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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4645-4654, 2021 Oct.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234412

ABSTRACT

This study approaches the Global Health Security Index (GHSI) according to the responses to the first cycle of the COVID-19. The GHSI ranks countries' institutional capacity to address biological risks. We analyzed data regarding the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in 50 countries to assess the ability of GHSI to anticipate health risks. The lack of vaccination determined the spread of the COVID-19 in the first cycle of the pandemic in 2020. Country indicators are correlated and demonstrated by descriptive statistics. The clustering method groups countries by similar age composition. The main restriction that can be attributed to the GHSI concerns the preference of biomedical variables for measuring institutional capacity. Our work shows that the pandemic had a significant impact on better-prepared countries, according to the GHSI, to control the spread of diseases and offer more access to health care in 2020. This paper points out that the health sector depended on the cooperation of governments in the adoption of social distancing during the first cycle of the pandemic. The GHSI failed to consider the role of political leaders who challenge severe health risks by vetoing social distancing.


O artigo analisa o Índice da Segurança Sanitária Global (ISSG) à luz das respostas nacionais ao primeiro ciclo da pandemia da COVID-19. O ISSG classifica a capacidade dos países no enfrentamento dos riscos biológicos graves. O artigo examina os dados da pandemia de 50 países para avaliar o poder preditivo do ISSG. A ausência da vacinação determinou difusão da COVID-19 no primeiro ciclo da pandemia em 2020. Os indicadores dos países são correlacionados e demonstrados por estatística descritiva. A metodologia de aglomeração por clusters agrupa os países segundo a similaridade da composição etária. A principal restrição que pode ser atribuída ao ISSG diz respeito ao privilegiamento das variáveis biomédicas para a mensuração da capacidade institucional. O artigo evidencia que, paradoxalmente, o primeiro ciclo da pandemia teve um impacto significativo nos países teoricamente mais preparados, segundo o ISSG, para controlar a disseminação de doenças e oferecer mais acesso à assistência à saúde. O artigo assinala que durante o primeiro ciclo da pandemia, o setor saúde dependeu da cooperação dos governos na adoção do distanciamento social. O ISSG não considerou o papel das lideranças políticas que desafiam o risco sanitário severo por veto às medidas de distanciamento social.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA ; 329(17): 1447-1448, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241051

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint recommends increasing US global health funding levels, outlines steps for ensuring optimal integration and coordination of activities, and discusses ways to elevate noncommunicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Healthcare Financing , International Cooperation , Global Health/economics , United States
6.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 25(7): 301-311, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings in global mental health along several domains including socioeconomic determinants, inequities, funding, and inclusion in global mental health research and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Mental illness continues to disproportionately impact vulnerable populations and treatment coverage continues to be low globally. Advances in integrating mental health care and adopting task-shifting are accompanied by implementation challenges. The mental health impact of recent global events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, geo-political events, and environmental change is likely to persist and require coordinated care approaches for those in need of psychosocial support. Inequities also exist in funding for global mental health and there has been gradual progress in terms of building local capacity for mental health care programs and research. Lastly, there is an increasing effort to include people with lived experiences of mental health in research and policy shaping efforts. The field of global mental health will likely continue to be informed by evidence and perspectives originating increasingly from low- and middle-income countries along with ongoing global events and centering of relevant stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Global Health
7.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 39(7): 1007-1011, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239535

ABSTRACT

Medical Information in the pharmaceutical industry involves the creation and dissemination of evidence-based scientific medical content in response to questions about medicines and therapy areas for patients and healthcare professionals. Health information equity can be broadly defined as the distribution of health information in a way that is accessible and understandable to all users, allowing them to benefit and reach their full potential for health. Ideally, this information would be made available to all those in need across the globe. However, as demonstrated by the COVID-19 pandemic, widespread health discrepancies exist. The World Health Organization defines health inequity as differences in health status or in the distribution of health resources between different population groups. Health inequities are influenced by the social conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. This article explains select key factors influencing health information inequity and addresses opportunities where Medical Information departments can make a difference to improve global public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Humans , Pandemics , Global Health , Health Resources
8.
Ann Glob Health ; 89(1): 32, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238945

