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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e26267, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197896

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various public health functions and essential services in different ways and magnitudes. Although all countries have witnessed the effect of COVID-19, the impact differed based on many factors including the integrity and resiliency of the countries' health systems. This paper presents opinions and expectations of the authors about the anticipated changes in the future of public health at the global, regional, and national levels. The viewpoint is based on the current efforts and challenges that various stakeholders have carried out to control COVID-19 and the contribution from the literature on the future of public health. Numerous agencies and actors are involved in the fight against COVID-19 with variations in their effectiveness. The public health services showed weaknesses in most of the countries, in addition to the lack of adequate curative medicine settings. The pandemic highlighted the need for better governance and stronger and more resilient health systems and capacities. The COVID-19 experience has also emphasized the importance of coordination and collaboration among the countries and stakeholders. The COVID-19 pandemic might lead to a wide discussion to improve international and national approaches to prepare for and respond to similar events in terms of preparedness and response mechanisms and tools. Public health will not be the same as before COVID-19. New health priorities, approaches, and new agendas will be on the table of the global platforms and initiatives. More investment in research and technology to meet the demand for new vaccines and medicines, innovative methods like distance learning and working, more respect and remuneration to health professionals, and normalization of the public health and social measures that were induced during the COVID-19 pandemic are expected to be seen in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Public Health/trends , Health Priorities/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 558-570, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVIDSurg collaborative was an international multicenter prospective analysis of perioperative data from 235 hospitals in 24 countries. It found that perioperative COVID-19 infection was associated with a mortality rate of 24%. At the same time, the COVER study demonstrated similarly high perioperative mortality rates in vascular surgical patients undergoing vascular interventions even without COVID-19, likely associated with the high burden of comorbidity associated with vascular patients. This is a vascular subgroup analysis of the COVIDSurg cohort. METHODS: All patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 in the 7 days prior to, or in the 30 days following a vascular procedure were included. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were pulmonary complications (adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and respiratory failure). Logistic regression was undertaken for dichotomous outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 602 patients were included in this subgroup analysis, of which 88.4% were emergencies. The most common operations performed were for vascular-related dialysis access procedures (20.1%, N.=121). The combined 30-day mortality rate was 27.2%. Composite secondary pulmonary outcomes occurred in half of the vascular patients (N.=275, 45.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality following vascular surgery in COVID positive patients was significantly higher than levels reported pre-pandemic, and similar to that seen in other specialties in the COVIDSurg cohort. Initiatives and surgical pathways that ensure vascular patients are protected from exposure to COVID-19 in the peri-operative period are vital to protect against excess mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Global Health/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Vascular Diseases/mortality , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Vascular Surgical Procedures/mortality , Young Adult
9.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(11): e827-e839, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574137

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is disrupting and transforming the world. We argue that transformations catalysed by this pandemic should be used to improve human and planetary health and wellbeing. This paradigm shift requires decision makers and policy makers to go beyond building back better, by nesting the economic domain of sustainable development within social and environmental domains. Drawing on the engage, assess, align, accelerate, and account (E4As) approach to implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, we explore the implications of this kind of radical transformative change, focusing particularly on the role of the health sector. We conclude that a recovery and transition from the COVID-19 pandemic that delivers the future humanity wants and needs requires more than a technical understanding of the transformation at hand. It also requires commitment and courage from leaders and policy makers to challenge dominant constructs and to work towards a truly thriving, equitable, and sustainable future to create a world where economic development is not an end goal itself, but a means to secure the health and wellbeing of people and the planet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Humans , Sustainable Development
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22440, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521770

