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3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8407, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233128

ABSTRACT

Secondary transports of patients from one hospital to another are indicated for medical reasons or to address local constraints in capacity. In particular, interhospital transports of critically ill infectious patients present a logistical challenge and can be key in the effective management of pandemic situations. The state of Saxony in Germany has two characteristics that allow for an extensive evaluation of secondary transports in the pandemic year 2020/2021. First, all secondary transports are centrally coordinated by a single institution. Second, Saxony had the highest SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and the highest COVID-19 associated mortality in Germany. This study evaluates secondary interhospital transports from March 2019 to February 2021 in Saxony with a detailed analysis of transport behaviour during the pandemic phase March 2020 to February 2021. Our analysis includes secondary transports of SARS-CoV-2 patients and compares them to secondary transports of non-infectious patients. In addition, our data show differences in demographics, SARS-CoV-2- incidences, ICU occupancy of COVID-19 patients, and COVID-19 associated mortality in all three regional health clusters in Saxony. In total, 12,282 secondary transports were analysed between March 1st, 2020 and February 28th, 2021, of which 632 were associated with SARS-CoV-2 (5.1%) The total number of secondary transports changed slightly during the study period March 2020 to February 2021. Transport capacities for non-infectious patients were reduced due to in-hospital and out-of-hospital measures and could be used for transport of SARS-CoV-2 patients. Infectious transfers lasted longer despite shorter distance, occurred more frequently on weekends and transported patients were older. Primary transport vehicles were emergency ambulances, transport ambulances and intensive care transport vehicles. Data analysis based on hospital structures showed that secondary transports in correlation to weekly case numbers depend on the hospital type. Maximum care hospitals and specialized hospitals show a maximum of infectious transports approximately 4 weeks after the highest incidences. In contrast, standard care hospitals transfer their patients at the time of highest SARS-CoV-2 case numbers. Two incidence peaks were accompanied by two peaks of increased secondary transport. Our findings show that interhospital transfers of SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS-CoV-2 patients differ and that different hospital care levels initiated secondary transports at different times during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitals , Germany/epidemiology
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e44966, 2023 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous countries, including the likes of Japan and Germany, initiated, developed, and deployed digital contact tracing solutions in an effort to detect and interrupt COVID-19 transmission chains. These initiatives indicated the willingness of both the Japanese and German governments to support eHealth solution development for public health; however, end user acceptance, trust, and willingness to make use of the solutions delivered through these initiatives are critical to their success. Through a case-based analysis of contact tracing solutions deployed in Japan and Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic we may gain valuable perspectives on the transnational role of digital technologies in crises, while also projecting possible directions for future pandemic technologies. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigate (1) which types of digital contact tracing solutions were developed and deployed by the Japanese and German governments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) how many of these solutions are open-source software (OSS) solutions. Our objective is to establish not only the type of applications that may be needed in response to a pandemic from the perspective of 2 geographically diverse, world-leading economies but also how prevalent OSS pandemic technology development has been in this context. METHODS: We analyze the official government websites of Japan and Germany to identify digital solutions that are developed and deployed for contact tracing purposes (for any length of time) during the timeframe January-December 2021, specifically in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We subsequently perform a case-oriented comparative analysis, also identifying which solutions are published as open-source. RESULTS: In Japan, a proximity tracing tool (COVID-19 Contact-Confirming Application [COCOA]) and an outbreak management tool (Health Center Real-time Information-sharing System on COVID-19 [HER-SYS]) with an integrated symptom tracking tool (My HER-SYS) were developed. In Germany, a proximity tracing tool (Corona-Warn-App) and an outbreak management tool (Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System [SORMAS]) were developed. From these identified solutions, COCOA, Corona-Warn-App, and SORMAS were published as open-source, indicating support by both the Japanese and German governments for OSS pandemic technology development in the context of public health. CONCLUSIONS: Japan and Germany showed support for developing and deploying not only digital contact tracing solutions but also OSS digital contact tracing solutions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the open nature of such OSS solutions' source code, software solutions (both OSS and non-OSS) are only as transparent as the live or production environment where their processed data is hosted or stored. Software development and live software hosting are thus 2 sides of the same coin. It is nonetheless arguable that OSS pandemic technology solutions for public health are a step in the right direction for enhanced transparency in the interest of the greater public good.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Germany/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e071331, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine potential deteriorations in mental health and well-being in the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared with the previous decade focusing on the following vulnerable subgroups in Germany: women with minor children in the household, those living without a partner, younger and older adults, those in a precarious labour market situation, immigrants and refugees, and those with pre-existing physical or mental health risks. DESIGN: Analyses of secondary longitudinal survey data using cluster-robust pooled ordinary least squares models. PARTICIPANTS: More than 20 000 individuals (aged 16+ years) in Germany. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey measuring mental health-related quality of life, single item on life satisfaction (LS). RESULTS: We find a decline in the average MCS in the 2020 survey that is not particularly striking in the overall time course, still resulting in a mean score below those of all preceding waves since 2010. We find no change in LS from 2019 to 2020 against the background of a general upward trend. Regarding vulnerability factors, only the results on age and parenthood are partially in line with our expectations. In 2020, LS declined among the youngest adults; MCS declined among mothers (and women and men without children) but not fathers. Unlike respective comparison groups, refugees, those unemployed before the pandemic and those with pre-existing mental health risks experienced no MCS declines in 2020, whereas persons living without a partner, the eldest, and those with pre-existing health risks exhibited continued increases in LS. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence for substantial breakdowns in mental health or subjective well-being in the first pandemic year in the German population or its subgroups, particularly when considering developments of the previous decade. Since the majority of hypothesised vulnerable groups to pandemic stressors showed more stable MCS and LS, our results warrant further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Child , Humans , Female , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Germany/epidemiology
