Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 109
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 558-570, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVIDSurg collaborative was an international multicenter prospective analysis of perioperative data from 235 hospitals in 24 countries. It found that perioperative COVID-19 infection was associated with a mortality rate of 24%. At the same time, the COVER study demonstrated similarly high perioperative mortality rates in vascular surgical patients undergoing vascular interventions even without COVID-19, likely associated with the high burden of comorbidity associated with vascular patients. This is a vascular subgroup analysis of the COVIDSurg cohort. METHODS: All patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 in the 7 days prior to, or in the 30 days following a vascular procedure were included. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were pulmonary complications (adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and respiratory failure). Logistic regression was undertaken for dichotomous outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 602 patients were included in this subgroup analysis, of which 88.4% were emergencies. The most common operations performed were for vascular-related dialysis access procedures (20.1%, N.=121). The combined 30-day mortality rate was 27.2%. Composite secondary pulmonary outcomes occurred in half of the vascular patients (N.=275, 45.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality following vascular surgery in COVID positive patients was significantly higher than levels reported pre-pandemic, and similar to that seen in other specialties in the COVIDSurg cohort. Initiatives and surgical pathways that ensure vascular patients are protected from exposure to COVID-19 in the peri-operative period are vital to protect against excess mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Global Health/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Vascular Diseases/mortality , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Vascular Surgical Procedures/mortality , Young Adult
2.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(11): e827-e839, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574137

