecular testing revealed a partial D antigen, which was originally thought to be at risk for alloimmunization; however, this has since been disproven. CONCLUSION: Although not yet universal practice, prenatal RHD genotyping for partial D antigen could have prevented the characterization of this patient as RhD-positive at the time of transfusion.


Subject(s)
Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Rho(D) Immune Globulin , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Rho(D) Immune Globulin/therapeutic use , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics , Blood Transfusion , Phenotype , Genotype
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(10): 1220-1229, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138355

ABSTRACT

Rationale: A common MUC5B gene polymorphism, rs35705950-T, is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but its role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and disease severity is unclear. Objectives: To assess whether rs35705950-T confers differential risk for clinical outcomes associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection among participants in the Million Veteran Program (MVP). Methods: The MUC5B rs35705950-T allele was directly genotyped among MVP participants; clinical events and comorbidities were extracted from the electronic health records. Associations between the incidence or severity of COVID-19 and rs35705950-T were analyzed within each ancestry group in the MVP followed by transancestry meta-analysis. Replication and joint meta-analysis were conducted using summary statistics from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (HGI). Sensitivity analyses with adjustment for additional covariates (body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking, asbestosis, rheumatoid arthritis with interstitial lung disease, and IPF) and associations with post-COVID-19 pneumonia were performed in MVP subjects. Measurements and Main Results: The rs35705950-T allele was associated with fewer COVID-19 hospitalizations in transancestry meta-analyses within the MVP (Ncases = 4,325; Ncontrols = 507,640; OR = 0.89 [0.82-0.97]; P = 6.86 × 10-3) and joint meta-analyses with the HGI (Ncases = 13,320; Ncontrols = 1,508,841; OR, 0.90 [0.86-0.95]; P = 8.99 × 10-5). The rs35705950-T allele was not associated with reduced COVID-19 positivity in transancestry meta-analysis within the MVP (Ncases = 19,168/Ncontrols = 492,854; OR, 0.98 [0.95-1.01]; P = 0.06) but was nominally significant (P < 0.05) in the joint meta-analysis with the HGI (Ncases = 44,820; Ncontrols = 1,775,827; OR, 0.97 [0.95-1.00]; P = 0.03). Associations were not observed with severe outcomes or mortality. Among individuals of European ancestry in the MVP, rs35705950-T was associated with fewer post-COVID-19 pneumonia events (OR, 0.82 [0.72-0.93]; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The MUC5B variant rs35705950-T may confer protection in COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Mucin-5B/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Genotype , Hospitalization , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 960065, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141708

ABSTRACT

Known SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) can be detected and differentiated using an RT-PCR-based genotyping approach, which offers quicker time to result, lower cost, higher flexibility, and use of the same laboratory instrumentation for detection of SARS-CoV-2 when compared with whole genome sequencing (WGS). In the current study, we demonstrate how we applied a genotyping approach for identification of all VOCs and that such technique can offer comparable performance to WGS for identification of known SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, including more recent strains, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genotype , Whole Genome Sequencing
6.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 60, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interferon-induced transmembrane-protein 3 (IFITM3) is a vital component of the immune system's defense against viral infection. Variants in the IFITM3 gene have been linked to changes in expression and the risk of severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate whether IFITM3 rs6598045, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are associated with an increased mortality rate of COVID-19. METHODS: The genotyping of IFITM3 rs6598045 polymorphism was analyzed using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction in 1342 recovered and 1149 deceased patients positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In this study, IFITM3 rs6598045 G allele as minor allele frequency was significantly more common in the deceased patients than in the recovered ones. Furthermore, the highest mortality rates were observed in Delta variant and lowest qPCR Ct values. COVID-19 mortality was associated with IFITM3 rs6598045 GG and AG in Delta variant and IFITM3 rs6598045 AG in Alpha variant. A statistically significant difference was observed in the qPCR Ct values between individuals with GG and AG genotypes and those with an AA genotype. CONCLUSION: A possible correlation was observed between the mortality rate of COVID-19, the G allele of IFITM3 rs6598045, and SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, large-scale research is still required to validate our results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Alleles , Genotype , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transmembrane serine protease type 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are the main molecules involved in the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. Changes in TMPRSS2 expression levels caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may contribute to the outcome of COVID-19. The aim was to investigate the association between TMPRSS2 gene polymorphisms and the risk of death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included patients with confirmed COVID-19, recruited from two hospitals in northeastern Brazil from August 2020 to July 2021. Two functional polymorphisms (rs2070788 and rs12329760) in TMPRSS2 were evaluated by real-time PCR. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate death. The Cox's proportional hazards model was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 402 patients were followed prospectively. Survival analysis demonstrated that older patients carrying the rs2070788 GG genotype had shorter survival times when compared to those with AG or AA genotypes (p = 0.009). In multivariable analysis, the GG genotype was a factor independently associated with the risk of death in older individuals (hazard ratio = 4.03, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 10.84). CONCLUSIONS: The rs2070788 polymorphism in TMPRSS2 increases risk of death four-fold in older patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serine Endopeptidases , Aged , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Genotype , Hospitalization , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
8.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 5988976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113116