6.
Anaesthesiologie ; 72(6): 408-415, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the implementation of the European Resuscitation Council Corona-Virus-Disease 2019 (COVID-19) resuscitation guidelines in Germany 1 year after publication. AIM OF THE WORK: To evaluate the practical implementation of the COVID-19 resuscitation guidelines in Germany one year after their publication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an online survey between April and May 2021 participants were asked about awareness of COVID-19 resuscitation guidelines, corresponding training, the resuscitation algorithm used and COVID-19 infections of emergency medicine personnel associated with COVID-19 resuscitation. RESULTS: A total of 961 (8%) of the 11,000 members took part in the survey and 85% (818/961) of questionnaires were fully completed. While 577 (70%) of the respondents were aware of the COVID-19 guidelines, only 103 (13%) had received respective training. A specific COVID-19 resuscitation algorithm was used by 265 respondents (32%). Adaptations included personal protective equipment (99%), reduction of staff caring for the patient, or routine use of video laryngoscopy for endotracheal intubation (each 37%), securing the airway before rhythm analysis (32%), and pausing chest compressions during endotracheal intubation (30%). Respondents without a specific COVID-19 resuscitation algorithm were more likely to use mouth-nose protection (47% vs. 31%; p < 0.001), extraglottic airway devices (66% vs. 55%; p = 0.004) and have more than 4 team members close to the patient (45% vs. 38%; p = 0.04). Use of an Filtering-Face-Piece(FFP)-2 or FFP3 mask (89% vs. 77%; p < 0.001; 58% vs. 70%; p ≤ 0.001) or performing primary endotracheal intubation (17% vs. 31%; p < 0.001) were found less frequently and 9% reported that a team member was infected with COVID-19 during resuscitation. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 resuscitation guidelines are still insufficiently implemented 1 year after publication. Future publication strategies must ensure that respective guideline adaptations are implemented in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Resuscitation , Germany/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Pneumologie ; 77(7): 408-412, 2023 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the aim of protecting minors, the World Health Organization has recommended classifying films with smoking scenes as unsuitable for children and adolescents. In recent years, films have increasingly been viewed via video streaming services - a trend which has been intensified by the COVID-19 pandemic - which poses new challenges for the protection of minors. AIM: To examine the frequency of smoking scenes in Netflix feature films and the age recommendations for Netflix productions with smoking scenes. METHOD: A total of 235 films that were made available for streaming exclusively by the Netflix platform in 2021 and 2022 were content coded in order to find out (1) how high the proportion of smoke-free films was in this film sample, (2) how often smoking scenes occurred in these films and (3) the proportion of films with smoke scenes classified as appropriate for young people in Germany and the USA. All films with an age rating of under 16 were considered suitable for children and young people. RESULTS: Smoking scenes occurred in 113 of 235 analyzed films (48.1%). Of the 113 films with smoking scenes, 57 (50.4%) in Germany and 26 films (23.0%) in the USA were classified as youth films (p<0.001). A total of 3,310 smoking scenes were registered. Of these, 39.4% (n=1,303) were in films with youth ratings in Germany, and in Netflix USA this proportion was 15.8% (n=524). DISCUSSION: Smoking scenes are a common feature in Netflix movies. Neither in the US nor in Germany does Netflix adhere to the recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to restrict access by young people to films depicting smoking. However, the protection of minors in the US is better than in Germany, since half of the Netflix films with smoking scenes in Germany were rated as suitable for minors, in the USA less than a quarter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motion Pictures , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology
8.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 66(7): 727-735, 2023 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous nationwide health monitoring is important to track the well-being of children and adolescents and to map developmental trajectories. Based on the results of three selected epidemiological studies, developments in child well-being over the past 20 years are presented. METHODS: Data are based on (1) the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey among Children and Adolescents (BELLA study, 2003-2017, N = 1500 to 3000), which is a module of the KiGGS study; (2) the COvid-19 and PSYchological Health Study (COPSY, 2020-2022, N = 1600-1700), which is based on the BELLA Study; and (3) the International Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC, 2002-2018, N = 4300-7300). Well-being was assessed in 7­ to 17-year-olds using indicators of health-related quality of life (KIDSCREEN-10), life satisfaction (Cantril Ladder), and mental health problems (Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)). RESULTS: Overall, children and adolescents show consistently high health-related quality of life and high overall life satisfaction pre-pandemic (2002-2018), which initially worsened with the onset of the 2020 COVID-19-pandemic. Two years later, improvements are evident but have not yet reached baseline levels. Psychological problems, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased by up to 12 percentage points at the beginning of the pandemic and are still higher two years after the onset of the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic studies. CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of child well-being provides a necessary data basis to assess the support needs of children and adolescents and to use this as a basis for developing measures of health promotion, prevention, and intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Health Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies
9.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 148(13): e65-e75, 2023 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234277