ABSTRACT

Governments have developed and implemented various policies and interventions to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines are now being produced and distributed globally. This study investigated the role of good governance and government effectiveness indicators in the acquisition and administration of COVID-19 vaccines at the population level. Data on six World Bank good governance indicators for 172 countries for 2019 and machine-learning methods (K-Means Method and Principal Component Analysis) were used to cluster countries based on these indicators and COVID-19 vaccination rates. XGBoost was used to classify countries based on their vaccination status and identify the relative contribution of each governance indicator to the vaccination rollout in each country. Countries with the highest COVID-19 vaccination rates (e.g., Israel, United Arab Emirates, United States) also have higher effective governance indicators. Regulatory Quality is the most important indicator in predicting COVID-19 vaccination status in a country, followed by Voice and Accountability, and Government Effectiveness. Our findings suggest that coordinated global efforts led by the World Health Organization and wealthier nations may be necessary to assist in the supply and distribution of vaccines to those countries that have less effective governance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy/trends , COVID-19/immunology , Global Health/trends , Government , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Responsibility , Vaccination , Vaccines , World Health Organization
14.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e790-e793, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global burden of neurosurgical disease is substantial, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Medical conferences are important in connecting those from LMICs to those from high-income countries for support and serve as an educational and networking tool. In this study, we sought to quantitatively assess the incorporation of global neurosurgery topics in international conferences related to the neurosurgical specialty. METHODS: A database of major international neurosurgical conferences, from the conference of a group of 9 major neurosurgical societies, that had global neurosurgery featured from 2015 to 2020 was created. We then did a retrospective analysis to study the characteristics of these conferences ranging from geographic location to number to different components of the conferences. RESULTS: There was an increase in the number of conferences with global neurosurgery since 2015. This, in addition to the occurrence of 3 wholly global neurosurgery-related conferences in recent years, is promising and suggests growth in the field. However, 52.6% of conferences took place in North American or European countries, the majority of which were high-income countries. Furthermore, a majority of the presence of global neurosurgery was in the form of individual talks (54.5%) as opposed to plenaries or sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The preponderance of conferences in North America and Europe can pose barriers for those from LMICs including travel time, expenses, and visa problems. As global neurosurgery becomes an increasing part of the global health movement, we hope that these barriers are addressed. Conferences may become an even stronger tool to promote equity in neurosurgical education and practice.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic/trends , Global Health/trends , Internationality , Neurosurgeons/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Cohort Studies , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies
15.
BMJ ; 375: e066768, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the changes in life expectancy and years of life lost in 2020 associated with the covid-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Time series analysis. SETTING: 37 upper-middle and high income countries or regions with reliable and complete mortality data. PARTICIPANTS: Annual all cause mortality data from the Human Mortality Database for 2005-20, harmonised and disaggregated by age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reduction in life expectancy was estimated as the difference between observed and expected life expectancy in 2020 using the Lee-Carter model. Excess years of life lost were estimated as the difference between the observed and expected years of life lost in 2020 using the World Health Organization standard life table. RESULTS: Reduction in life expectancy in men and women was observed in all the countries studied except New Zealand, Taiwan, and Norway, where there was a gain in life expectancy in 2020. No evidence was found of a change in life expectancy in Denmark, Iceland, and South Korea. The highest reduction in life expectancy was observed in Russia (men: -2.33, 95% confidence interval -2.50 to -2.17; women: -2.14, -2.25 to -2.03), the United States (men: -2.27, -2.39 to -2.15; women: -1.61, -1.70 to -1.51), Bulgaria (men: -1.96, -2.11 to -1.81; women: -1.37, -1.74 to -1.01), Lithuania (men: -1.83, -2.07 to -1.59; women: -1.21, -1.36 to -1.05), Chile (men: -1.64, -1.97 to -1.32; women: -0.88, -1.28 to -0.50), and Spain (men: -1.35, -1.53 to -1.18; women: -1.13, -1.37 to -0.90). Years of life lost in 2020 were higher than expected in all countries except Taiwan, New Zealand, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, and South Korea. In the remaining 31 countries, more than 222 million years of life were lost in 2020, which is 28.1 million (95% confidence interval 26.8m to 29.5m) years of life lost more than expected (17.3 million (16.8m to 17.8m) in men and 10.8 million (10.4m to 11.3m) in women). The highest excess years of life lost per 100 000 population were observed in Bulgaria (men: 7260, 95% confidence interval 6820 to 7710; women: 3730, 2740 to 4730), Russia (men: 7020, 6550 to 7480; women: 4760, 4530 to 4990), Lithuania (men: 5430, 4750 to 6070; women: 2640, 2310 to 2980), the US (men: 4350, 4170 to 4530; women: 2430, 2320 to 2550), Poland (men: 3830, 3540 to 4120; women: 1830, 1630 to 2040), and Hungary (men: 2770, 2490 to 3040; women: 1920, 1590 to 2240). The excess years of life lost were relatively low in people younger than 65 years, except in Russia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and the US where the excess years of life lost was >2000 per 100 000. CONCLUSION: More than 28 million excess years of life were lost in 2020 in 31 countries, with a higher rate in men than women. Excess years of life lost associated with the covid-19 pandemic in 2020 were more than five times higher than those associated with the seasonal influenza epidemic in 2015.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/trends , Life Expectancy/trends , Mortality, Premature/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
16.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(1): 7-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Conflicting reports of increases and decreases in rates of preterm birth (PTB) and stillbirth in the general population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have surfaced. The objective of our study was to conduct a living systematic review and meta-analyses of studies reporting pregnancy and neonatal outcomes by comparing the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases, reference lists of articles published up until August 14, 2021 and included English language studies that compared outcomes between the COVID-19 pandemic time period and the pre-pandemic time periods. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis using the inverse variance method. RESULTS: Forty-five studies with low-to-moderate risk of bias, reporting on 1 843 665 pregnancies during the pandemic period and 23 564 552 pregnancies during the pre-pandemic period, were included. There was significant reduction in unadjusted estimates of PTB (35 studies, unadjusted odds ratio [uaOR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98), but not in adjusted estimates (six studies, adjusted OR [aOR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.80-1.13). This reduction was noted in studies from single centers/health areas (25 studies, uaOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.96) but not in regional/national studies (10 studies, uaOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.02). There was reduction in spontaneous PTB (six studies, uaOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.96) and induced PTB (five studies, uaOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97). There was no difference in the odds of stillbirth between the pandemic and pre-pandemic time periods (24 studies, uaOR 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.26 and four studies, aOR 1.06, 95% CI 0.81-1.38). There was an increase in mean birthweight during the pandemic period compared with the pre-pandemic period (six studies, mean difference 17 g, 95% CI 7-28 g). The odds of maternal mortality were increased (four studies, uaOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.26); however, only unadjusted estimates were available and the result was mostly influenced by one study from Mexico. There was significant publication bias for the outcome of PTB. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic may be associated with a reduction in PTB; however, referral bias cannot be excluded. There was no statistically significant difference in stillbirth between pandemic and pre-pandemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/trends , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality/trends , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Mortality/trends , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Publication Bias , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
17.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497819

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 presents an unprecedented international challenge, but it will not be the last such threat. Here, we argue that the world needs to be much better prepared to rapidly detect, define and defeat future pandemics. We propose that a Global Immunological Observatory and associated developments in systems immunology, therapeutics and vaccine design should be at the heart of this enterprise.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Global Health , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Drug Development , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Models, Animal , Population Surveillance/methods , Serologic Tests , Vaccines , Weather , Zoonoses
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
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