ABSTRACT

Background: Place-based international electives that build global health competencies have existed for decades. However, these electives require travel and are infeasible for many trainees around the world, particularly those with insufficient financial resources, logistical complexities, or visa limitations. The emergence of virtual approaches to global health electives, catalyzed by the travel pause related to the COVID-19 pandemic, necessitates the exploration of learner impacts, participant diversity, and curricular frameworks. Child Family Health International (CFHI), a non-profit global health education organization that partners with universities to expand immersive educational offerings, launched a virtual global health elective in 2021. The elective drew on faculty from Bolivia, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, the Philippines, Uganda, and the United States. Objective: This study aimed to describe a newly developed virtual global health elective curriculum and evaluate the demographics of and impacts on trainee participants. Methods: Eighty-two trainees who were enrolled in the virtual global health elective from January to May 2021 completed both 1) pre- and post-elective self-assessments of domains of competency mapped to the elective curriculum and 2) free text responses to standardized questions. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical analysis, paired t-testing, and qualitative thematic analysis. Findings: The virtual global health elective had 40% of its participants hail from countries other than the United States. Self-reported competency in global health broadly, planetary health, low resource clinical reasoning, and overall composite competency significantly increased. Qualitative analysis revealed learner development in health systems, social determinants of health, critical thinking, planetary health, cultural humility, and professional practice. Conclusion: Virtual global health electives effectively develop key competencies in global health. This virtual elective had a 40-fold increase in the proportion of trainees from outside the United States, compared to pre-pandemic place-based electives. The virtual platform facilitates accessibility for learners from a variety of health professions and a wide range of geographic and socioeconomic environments. Further research is needed to confirm and expand on self-reported data, and to pursue approaches to greater diversity, equity, and inclusion in virtual frameworks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , United States , Humans , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Collection , Curriculum , Catalysis
9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1182328, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238208

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Violence against healthcare workers is a global health problem threatening healthcare workforce retention and health system resilience in a fragile post-COVID 'normalisation' period. In this perspective article, we argue that violence against healthcare workers must be made a greater priority. Our novel contribution to the debate is a comparative health system and policy approach. Methods: We have chosen a most different systems comparative approach concerning the epidemiological, political, and geographic contexts. Brazil (under the Bolsonaro government) and the United Kingdom (under the Johnson government) serve as examples of countries that were strongly hit by the pandemic in epidemiological terms while also displaying policy failures. New Zealand and Germany represent the opposite. A rapid assessment was undertaken based on secondary sources and country expertise. Results: We found similar problems across countries. A global crisis makes healthcare workers vulnerable to violence. Furthermore, insufficient data and monitoring hamper effective prevention, and lack of attention may threaten women, the nursing profession, and migrant/minority groups the most. There were also relevant differences. No clear health system pattern can be identified. At the same time, professional associations and partly the media are strong policy actors against violence. Conclusion: In all countries, muchmore involvement from political leadership is needed. In addition, attention to the political dimension and all forms of violence are essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Violence , Policy , Health Personnel
10.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1104669, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236694

ABSTRACT

This article is part of the Research Topic 'Health Systems Recovery in the Context of COVID-19 and Protracted Conflict'. As the world faces global health crises such as pandemics, epidemics, climate change and evolving disease burdens and population demographics, building strong and resilient public health systems is of critical importance. The need for an integrated approach to building health system resilience; the widening of inequalities; and fears of vulnerable populations being left behind are critical issues that require Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) enquiry as independent public oversight bodies. Each country has a Supreme Audit Institution with a remit to audit public funds as an effective, accountable, and inclusive institution. Government audits are key components of effective public financial management and Good Governance. SAIs contribute to the quality of government engagement and better state-society relations through their work. As SAIs provide independent external oversight and contribute to follow up and review of national targets linked to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their respective countries, they can play an important role in national recovery efforts. WHO and INTOSAI Development Initiative (IDI) have been collaborating in facilitating SAIs' audits of strong and resilient national public health systems linked to the national target of SDG 3.d in 40 countries across Africa, Americas, Asia and Oceania between 2021 and 2022. This paper aims to convey key lessons learned from the joint multisectoral collaboration for facilitating the 3.d audits that can contribute to building health systems resilience in ongoing recovery efforts. The collaboration included facilitation of the audits through professional education and audit support using a health systems resilience framework. The 3.d audits are performance audits and follow IDI's SDG Audit Model (ISAM). Following the ISAM implies that the SAI should focus on a whole-of-government approach, policy coherence and integration, and assess both government efforts at 'leaving no one behind' and multi-stakeholder engagement in implementing the chosen national SDG target linked to 3.d. WHO's Health Systems Resilience team has supported IDI and SAIs by delivering training sessions and reviewing working papers and draft reports of the SAIs from a health systems resilience perspective. IDI has provided the technical expertise on performance audits through its technical team and through in-kind contributions from mentors from many SAIs in the regions participating in the audit. In the 3.d audit, SAIs can ask how governments are acting to enhance capacity in some or all of the following, depending on their own national context and risk: forecasting, preventing and preparing for public health emergencies (PHEs) and threatsadapting, absorbing and responding to PHEs and threatsmaintaining essential health services in all contexts (including during emergencies/crises). The audits are expected to highlight current capacities of health systems resilience; the extent to which a whole-of-government approach and policy coherence have been utilised; and government efforts related to multistakeholder engagement and leaving no one behind in building health systems resilience related to progressing towards achieving the national target linked to 3.d by 2030. An overall positive achievement noted was that undertaking a complex health audit in the middle of a pandemic is possible and can contribute to building health systems resilience and recovery efforts. In their review of audit plans, draft summaries, and other work by the SAIs, both WHO and IDI have observed that SAIs have used the training and supplementary materials and applied various parts of it in their audits. This collaboration also demonstrates key considerations needed for successful partnership across multisectoral partners at global, regional and national levels. Such considerations can be applied in different contexts, including socioeconomic and health system recovery, to ensure whole-of-society and whole-of-government action in building health systems resilience and monitoring and evaluation to maintain and accelerate progress towards the national target linked to SDG3.d, health security and universal health coverage (UHC), as well as broader socioeconomic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies , World Health Organization , Global Health
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(6)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236651