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the present paper we aim to describe the experience of a large chemical company in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, we describe the timing and content of implemented measures and outline the course of the pandemic from the company's perspective. METHODS: We describe the infection protection measures and the pandemic course at the company's main site in Ludwigshafen (Germany) from March 2020 to May 2022. Company-specific data on the date of reporting an infection, suspected place of infection, number of close contacts, and the employee group were used to calculate 7-day-incidences and visualized, among other things, by means of a plant map (active infections) and a network chart (chains of infection). In addition, a weighted average of the incidences from districts close to the plant (weighted by the number of resident employees within the district) was calculated using publicly available data by the Robert Koch Institute and compared with the course of company-specific incidences. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up on 31st May 2022, 9,379 infections with SARS-CoV-2 had been recorded in employees and 758 more in leasing staff, including 368 (4%) and 84 (11%) suspected infections at the workplace/on-site, respectively. The course of 7-day incidences among employees was mainly consistent with that in the surrounding districts. The incidence of suspected infections on-site/at the workplace remained predominantly at a comparatively low level below 100 new infections over 7 days/100,000. DISCUSSION: The continuous monitoring and analysis of new SARS-CoV-2 cases among employees provides valuable information for the effective management of protective measures in the company. It enables a targeted response to changes in the number of new cases on the plant site by tightening or relaxing protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Incidence
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 7(1)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321807

ABSTRACT

An unusual high number of girls were referred to our paediatric endocrine clinic with suspected precocious puberty (PP) since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analysed our data and initiated a survey among German paediatric endocrinologists.At our centre, less than 10 patients were diagnosed of PP annually between 2015 and 2019. This increased to n=23 (2020) and n=30 (2021). A German survey confirmed this observation: Out of 44 centres which completed the questionnaire, 30/44 (68%) reported an increase of PP. Above this, 32/44 (72%) stated an increase in girls diagnosed with 'early normal puberty' since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Puberty, Precocious , Child , Female , Humans , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
11.
Dermatologie (Heidelb) ; 74(6): 430-439, 2023 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320029