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is disrupting and transforming the world. We argue that transformations catalysed by this pandemic should be used to improve human and planetary health and wellbeing. This paradigm shift requires decision makers and policy makers to go beyond building back better, by nesting the economic domain of sustainable development within social and environmental domains. Drawing on the engage, assess, align, accelerate, and account (E4As) approach to implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, we explore the implications of this kind of radical transformative change, focusing particularly on the role of the health sector. We conclude that a recovery and transition from the COVID-19 pandemic that delivers the future humanity wants and needs requires more than a technical understanding of the transformation at hand. It also requires commitment and courage from leaders and policy makers to challenge dominant constructs and to work towards a truly thriving, equitable, and sustainable future to create a world where economic development is not an end goal itself, but a means to secure the health and wellbeing of people and the planet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Humans , Sustainable Development
3.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e790-e793, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global burden of neurosurgical disease is substantial, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Medical conferences are important in connecting those from LMICs to those from high-income countries for support and serve as an educational and networking tool. In this study, we sought to quantitatively assess the incorporation of global neurosurgery topics in international conferences related to the neurosurgical specialty. METHODS: A database of major international neurosurgical conferences, from the conference of a group of 9 major neurosurgical societies, that had global neurosurgery featured from 2015 to 2020 was created. We then did a retrospective analysis to study the characteristics of these conferences ranging from geographic location to number to different components of the conferences. RESULTS: There was an increase in the number of conferences with global neurosurgery since 2015. This, in addition to the occurrence of 3 wholly global neurosurgery-related conferences in recent years, is promising and suggests growth in the field. However, 52.6% of conferences took place in North American or European countries, the majority of which were high-income countries. Furthermore, a majority of the presence of global neurosurgery was in the form of individual talks (54.5%) as opposed to plenaries or sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The preponderance of conferences in North America and Europe can pose barriers for those from LMICs including travel time, expenses, and visa problems. As global neurosurgery becomes an increasing part of the global health movement, we hope that these barriers are addressed. Conferences may become an even stronger tool to promote equity in neurosurgical education and practice.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic/trends , Global Health/trends , Internationality , Neurosurgeons/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Cohort Studies , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies
4.
BMJ ; 375: e066768, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the changes in life expectancy and years of life lost in 2020 associated with the covid-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Time series analysis. SETTING: 37 upper-middle and high income countries or regions with reliable and complete mortality data. PARTICIPANTS: Annual all cause mortality data from the Human Mortality Database for 2005-20, harmonised and disaggregated by age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reduction in life expectancy was estimated as the difference between observed and expected life expectancy in 2020 using the Lee-Carter model. Excess years of life lost were estimated as the difference between the observed and expected years of life lost in 2020 using the World Health Organization standard life table. RESULTS: Reduction in life expectancy in men and women was observed in all the countries studied except New Zealand, Taiwan, and Norway, where there was a gain in life expectancy in 2020. No evidence was found of a change in life expectancy in Denmark, Iceland, and South Korea. The highest reduction in life expectancy was observed in Russia (men: -2.33, 95% confidence interval -2.50 to -2.17; women: -2.14, -2.25 to -2.03), the United States (men: -2.27, -2.39 to -2.15; women: -1.61, -1.70 to -1.51), Bulgaria (men: -1.96, -2.11 to -1.81; women: -1.37, -1.74 to -1.01), Lithuania (men: -1.83, -2.07 to -1.59; women: -1.21, -1.36 to -1.05), Chile (men: -1.64, -1.97 to -1.32; women: -0.88, -1.28 to -0.50), and Spain (men: -1.35, -1.53 to -1.18; women: -1.13, -1.37 to -0.90). Years of life lost in 2020 were higher than expected in all countries except Taiwan, New Zealand, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, and South Korea. In the remaining 31 countries, more than 222 million years of life were lost in 2020, which is 28.1 million (95% confidence interval 26.8m to 29.5m) years of life lost more than expected (17.3 million (16.8m to 17.8m) in men and 10.8 million (10.4m to 11.3m) in women). The highest excess years of life lost per 100 000 population were observed in Bulgaria (men: 7260, 95% confidence interval 6820 to 7710; women: 3730, 2740 to 4730), Russia (men: 7020, 6550 to 7480; women: 4760, 4530 to 4990), Lithuania (men: 5430, 4750 to 6070; women: 2640, 2310 to 2980), the US (men: 4350, 4170 to 4530; women: 2430, 2320 to 2550), Poland (men: 3830, 3540 to 4120; women: 1830, 1630 to 2040), and Hungary (men: 2770, 2490 to 3040; women: 1920, 1590 to 2240). The excess years of life lost were relatively low in people younger than 65 years, except in Russia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and the US where the excess years of life lost was >2000 per 100 000. CONCLUSION: More than 28 million excess years of life were lost in 2020 in 31 countries, with a higher rate in men than women. Excess years of life lost associated with the covid-19 pandemic in 2020 were more than five times higher than those associated with the seasonal influenza epidemic in 2015.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/trends , Life Expectancy/trends , Mortality, Premature/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497819

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 presents an unprecedented international challenge, but it will not be the last such threat. Here, we argue that the world needs to be much better prepared to rapidly detect, define and defeat future pandemics. We propose that a Global Immunological Observatory and associated developments in systems immunology, therapeutics and vaccine design should be at the heart of this enterprise.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Global Health , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Drug Development , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Models, Animal , Population Surveillance/methods , Serologic Tests , Vaccines , Weather , Zoonoses
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Global Health ; 17(1): 119, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463256

ABSTRACT

The major threat to human societies posed by undernutrition has been recognised for millennia. Despite substantial economic development and scientific innovation, however, progress in addressing this global challenge has been inadequate. Paradoxically, the last half-century also saw the rapid emergence of obesity, first in high-income countries but now also in low- and middle-income countries. Traditionally, these problems were approached separately, but there is increasing recognition that they have common drivers and need integrated responses. The new nutrition reality comprises a global 'double burden' of malnutrition, where the challenges of food insecurity, nutritional deficiencies and undernutrition coexist and interact with obesity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy diets and environments that foster unhealthy behaviour. Beyond immediate efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition, what must change in order to reduce the future burden? Here, we present a conceptual framework that focuses on the deeper structural drivers of malnutrition embedded in society, and their interaction with biological mechanisms of appetite regulation and physiological homeostasis. Building on a review of malnutrition in past societies, our framework brings to the fore the power dynamics that characterise contemporary human food systems at many levels. We focus on the concept of agency, the ability of individuals or organisations to pursue their goals. In globalized food systems, the agency of individuals is directly confronted by the agency of several other types of actor, including corporations, governments and supranational institutions. The intakes of energy and nutrients by individuals are powerfully shaped by this 'competition of agency', and we therefore argue that the greatest opportunities to reduce malnutrition lie in rebalancing agency across the competing actors. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on food systems and individuals illustrates our conceptual framework. Efforts to improve agency must both drive and respond to complementary efforts to promote and maintain equitable societies and planetary health.