ABSTRACT

Global health requires evidence-based approaches to improve health and decrease inequalities. In a roundtable discussion between health practitioners, funders, academics and policy-makers, we recognised key areas for improvement to deliver better-informed, sustainable and equitable global health practices. These focus on considering information-sharing mechanisms and developing evidence-based frameworks that take an adaptive function-based approach, grounded in the ability to perform and respond to prioritised needs. Increasing social engagement as well as sector and participant diversity in whole-of-society decision-making, and collaborating with and optimising on hyperlocal and global regional entities, will improve prioritisation of global health capabilities. Since the skills required to navigate drivers of pandemics, and the challenges in prioritising, capacity building and response do not sit squarely in the health sector, it is essential to integrate expertise from a broad range of fields to maximise on available knowledge during decision-making and system development. Here, we review the current assessment tools and provide seven discussion points for how improvements to implementation of evidence-based prioritisation can improve global health.


Subject(s)
Evidence-Based Practice , Global Health , Humans
12.
J Glob Health ; 13: 04044, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235867

ABSTRACT

Background: Past case studies on global initiatives to address maternal health and survival have focused on global health networks, identifying four essential tasks that define their ability to successfully enact change. We applied the conceptual framework of global health networks at the country level to organisations sharing concerns on how to address national maternal health and the upstream determinants of maternal survival in five countries and explored how they addressed these four essential tasks. Methods: We conducted focus group discussions and key informant interviews with 20 members of national maternal health multi-stakeholder networks in Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan. We drew on the principles and essential components of appreciative inquiry, an assets-based action research methodology that emerged from positivist theories of organisational development to understand how the networks addressed the four tasks. We used a deductive content analysis approach, developing initial themes based on pre-designed codes corresponding to the four tasks faced by global health networks and later identifying emergent themes in the four areas of the framework. Results: We identified themes related to each of the four tasks. Participants emphasised the need for structure and focus in defining the problem, strengths associated with network diversity, and the network's ability to pivot and redefine the problem to align with other sweeping priorities, such as COVID-19 pandemic. Themes related to inspiring action centred on aligning the issue with ongoing local and global initiatives, cultivating a sense of group ownership, and defining success incrementally. Themes related to forging alliances emphasised needing to engage high-level leadership, being opportunistic about timing, reducing barriers to participation by external players, and identifying rewards for participants. Themes related to establishing a governance structure centred on needing strong structure and organisation, cultivating individual commitment, sustaining advocacy efforts, and obtaining funding. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that challenges commonly faced by global health networks are also relevant to networks operating on a national scale and may offer them strategies for future national networks to consider adopting to address these challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Female , Humans , Developing Countries , Maternal Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control
13.
Med J Aust ; 218(10): 437, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232928
15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(6): 365-366, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231607
17.
J Glob Health ; 13: 04033, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243915

ABSTRACT

Background: The latent monkeypox outbreak has become the most emergent public health challenge globally. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability, and willingness to take and pay for a hypothetical Monkeypox vaccine among the Vietnamese general public as well as investigate preference for individual vaccine attributes. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling among 842 respondents in Vietnam in 2022. A Discrete choice experiment (DCE) on preference for six major attributes of vaccine: effectiveness, immunity duration, side effects, mortality rate, restriction, and the cost was applied. Results: Fear of the impact of monkeypox on public health and the economy, vaccine service satisfaction and responsibility to the community were the most weighted factors in the decision to take a hypothetical monkeypox vaccine. Two-thirds of participants were willing to take the vaccine, while insufficient information on monkeypox and the vaccine were the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy. For vaccine attributes, the mortality rate after seven days of vaccination was the most weighted while cost was the least influential attribute. Factors associated with willingness to take and to pay for the monkeypox vaccine included knowledge of transmission, geographical location, service satisfaction, and risk of infection, while financial burden and fear of vaccine were major drivers of hesitancy. Conclusion: Our findings underline an urgent need for effective information dissemination through social media and counseling. The implementation of nationwide monkeypox vaccination requires prioritization and support for high-risk groups as well as consideration for the country's financial resources.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Global Health
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
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