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus pandemic, significantly more pets were probably bought and kept. This study focuses on whether more zoophilic dermatophytes have subsequently been isolated and which species predominate. In the 1­year period from March 2020 through February 2021, all zoophilic dermatophytes from all submissions to the Mölbis laboratory were recorded. Both the cultural and the molecular evidence of fungal detection from skin scrapings, hair roots, and, in single cases, from nails, were considered. For dermatophyte DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) detection, an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. In distinct cases, identification of dermatophytes was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA, and of the gene of the translation elongation factor (TEF)-1α. In 579 (2.56%) of 22,575 samples studied in the year 2020/2021, zoophilic dermatophytes were detectable with PCR-ELISA and/or by cultivation. In comparison, the proportion of zoophilic dermatophytes was 2.03% in the 1­year period 2014/2015, and only 1.6% in 2018/2019. The 579 zoophilic dermatophytes were identified as follows: Trichophyton (T.) benhamiae 186 (32.1%), T. mentagrophytes 173 (29.9%), T. quinckeanum 110 (19.0%), Microsporum (M.) canis 78 (13.5%), T. verrucosum 22 (3.8%), Nannizzia (N.) persicolor 8 (1.4%), T. erinacei 1 (0.2%), and T. equinum 1 (0.2%). T. benhamiae had the highest prevalence from June to September 2020, then again in December. T. quinckeanum is associated with a sharp increase in the mice population in Germany in 2020; a significant increase was found in the months September 2020 to January 2021. T. mentagrophytes had a conspicuous peak in September. Compered with that M. canis in November. Up to 50% of the dermatophytoses caused by T. mentagrophytes, T. quinckeanum, and M. canis affected children and adolescents, while in the case of T. benhamiae it was as much as two thirds. Tinea corporis was the most common, followed by tinea faciei and tinea capitis. M. canis infections affected the capillitium more frequently than the face. Zoophilic dermatophytes were increasingly isolated during the coronavirus pandemic in Germany when compared to previous year periods. In first place, the dermatophyte T. benhamiae from guinea pigs was found in children and adolescents. A significant proportion of dermatophytoses concerned adults. T. quinckeanum is an emerging pathogen in Germany with unprecedented high infection rates in 2020.


Subject(s)
Arthrodermataceae , Canidae , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dermatomycoses , Tinea , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tinea/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology
12.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e392, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316372

ABSTRACT

A mix of guidance and mandated regulations during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic served to reduce the number of social contacts, to ensure distancing in public spaces, and to maintain the isolation of infected individuals. Individual variation in compliance to social distancing in Germany, relating to age, gender, or the presence of pre-existing health conditions, was examined using results from a total of 39 375 respondents to a web-based behavioral survey.Older people and females were more willing to engage in social distancing. Those with chronic conditions showed overall higher levels of compliance, but those with cystic fibrosis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and epilepsy showed less adherence to general social distancing measures but were significantly more likely to isolate in their homes. Behavioral differences partly lie in the nature of each condition, especially with those conditions likely to be exacerbated by COVID-19. Compliance differences for age and gender are largely in line with previous studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Germany/epidemiology
13.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 799, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health and social measures, decreasing patient numbers have been described in various healthcare settings in Germany, including emergency care. This could be explained by changes in disease burden, e.g. due to contact restrictions, but could also be a result of changes in utilisation behaviour of the population. To better understand those dynamics, we analysed routine data from emergency departments to quantify changes in consultation numbers, age distribution, disease acuity and day and hour of the day during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We used interrupted time series analyses to estimate relative changes for consultation numbers of 20 emergency departments spread throughout Germany. For the pandemic period (16-03-2020 - 13-06-2021) four different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as interruption points, the pre-pandemic period (06-03-2017 - 09-03-2020) was used as the reference. RESULTS: The most pronounced decreases were visible in the first and second wave of the pandemic, with changes of - 30.0% (95%CI: - 32.2%; - 27.7%) and - 25.7% (95%CI: - 27.4%; - 23.9%) for overall consultations, respectively. The decrease was even stronger for the age group of 0-19 years, with - 39.4% in the first and - 35.0% in the second wave. Regarding acuity levels, consultations assessed as urgent, standard, and non-urgent showed the largest decrease, while the most severe cases showed the smallest decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The number of emergency department consultations decreased rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic, without extensive variation in the distribution of patient characteristics. Smallest changes were observed for the most severe consultations and older age groups, which is especially reassuring regarding concerns of possible long-term complications due to patients avoiding urgent emergency care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Aged , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Germany/epidemiology
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e80, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319036

