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3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651795

ABSTRACT

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Social Support , Survivors/psychology
5.
Health Hum Rights ; 22(1): 199-207, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646378

ABSTRACT

We propose that a Right to Health Capacity Fund (R2HCF) be created as a central institution of a reimagined global health architecture developed in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a fund would help ensure the strong health systems required to prevent disease outbreaks from becoming devastating global pandemics, while ensuring genuinely universal health coverage that would encompass even the most marginalized populations. The R2HCF's mission would be to promote inclusive participation, equality, and accountability for advancing the right to health. The fund would focus its resources on civil society organizations, supporting their advocacy and strengthening mechanisms for accountability and participation. We propose an initial annual target of US$500 million for the fund, adjusted based on needs assessments. Such a financing level would be both achievable and transformative, given the limited right to health funding presently and the demonstrated potential of right to health initiatives to strengthen health systems and meet the health needs of marginalized populations-and enable these populations to be treated with dignity. We call for a civil society-led multi-stakeholder process to further conceptualize, and then launch, an R2HCF, helping create a world where, whether during a health emergency or in ordinary times, no one is left behind.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Global Health , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Capacity Building/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(17): e016812, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760313

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading widely around the world. We conducted this meta-analysis to explore the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases. Methods and Results Relevant reports updated to April 17, 2020, were searched from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library with no restriction on language. A random-effects model was used in this meta-analysis to obtain pooled proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19, SARS, and MERS. A total of 22 studies (12 for COVID-19, 4 for SARS, and 6 for MERS) were included in this analysis, and the average age of patients with COVID-19, SARS, and MERS was 46.41±1.79, 39.16±2.25, and 52.51±4.64 years, respectively. Proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in coronavirus diseases were as follows: COVID-19: proportion of hypertension was 17.1% (95% CI, 13.2%-20.9%), proportion of cardiac disease was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.6%-5.5%) and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 8.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-11.4%); SARS: proportion of hypertension was 4.5% (95% CI, 2.0%-7.0%), proportion of cardiac disease was 2.1% (95% CI, 0.6%-3.7%) and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 3.7% (95% CI, 1.0%-6.4%); MERS: proportion of hypertension was 30.3% (95% CI, 18.3%-42.2%), proportion of cardiac disease was 20.9% (95% CI, 10.7%-31.1%), and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 45.4% (95% CI, 27.3%-63.5%). Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities varies among different coronavirus-associated diseases. With the development of time, proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19 need further attention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , Prevalence
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(31): 4579-4588, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745191

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a newly identified ß-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a dire health problem, causing a massive crisis for global health. Primary method of transmission was firstly thought to be animal to human transmission. However, it has been observed that the virus is transmitted from human to human via respiratory droplets. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) has been isolated from patient stools, suggesting a possible gastrointestinal (GI) involvement. Most commonly reported clinical manifestations are fever, fatigue and dry cough. Interestingly, a small percentage of patients experience GI symptoms with the most common being anorexia, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. The presence of viral RNA in stools is also common and fecal tests can be positive even after negative respiratory samples. The exact incidence of digestive symptoms is a matter of debate. The distribution of Angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 receptors in multiple organs in the body provides a possible explanation for the digestive symptoms' mechanism. Cases with solely GI symptoms have been reported in both adults and children. Viral RNA has also been detected in stool and blood samples, indicating the possibility of liver damage, which has been reported in COVID-19 patients. The presence of chronic liver disease appears to be a risk factor for severe complications and a poorer prognosis, however data from these cases is lacking. The aim of this review is firstly, to briefly update what is known about the origin and the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but mainly to focus on the manifestations of the GI tract and their pathophysiological background, so that physicians on the one hand, not to underestimate or disregard digestive symptoms due to the small number of patients exhibiting exclusively this symptomatology and on the other, to have SARS-CoV-2 on their mind when the "gastroenteritis" type symptoms predominate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Global Health , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors
10.
Br J Nutr ; 124(7): 736-741, 2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744334

ABSTRACT

The WHO has announced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak to be a global pandemic. The distribution of community outbreaks shows seasonal patterns along certain latitude, temperature and humidity, that is, similar to the behaviour of seasonal viral respiratory tract infections. COVID-19 displays significant spread in northern mid-latitude countries with an average temperature of 5­11°C and low humidity. Vitamin D deficiency has also been described as pandemic, especially in Europe. Regardless of age, ethnicity and latitude, recent data showed that 40 % of Europeans are vitamin D deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels <50 nmol/l), and 13 % are severely deficient (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l). A quadratic relationship was found between the prevalences of vitamin D deficiency in most commonly affected countries by COVID-19 and the latitudes. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in the subtropical and mid-latitude countries than the tropical and high-latitude countries. The most commonly affected countries with severe vitamin D deficiency are from the subtropical (Saudi Arabia 46 %; Qatar 46 %; Iran 33·4 %; Chile 26·4 %) and mid-latitude (France 27·3 %; Portugal 21·2 %; Austria 19·3 %) regions. Severe vitamin D deficiency was found to be nearly 0 % in some high-latitude countries (e.g. Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Netherlands). Accordingly, we would like to call attention to the possible association between severe vitamin D deficiency and mortality pertaining to COVID-19. Given its rare side effects and relatively wide safety, prophylactic vitamin D supplementation and/or food fortification might reasonably serve as a very convenient adjuvant therapy for these two worldwide public health problems alike.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Age Factors , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3557-3562, 2020 Sep.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740440