Subject(s)
Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Humans
10.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003797, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448570

ABSTRACT

Elvin Geng and co-authors discuss monitoring and achieving equity in provision of vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/trends , Health Equity/trends , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans
11.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 870-905, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival. METHODS: We completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index. FINDINGS: Global U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3-74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2-41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8-29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3-19·8) in 2019. In 2019, 136 (67%) of 204 countries had a U5MR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold and 133 (65%) had an NMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold, and the reference scenario suggests that by 2030, 154 (75%) of all countries could meet the U5MR targets, and 139 (68%) could meet the NMR targets. Deaths of children younger than 5 years totalled 9·65 million (95% UI 9·05-10·30) in 2000 and 5·05 million (4·27-6·02) in 2019, with the neonatal fraction of these deaths increasing from 39% (3·76 million [95% UI 3·53-4·02]) in 2000 to 48% (2·42 million; 2·06-2·86) in 2019. NMR and U5MR were generally higher in males than in females, although there was no statistically significant difference at the global level. Neonatal disorders remained the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in 2019, followed by lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, congenital birth defects, and malaria. The global optimum analysis suggests NMR could be reduced to as low as 0·80 (95% UI 0·71-0·86) deaths per 1000 livebirths and U5MR to 1·44 (95% UI 1·27-1·58) deaths per 1000 livebirths, and in 2019, there were as many as 1·87 million (95% UI 1·35-2·58; 37% [95% UI 32-43]) of 5·05 million more deaths of children younger than 5 years than the survival potential frontier. INTERPRETATION: Global child mortality declined by almost half between 2000 and 2019, but progress remains slower in neonates and 65 (32%) of 204 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are not on track to meet either SDG 3.2 target by 2030. Focused improvements in perinatal and newborn care, continued and expanded delivery of essential interventions such as vaccination and infection prevention, an enhanced focus on equity, continued focus on poverty reduction and education, and investment in strengthening health systems across the development spectrum have the potential to substantially improve U5MR. Given the widespread effects of COVID-19, considerable effort will be required to maintain and accelerate progress. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality/trends , Global Health/trends , Infant Mortality/trends , Sustainable Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Life Tables , Male , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 100: 102290, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401405

ABSTRACT

With the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target of a one-third reduction in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) less than a decade away, it is timely to assess national progress in reducing premature deaths from the two leading causes of mortality worldwide. We examine trends in the probability of dying ages 30-70 from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer 2000-19 in 10 middle-income (MICs) and 10 high-income (HICs) countries with high quality data. We then predict whether the SDG target will be met in each country for CVD, cancer and for the four main NCDs combined. Downward trends were more evident in HICs relative to the MICs, and for CVD relative to cancer. CVD and cancer declines ranged from 30-60% and 20-30% in HICs over the 20-year period, but progress was less uniform among the MICs. Premature deaths from cancer exceeded CVD in nine of the 10 HICs by 2000 and in all 10 by 2019; in contrast, CVD mortality exceeded cancer in all 10 MICs in 2000 and remained the leading cause in eight countries by 2019. Two of the 10 MICs (Colombia and Kazakhstan) and seven of the HICs (Australia, Chile, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Slovakia, and the U.K.) are predicted to meet the SDG NCDs target. Whether countries are on course to meet the target by 2030 reflects changing risk factor profiles and the extent to which effective preventative and medical care interventions have been implemented. In addition, lessons can be learned given people living with NCDs are more susceptible to severe COVID-19 illness and death.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Global Health/trends , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Sustainable Development , Adult , Aged , Developed Countries , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Nurs Inq ; 28(1): e12400, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348162
17.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 72, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335340