ABSTRACT

To mitigate the known high transmission risk in day-care facilities for children aged 0-6 years, day-care staff were given priority for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, in March 2021. This study assessed direct and indirect effects of early vaccination of day-care staff on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in daycares with the aim to provide a basis for the prioritisation of scarce vaccines in the future. Data came from statutory infectious disease notifications in educational institutions and from in-depth investigations by the district public health authorities. Using interrupted time series analyses, we measured the effect of mRNA-based vaccination of day-care staff on SARS-CoV-2 infections and transmission. Among 566 index cases from day-care centres, the mean number of secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections per index case dropped by -0.60 case per month after March 2021. The proportion of staff among all cases reported from daycares was around 60% in the pre-interruption phase and significantly decreased by 27 percentage points immediately in March 2021 and by further 6 percentage points each month in the post-interruption phase. Early vaccination of day-care staff reduced SARS-CoV-2 cases in the overall day-care setting and thus also protected unvaccinated children. This should inform future decisions on vaccination prioritisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Male , Female
15.
Diabetes Care ; 46(7): 1379-1387, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Germany during 2 years of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (2020-2021) compared with the control period 2011-2019. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on T2D in children (aged 6 to <18 years) were obtained from the DPV (German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up) Registry. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidences for 2020 and 2021 based on data from 2011 to 2019, and these were compared with observed incidences in 2020 and 2021 by estimating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Incidence of youth-onset T2D increased from 0.75 per 100,000 patient-years (PYs) in 2011 (95% CI 0.58, 0.93) to 1.25 per 100,000 PYs in 2019 (95% CI 1.02, 1.48), an annual increase of 6.8% (95% CI 4.1, 9.6). In 2020, T2D incidence increased to 1.49 per 100,000 PYs (95% CI 1.23, 1.81), which was not significantly higher than predicted (IRR 1.15; 95% CI 0.90, 1.48). In 2021, the observed incidence was significantly higher than expected (1.95; 95% CI 1.65, 2.31 vs. 1.38; 95% CI 1.13, 1.69 per 100,000 PYs; IRR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12, 1.77). Although there was no significant increase in incidence in girls in 2021, the observed incidence in boys (2.16; 95% CI 1.73, 2.70 per 100,000 PYs) significantly exceeded the predicted rate (IRR 1.55; 95% CI 1.14, 2.12), leading to a reversal of the sex ratio of pediatric T2D incidence. CONCLUSIONS: In Germany, incidence of pediatric T2D increased significantly in 2021. Adolescent boys were more affected by this increase, resulting in a reversal of the sex ratio of youth-onset T2D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Incidence , Sex Ratio , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology
16.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300058

ABSTRACT

On a global scale, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a serious threat to the health of the human population. Not only humans can be infected, but also their companion animals. The antibody status of 115 cats and 170 dogs, originating from 177 German households known to have been SARS-CoV-2 positive, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results were combined with information gathered from a questionnaire that was completed by the owner(s) of the animals. The true seroprevalences of SARS-CoV-2 among cats and dogs were 42.5% (95% CI 33.5-51.9) and 56.8% (95% CI 49.1-64.4), respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression accounting for data clustered in households, for cats, the number of infected humans in the household and an above-average contact intensity turned out to be significant risk factors; contact with humans outside the household was a protective factor. For dogs, on the contrary, contact outside the household was a risk factor, and reduced contact, once the human infection was known, was a significant protective factor. No significant association was found between reported clinical signs in animals and their antibody status, and no spatial clustering of positive test results was identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Risk Factors , Germany/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
17.
Public Health ; 219: 35-38, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298133