ABSTRACT

Several studies have discovered a relationship between specific blood types, genetic variations of the ABO gene, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ABO rs657152 polymorphisms and ABO blood groups with COVID-19 mortality. The tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system, polymerase chain reaction method, was used for ABO rs657152 polymorphism genotyping in 1,211 dead and 1,442 improved patients. In the current study, the frequency of ABO rs657152 AA than CC genotypes was significantly higher in dead patients than in improved patients. Our findings indicated that blood type A was associated with the highest risk of COVID-19 mortality compared to other blood groups, and patients with blood type O have a lower risk of infection, suggesting that blood type O may be a protective factor against COVID-19 mortality. Multivariate logistic regression test indicated that higher COVID-19 mortality rates were linked with alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, high density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, uric acid, creatinine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, real-time PCR Ct values, ABO blood groups, and ABO rs657152 AA genotype. In conclusion, the AA genotype of ABO rs657152 and blood type A were associated with a considerably increased frequency of COVID-19 mortality. Further research is necessary to validate the obtained results.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Polymorphism, Genetic
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(11): 1520-1526, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117425

ABSTRACT

The antigenic variant QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is endemic in several countries. In Japan, the QX-like genotype is classified as the JP-III genotype based on the partial S1 gene and as the GI-19 genotype based on the complete S1 gene. This study showed that QX-like IBVs and JP-III IBVs can be identified based on the amino acid polymorphism of the S1 glycoprotein. Furthermore, genetic analysis of several IBV field strains detected in commercial broiler farms across the Kyushu area in 2020 revealed Japanese QX-like IBVs, which are highly homologous to the QX-like IBVs recently detected in China and South Korea. Herein, QX-like IBV field strains were isolated for evaluating commercial vaccine efficacy in our future studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Japan/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens , Phylogeny , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genotype
10.
Immunobiology ; 227(6): 152301, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119151

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a respiratory infection with a significant impact on health and society. The pathogenesis is primarily attributed to a dysregulation of cytokines, especially those with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is a recently identified anti-inflammatory cytokine with a proposed involvement in mediating COVID-19 pathogenesis, while the association between IL38 gene variants and disease susceptibility has not been explored. Therefore, a pilot study was designed to evaluate the association of three gene variants in the promoter region of IL38 gene (rs7599662 T/A/C/G, rs28992497 T/C and rs28992498 C/A/T) with COVID-19 risk. DNA sequencing was performed to identify these variants. The study included 148 Iraqi patients with COVID-19 and 113 healthy controls (HC). Only rs7599662 showed a significant negative association with susceptibility to COVID-19. The mutant T allele was presented at a significantly lower frequency in patients compared to HC. Analysis of recessive, dominant and codominant models demonstrated that rs7599662 TT genotype frequency was significantly lower in patients than in HC. In terms of haplotypes (in order: rs7599662, rs28992497 and rs28992498), frequency of CTC haplotype was significantly increased in patients compared to HC, while TTC haplotype showed significantly lower frequency in patients. The three SNPs influenced serum IL-38 levels and homozygous genotypes of mutant alleles were associated with elevated levels. In conclusion, this study indicated that IL38 gene in terms of promoter variants and haplotypes may have important implications for COVID-19 risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Pilot Projects , Iraq , Case-Control Studies , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Haplotypes , Cytokines/genetics , Interleukins/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gene Frequency
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118407