ABSTRACT

Thinking about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic implies the study of general and unique dimensions for the historical evolution of Latin America and the Caribbean. From the individual to the collective, from biomedical sciences to social sciences and collective health, from risk groups to exclusive societies and the inequities constituting the colonial, patriarchal, modern capitalist heritage in the State and societies. The objective of this article is to review what are called the three intersections for Latin American critical health thinking. Seeking to analyze and reflect on the assumptions and logic present in the responses to the health emergency with reference to: 1. Critical health theory and its intersections with Latin American critical thinking; 2. The decolonial implications of problematizing the State and public health systems; and 3. The geopolitics of global health security as a roadmap for the global North. They outline approaches on the risks of capitalism's acceleration of the post-pandemic disaster and the alternative ways of addressing creative tensions in the reconstruction of emancipatory processes for regional health sovereignty and Health from the South.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Capitalism , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Global Health , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Thinking
13.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1090-1099, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738475

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to threaten global health. Although global and national AMR action plans are in place, infection prevention and control is primarily discussed in the context of health care facilities with home and everyday life settings barely addressed. As seen with the recent global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, everyday hygiene measures can play an important role in containing the threat from infectious microorganisms. This position paper has been developed following a meeting of global experts in London, 2019. It presents evidence that home and community settings are important for infection transmission and also the acquisition and spread of AMR. It also demonstrates that the targeted hygiene approach offers a framework for maximizing protection against colonization and infections, thereby reducing antibiotic prescribing and minimizing selection pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance. If combined with the provision of clean water and sanitation, targeted hygiene can reduce the circulation of resistant bacteria in homes and communities, regardless of a country's Human Development Index (overall social and economic development). Achieving a reduction of AMR strains in health care settings requires a mirrored reduction in the community. The authors call upon national and international policy makers, health agencies, and health care professionals to further recognize the importance of targeted hygiene in the home and everyday life settings for preventing and controlling infection, in a unified quest to tackle AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Health/standards , Hygiene/standards , Prescription Drug Overuse/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Sanitation/standards
15.
BMJ ; 370: m3320, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane database, WHO COVID-19 database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases from 1 December 2019 to 26 June 2020, along with preprint servers, social media, and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Cohort studies reporting the rates, clinical manifestations (symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings), risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed covid-19. DATA EXTRACTION: At least two researchers independently extracted the data and assessed study quality. Random effects meta-analysis was performed, with estimates pooled as odds ratios and proportions with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be updated regularly. RESULTS: 77 studies were included. Overall, 10% (95% confidence interval 7% to14%; 28 studies, 11 432 women) of pregnant and recently pregnant women attending or admitted to hospital for any reason were diagnosed as having suspected or confirmed covid-19. The most common clinical manifestations of covid-19 in pregnancy were fever (40%) and cough (39%). Compared with non-pregnant women of reproductive age, pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 were less likely to report symptoms of fever (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.85; I2=74%; 5 studies; 80 521 women) and myalgia (0.48, 0.45 to 0.51; I2=0%; 3 studies; 80 409 women) and were more likely to need admission to an intensive care unit (1.62, 1.33 to 1.96; I2=0%) and invasive ventilation (1.88, 1.36 to 2.60; I2=0%; 4 studies, 91 606 women). 73 pregnant women (0.1%, 26 studies, 11 580 women) with confirmed covid-19 died from any cause. Increased maternal age (1.78, 1.25 to 2.55; I2=9%; 4 studies; 1058 women), high body mass index (2.38, 1.67 to 3.39; I2=0%; 3 studies; 877 women), chronic hypertension (2.0, 1.14 to 3.48; I2=0%; 2 studies; 858 women), and pre-existing diabetes (2.51, 1.31 to 4.80; I2=12%; 2 studies; 858 women) were associated with severe covid-19 in pregnancy. Pre-existing maternal comorbidity was a risk factor for admission to an intensive care unit (4.21, 1.06 to 16.72; I2=0%; 2 studies; 320 women) and invasive ventilation (4.48, 1.40 to 14.37; I2=0%; 2 studies; 313 women). Spontaneous preterm birth rate was 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%; I2=55%; 10 studies; 870 women) in women with covid-19. The odds of any preterm birth (3.01, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 7.85; I2=1%; 2 studies; 339 women) was high in pregnant women with covid-19 compared with those without the disease. A quarter of all neonates born to mothers with covid-19 were admitted to the neonatal unit (25%) and were at increased risk of admission (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.05 to 4.78, I2=not estimable; 1 study, 1121 neonates) than those born to mothers without covid-19. CONCLUSION: Pregnant and recently pregnant women are less likely to manifest covid-19 related symptoms of fever and myalgia than non-pregnant women of reproductive age and are potentially more likely to need intensive care treatment for covid-19. Pre-existing comorbidities, high maternal age, and high body mass index seem to be risk factors for severe covid-19. Preterm birth rates are high in pregnant women with covid-19 than in pregnant women without the disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178076. READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
19.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 20(1): 22, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733043

ABSTRACT

Notwithstanding COVID-19, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world by 2030. This contribution, which forms an introduction to our collection of articles in this journal, identifies elements for a transdisciplinary research agenda between law, public health, health economics and international relations aimed at designing concrete interventions to curb the NCD pandemic, both globally and domestically.


Subject(s)
Interdisciplinary Research/organization & administration , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cause of Death/trends , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/mortality
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