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Research shows that there is an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in migrants and ethnic minorities. However, increasing evidence indicates that socio-economic factors, such as employment, education and income, contribute to the association between migrant status and SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to examine the association between migrant status and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Germany and to discuss potential explanations for these associations. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data from the German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring online survey were analysed, and hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the probabilities of self-reported SARS-CoV-2 infection. Predictor variables were integrated in a stepwise method as follows: (1) migrant status (defined by own or parental country of birth other than Germany); (2) gender, age and education; (3) household size; (4) household language; and (5) occupation in the health sector, including an interaction term of migrant status (yes) and occupation in the health sector (yes). RESULTS: Of 45,858 participants, 3.5% reported a SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 16% were migrants. Migrants, participants in large households, those speaking a language other than German in their household and those working in the health sector were more likely to report SARS-CoV-2 infection. The probability of reporting SARS-CoV-2 infection was 3.95 percentage points higher for migrants than non-migrants; this probability decreased when integrating further predictor variables. The strongest association of reporting a SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed for migrants working in the health sector. CONCLUSIONS: Migrants and health sector employees, and especially migrant health workers, are at an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results show that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is determined by living and working conditions rather than migrant status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Germany/epidemiology
18.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296563

ABSTRACT

Following the extensive non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and behavioral changes in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, an interseasonal rise in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cases was observed in Germany in 2021. The aim of this study was to characterize the local molecular epidemiology of RSV infections in comparison to the three pre-pandemic seasons. Additionally, clinical data were retrieved from patient charts to determine the clinical significance of RSV infections. RSV detections peaked in calendar week 40 of 2021, 18 weeks earlier than the usual peak observed in the three pre-pandemic seasons. Sequence analysis revealed a close phylogenetic relatedness regardless of the season of origin. A significantly higher amount of pediatric cases (88.9% of all cases, p < 0.001) was observed for season 2021/2022. For the pediatric cases, significant differences were observed for an increased number of siblings in the household (p = 0.004), a lower rate of fever (p = 0.007), and a reduced amount of co-infections (p = 0.001). Although the mean age of the adult patients was significantly younger (47.1 vs. 64.7, p < 0.001), high rates of comorbidities, lower respiratory tract infections and intensive care unit admissions prevailed. The NPIs in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a tremendous impact on the epidemiologic characteristics and seasonality of RSV and warrant further epidemiologic studies of this important pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Child , Seasons , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology
19.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(6): 640-641, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296347

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study evaluates IgG antibody levels in children and adolescents in Germany following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saliva , Humans , Adolescent , Child , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Germany/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral
20.
Nature ; 600(7887): 121-126, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253143

ABSTRACT

Mental health is an important component of public health, especially in times of crisis. However, monitoring public mental health is difficult because data are often patchy and low-frequency1-3. Here we complement established approaches by using data from helplines, which offer a real-time measure of 'revealed' distress and mental health concerns across a range of topics4-9. We collected data on 8 million calls from 19 countries, focusing on the COVID-19 crisis. Call volumes peaked six weeks after the initial outbreak, at 35% above pre-pandemic levels. The increase was driven mainly by fear (including fear of infection), loneliness and, later in the pandemic, concerns about physical health. Relationship issues, economic problems, violence and suicidal ideation, however, were less prevalent than before the pandemic. This pattern was apparent both during the first wave and during subsequent COVID-19 waves. Issues linked directly to the pandemic therefore seem to have replaced rather than exacerbated underlying anxieties. Conditional on infection rates, suicide-related calls increased when containment policies became more stringent and decreased when income support was extended. This implies that financial relief can allay the distress triggered by lockdown measures and illustrates the insights that can be gleaned from the statistical analysis of helpline data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hotlines/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Behavior, Addictive , Datasets as Topic , Employment , Fear , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Health , Health Policy , Humans , Internationality , Loneliness , Male , United States/epidemiology , Violence
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