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has infected hundreds of millions of people across the globe. The pandemic has also inflicted serious damages on global and regional governing political structures to a degree meriting a revisit of their own raison d'etre. The global economic fallout is also unprecedented as the flows of goods and people got severely disrupted while lockdowns hit the transport, services and retail industries, among others. We argue that three realities need to be genuinely addressed for building a post COVID-19 order that has to be amply equipped to deal with the next global crisis, as well as the ones on-going for decades. First, there is need to shelf-away the hitherto practiced doctrine that global crises and problems are confronted through local responses. Second, the COVID-19 pandemic has cautioned us on the need to (re)invest in basic, many may consider naïve and simple, public health functions such as sanitation as well as transparent national and global health monitoring. Third, the pandemic is a clear reprimand to discard the mantra that privatization of healthcare delivery system is the solution in favor of viewing health as a public good that needs to be managed and executed by the state and its public sector, be it national, sub-regional or local. It is critical that we learn from such pandemic and advance our societies to become stronger.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control , Delivery of Health Care , Global Health , Public Health , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Forecasting , Global Health/standards , Global Health/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Medicine/trends
18.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 64(3): 422-434, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331601

ABSTRACT

Family planning (FP) is the domain that enables people to have their desired number of children if any, and the desired spacing of births. FP initiatives are cross-cutting approaches to empower people with human and reproductive rights, lessen child morbidity and pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, alleviate poverty, slow climate change, provide sustainable economic growth and development, advance education, and voluntarily slow overpopulation. We examine global FP programs: the history, drivers, and indicators to measure impact, policy, and strategy that surrounds human reproduction. We focus on current trends of task-sharing, self-care, digital health solutions, and the ever-changing contexts with our current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Family Planning Services/history , Global Health/history , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Family Planning Policy/trends , Family Planning Services/methods , Family Planning Services/organization & administration , Family Planning Services/trends , Global Health/trends , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Program Development/methods , Program Evaluation/methods
19.
Value Health ; 24(11): 1578-1585, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are collected throughout healthcare systems and used in clinical, economic, and outcomes studies to direct patient-centered care and inform health policy. Studies have demonstrated increases in stressors unique to the COVID-19 pandemic, however, their effect on HRQOL is unknown. Our study aimed to assess the change in self-reported global health during the pandemic for patients receiving care in a large healthcare system compared with 1 year earlier. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study of 2 periods was conducted including adult patients who had a healthcare appointment and completed the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health (PROMIS GH) as standard care during the COVID-19 pandemic and a year earlier. The effect of time on PROMIS global mental health (GMH) and global physical health (GPH) was evaluated through multiple statistical methods. RESULTS: There were 38 037 patients (mean age 56.1 ± 16.6 years; 61% female; 87% white) who completed the PROMIS GH during the pandemic (August 2020) and 33 080 (age 56.7 ± 16.5 years; 61% female; 86% white) who had completed it 1 year earlier (August 2019). GMH was significantly worse, whereas GPH was similar during the pandemic compared with a year earlier (adjusted estimate [standard error]: -1.21 (0.08) and 0.11 (0.08) T-score points, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found modest, nonclinically meaningful decreases in GMH and similar GPH during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with a year earlier in patients cared for in a large healthcare system. Nevertheless, healthcare systems are likely seeing a biased sample of patients during these times. Findings from our study have implications for the interpretation of HRQOL during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/standards , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Self Report , Statistics, Nonparametric
20.
Homeopathy ; 110(1): 1, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324460
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...