ABSTRACT

Longevity is a unique human phenomenon and a highly stable trait, characterized by polygenicity. The longevity phenotype occurs due to the ability to successfully withstand the age-related genomic instability triggered by Alu elements. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to evaluate the combined contribution of ACE*Ya5ACE, CDH4*Yb8NBC516, COL13A1*Ya5ac1986, HECW1*Ya5NBC182, LAMA2*Ya5-MLS19, PLAT*TPA25, PKHD1L1*Yb8AC702, SEMA6A*Yb8NBC597, STK38L*Ya5ac2145 and TEAD1*Ya5ac2013 Alu elements to longevity. The study group included 2054 unrelated individuals aged from 18 to 113 years who are ethnic Tatars from Russia. We analyzed the dynamics of the allele and genotype frequencies of the studied Alu polymorphic loci in the age groups of young (18-44 years old), middle-aged (45-59 years old), elderly (60-74 years old), old seniors (75-89 years old) and long-livers (90-113 years old). Most significant changes in allele and genotype frequencies were observed between the long-livers and other groups. The search for polygenic predictors of longevity was performed using the APSampler program. Attaining longevity was associated with the combinations LAMA2*ID + CDH4*D (OR = 2.23, PBonf = 1.90 × 10-2) and CDH4*DD + LAMA2*ID + HECW1*D (OR = 4.58, PBonf = 9.00 × 10-3) among persons aged between 18 and 89 years, LAMA2*ID + CDH4*D + SEMA6A*I for individuals below 75 years of age (OR = 3.13, PBonf = 2.00 × 10-2), LAMA2*ID + HECW1*I for elderly people aged 60 and older (OR = 3.13, PBonf = 2.00 × 10-2) and CDH4*DD + LAMA2*D + HECW1*D (OR = 4.21, PBonf = 2.60 × 10-2) and CDH4*DD + LAMA2*D + ACE*I (OR = 3.68, PBonf = 1.90 × 10-2) among old seniors (75-89 years old). The key elements of combinations associated with longevity were the deletion alleles of CDH4 and LAMA2 genes. Our results point to the significance for human longevity of the Alu polymorphic loci in CDH4, LAMA2, HECW1, SEMA6A and ACE genes, involved in the integration systems.


Subject(s)
Longevity , Polymorphism, Genetic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Alu Elements/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Longevity/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Gene Deletion
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 75(5): 1225-1231, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103163

ABSTRACT

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are prevalent worldwide and are a common cause of respiratory tract infection in people of all ages. However, little is known about HAdV infection among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). The present study retrospectively analysed the molecular typing and epidemiological characteristics of HAdV-positive samples from children with SARI from January 2017 to December 2021 in Huzhou. The results showed that 89 (8·27%) of 1078 SARI paediatric patients were positive for HAdVs. Children <5 years of age accounted for 87·64% of the positive cases. The peak seasons for HAdV infection were the first quarter and the fourth quarter. In addition, HAdV-B and HAdV-C were circulating among paediatric patients with SARI, of which the B3 genotype (n = 30, 51·72%) was the most prevalent and was detected every year, indicating that B3 is the main epidemic strain in the Huzhou area, followed by C1 (n = 9, 15·52%), C2 (n = 7, 12·07%) and B7 (n = 5, 8·62%). These findings provide a benchmark for future epidemiology and prevention strategies for HAdVs.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child , Infant , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Phylogeny , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Molecular Typing , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Genotype , China/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology
14.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(4): 411-414, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100391

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization designated Omicron (B.1.1.529 lineage) of SARS-CoV-2 as a new variant of concern on November 26, 2021. The risk to public health conferred by the Omicron variant is still not completely clear, although its numerous gene mutations have raised concerns regarding its potential for increased transmissibility and immune escape. In this study, we describe the development of two single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays targeting the G339D or T547K mutations of the spike protein to screen for the Omicron variant. A specificity test revealed that the two assays successfully discriminated the Omicron variant from the Delta and Alpha variants, each with a single nucleotide mismatch. In addition, a sensitivity test showed that the G339D and T547K assays detected at least 2.60 and 3.36 RNA copies of the Omicron variant, respectively, and 1.59 RNA copies of the Delta variant. These results demonstrate that both assays could be useful for detecting and discriminating the Omicron variant from other strains. In addition, because of the rapid and unpredictable evolution of SARS-CoV-2, combining our assays with previously developed assays for detecting other mutations may lead to a more accurate diagnostic system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genotyping Techniques , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Genotype , RNA , RNA, Viral/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
15.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099860

ABSTRACT

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that interacts with substrates, including microbial metabolites. Recent advances reveal that AhR is involved in the host response to coronaviruses (CoVs) infection. Particularly, AhR antagonists decrease the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via AhR up-regulation, resulting in suppression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in mammalian cells. Herein, we report that AhR is expressed in canine fibrosarcoma (A72) cells, where it is considerably activated by infection with genotype II of canine coronavirus (CCoV-II). The pharmacological inhibition of AhR, by CH223191, suppressed cell death signs and increased cell viability. Furthermore, the AhR antagonist induced a meaningful decline in virus yield, accompanied by the inhibition of the expression of viral nuclear protein (NP). Fascinatingly, during CCoV infection, a novel co-expression of NP and AhR expression was found. Taken together, our preliminary findings show that infection with CCoV activates AhR, and pharmacologic AhR inhibition reduces CCoV replication, identifying AhR as a possible candidate target for CCoV antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus, Canine , Dogs , Animals , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Mammals
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 4761631, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098045

ABSTRACT

Background: Th-17 cells, a proinflammatory subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, have been suggested as a possible cause of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related immunological injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IL-17F (rs763780) polymorphism and the susceptibility to and outcomes of COVID-19 infection and to determine the clinical and laboratory predictors of COVID-19 death. Methods: This case-control study included 132 COVID-19 patients and 135 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. The participants were tested for IL-17F rs763780 polymorphism via TaqMan-based genotyping and for the expression of IL-17 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study also investigated the predictors for COVID-19 mortality. Results: A non-statistically significant association was observed between IL-17F alleles and genotypes with COVID-19 (P=0.309, P=0.138, respectively). Moreover, no significant difference in the IL-17F genotypes was observed between non-survivors and survivors (P=0.482). In the multivariate analysis, the participants with the following characteristics had 17.7-, 11.2-, 8-, and 17.9-fold higher odds of exhibiting in-hospital mortality, respectively: (1) hypertension, (2) age of >57 years, (3) WBC count of >12.6 × 103/mm3, and (4) D-dimer of >0.9 ng/ml. The ROC curve analysis showed that IL-17 at a cutoff point of >46 pg/ml was a perfect discriminator of COVID-19 patients from control subjects (AUC = 1.0). Conclusion: The findings indicate that the IL-17F H161R variant does not influence the risk of COVID-19. However, the IL-17 level is a perfect discriminator of COVID-19 infection. Hypertension, age of >57 years, white blood cell count of >12.6 × 103/mm3, and D-dimer of >0.9 ng/ml are the independent predictors for death among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Middle Aged , Interleukin-17/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Case-Control Studies , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090158

ABSTRACT

The aggressive infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, its rapid spread, and the emergence of mutations necessitate investigation of factors contributing to differences in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and severity. The role of genetic variations in the human HLA continues to be studied in various populations in terms of both its effect on morbidity and clinical manifestation of illness. The study included 484 COVID-19 convalescents (northwest Russia residents of St. Petersburg). Cases in which the responsible strain was determined were divided in two subgroups: group 1 (n = 231) had illness caused by genovariants unrelated to variant of concern (VOC) strains; and group 2 (n = 80) had illness caused by the delta (B.1.617.2) VOC; and a control group (n = 1456). DNA typing (HLA-A, B, DRB1) was performed at the basic resolution level. HLA-A*02 was associated with protection against infection caused by non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants only but not against infection caused by delta strains. HLA-A*03 was associated with protection against infection caused by delta strains; and allele groups associated with infection by delta strains were HLA-A*30, B*49, and B*57. Thus, in northwest Russia, HLA-A*02 was associated with protection against infection caused by non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants but not against delta viral strains. HLA-A*03 was associated with a reduced risk of infection by delta SARS-CoV-2 strains. HLA-A*30, HLA-B*49, and HLA-B*57 allele groups were predisposing factors for infection by delta (B.1.617.2) strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , HLA-A Antigens
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13483, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077085

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused the recent pandemic of respiratory infection, which threatened global health. The severity of the symptoms varies among affected individuals, from asymptotic or mild signs to severe or critical illness. Genetic predisposition explains the variation in disease severity among patients who suffer from severe symptoms without any known background risk factors. The present study was performed to show the association between APOE genotype and the severity of COVID-19 disease. The APOE genotype of 201 COVID-19 patients (101 patients with asymptomatic to mild form of the disease as the control group and 100 patients with severe to critical illness without any known background risk factors as the case group) were detected via multiplex tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method. Results showed that the e4 allele increased the risk of the COVID-19 infection severity more than five times and the e4/e4 genotype showed a 17-fold increase in the risk of severe disease. In conclusion, since our study design was based on the exclusion of patients with underlying diseases predisposing to severe form of COVID-19 and diseases related to the APOE gene in the study population, our results showed that the e4 genotype is independently associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings in other nations and to demonstrate the mechanisms behind the role of these alleles in disease severity.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins E , COVID-19 , Alleles , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Critical Illness , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Cell Syst ; 13(10): 808-816.e5, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075982

ABSTRACT

Human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus on chromosome 14 includes more than 40 functional copies of the variable gene (IGHV), which are critical for the structure of antibodies that identify and neutralize pathogenic invaders as a part of the adaptive immune system. Because of its highly repetitive sequence composition, the IGH locus has been particularly difficult to assemble or genotype when using standard short-read sequencing technologies. Here, we introduce ImmunoTyper-SR, an algorithmic tool for the genotyping and CNV analysis of the germline IGHV genes on Illumina whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data using a combinatorial optimization formulation that resolves ambiguous read mappings. We have validated ImmunoTyper-SR on 12 individuals, whose IGHV allele composition had been independently validated, as well as concordance between WGS replicates from nine individuals. We then applied ImmunoTyper-SR on 585 COVID patients to investigate the associations between IGHV alleles and anti-type I IFN autoantibodies, which were previously associated with COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Variable Region , Humans , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Genotype , COVID-19/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Autoantibodies/genetics
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066138

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia (Sp) is the loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with aging that results in an involution of muscle function and strength. Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide, especially among the elderly, and hypovitaminosis D leads to musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact and presence of a possible linkage between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and VDR (rs2228570), serum 25-OH/D concentrations and the link with the degree of sarcopenia in 19 institutionalized elderly men not supplemented with vitamin D. Levels of 25-OH vitamin D were quantified with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and 3 SNPs were genotyped with KASPar assays. Significant differences in 25-OH/D concentration were determined between the bi-allelic combinations of rs228679 and rs228570. We detected statistically significant weak positive correlations between the AA (rs10741657 and rs228570) and TT (rs228679) and alleles and 25-OH/D and the probability of having higher 25-OH/D concentrations was 2- to 3-fold higher. However, the GG alleles of the 3 SNPs showed that the probability of having optimal 25-0H/D concentrations decreases by 32% for rs10741657, 38% for rs228679, and 74% for rs228570, showing a strong negative correlation between the degree of sarcopenia and 25-OH/D levels. Allelic variations in CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and VDR (rs10741657) affect vitamin D levels and decisively influence the degree of sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly people.


Subject(s)
Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase , Cytochrome P450 Family 2 , Receptors, Calcitriol , Sarcopenia , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D-Binding Protein , Aged , Aging/genetics , Calcifediol , Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase/genetics , Cytochrome P450 Family 2/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Sarcopenia/genetics , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/genetics , Vitamins
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