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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686750

ABSTRACT

Our research aimed to determine the impact of two types of protective gloves. The research tested the glove performance on men exposed to a range of temperatures reflecting the working conditions in fruit and vegetable processing. The gloves were assessed for performance within the time required to complete a specific manual task and for performance relative to the subjective thermal sensations in the male subjects. Six males participated in a total of 3 study variants: at +5 °C (with double gloves and single glove), at -1 °C (with double gloves and single glove) and in reference conditions +20 °C (without gloves), in which they performed manual tasks. The measurement of manual task performance time was used to assess manual dexterity. Subjective thermal sensations were determined. Differences in the time required to complete specific tasks were observed between the variants with gloves (both at a temperature of +5 °C and -1 °C), and without gloves (p < 0.05). The type of protective gloves had an impact on the time needed to complete manual tasks and therefore may affect manual dexterity.


Subject(s)
Gloves, Protective , Motor Skills , Cold Temperature , Hand , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Task Performance and Analysis
2.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(2): 111-121, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619791

ABSTRACT

Many healthcare professionals have been forced, under acute shortages, to extend medical exam gloves beyond their intended single use. Despite limited available literature, the CDC proposed a set of guidelines for repeated exam gloves use, indicating a maximum number of treatments for three widely available disinfectants. This study examines how these treatments affect the mechanical properties of latex and nitrile gloves. Furthermore, an acceptability threshold is proposed for changes in tensile property, specifically elastic modulus, as an indication of degradation. This proposed criterion was also applied to similar studies available in the literature to determine applicability and aid in recommendation development. Three different latex glove brands and three nitrile brands were exposed to repeated treatments of an alcohol-based hand rub, diluted bleach, or soap and water. Tensile tests of samples cut from untreated and treated gloves were performed to assess the change in elastic modulus induced by each treatment. The findings suggest that latex gloves performed well within the CDC recommended guidelines of six repeated treatments for an ethanol-based hand rub and 10 repeated treatments of either dilute bleach or soap and water. Nitrile exam gloves, on the other hand, showed significant changes in elastic modulus, with more inconclusive results among brands. This was especially true for treatment with dilute bleach and soap and water. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of disinfection products on the mechanical integrity of nitrile exam gloves. The results support the use of five repeated treatments of ethanol-based hand rub for nitrile exam gloves, a lower threshold than currently recommended by the CDC. This research also supports that the CDC recommendation of 10 repeated treatment with soap and water is appropriate for latex exam gloves, but not for nitrile exam gloves. Occupational safety and health professionals involved in the selection of disposable exam gloves for infection control should consider the compatibility of the glove polymer type with available disinfectants, especially if extended use with repeated disinfection becomes necessary.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Disinfection , 2-Propanol , Gloves, Protective , Latex
3.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(2): 102-110, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569454

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created shortages of personal protective equipment. In resource-constrained situations, limited cycles of disinfection and extended use of gloves is recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conserve supplies. However, these guidelines are based on limited evidence. In this study, serial cycles of hand hygiene were performed on gloved hands using an ethanol-based hand rub (six and 10 cycles), 0.1% sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solution (10 cycles), or soap and water (10 cycles) on latex and nitrile medical exam gloves from the United States and India. A modified water-leak test evaluated glove integrity after repeated applications of these disinfecting agents. When aggregated, dilute bleach demonstrated the lowest difference between treatment and control arms: -2.5 percentage points (95% CI: -5.3 to 0.3) for nitrile, 0.6 percentage points (95% CI: -2.6 to 3.8) for non-powdered latex. For U.S.-purchased gloves tested with six and 10 applications of ethanol-based hand rub, the mean difference in failure risk between treatment and control gloves was within the prespecified non-inferiority margin of five percentage points or less, though some findings were inconclusive since outside the margin. The aggregated difference in failure risk between treatment and control was 3.5 percentage points (0.6 to 6.4) for soap and water, and 2.3 percentage points (-0.5 to 5.0) and 5.0 percentage points (1.8 to 8.2) for 10 and 6 applications of ethanol-based hand rub, respectively. Most leaks occurred in the interdigital webs (35%) and on the fingers (34%). This indicates that some combinations of glove types and disinfection methods may allow for extended use. Ten applications of dilute bleach solution had the least impact on glove integrity. However, the majority of glove and exposure combinations were inconclusive. Additional testing of specific glove and disinfectant combinations may inform future strategies to guide extended use during glove shortages. Additional considerations, not evaluated here, include duration of use, disinfectant chemical permeation, and the effects of hand temperature, movement, and manipulation of instruments on glove integrity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Disinfection , Equipment Failure , Gloves, Protective , Gloves, Surgical , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Indoor Air ; 32(1): e12938, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480133

ABSTRACT

Self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) is a concern for healthcare workers (HCW) following SARS-CoV-2-positive patient care. Staff may subconsciously become contaminated through improper glove removal; so, quantifying this exposure is critical for safe working procedures. HCW surface contact sequences on a respiratory ward were modeled using a discrete-time Markov chain for: IV-drip care, blood pressure monitoring, and doctors' rounds. Accretion of viral RNA on gloves during care was modeled using a stochastic recurrence relation. In the simulation, the HCW then doffed PPE and contaminated themselves in a fraction of cases based on increasing caseload. A parametric study was conducted to analyze the effect of: (1a) increasing patient numbers on the ward, (1b) the proportion of COVID-19 cases, (2) the length of a shift, and (3) the probability of touching contaminated PPE. The driving factors for the exposure were surface contamination and the number of surface contacts. The results simulate generally low viral exposures in most of the scenarios considered including on 100% COVID-19 positive wards, although this is where the highest self-inoculated dose is likely to occur with median 0.0305 viruses (95% CI =0-0.6 viruses). Dose correlates highly with surface contamination showing that this can be a determining factor for the exposure. The infection risk resulting from the exposure is challenging to estimate, as it will be influenced by the factors such as virus variant and vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Fomites , Occupational Exposure , Personal Protective Equipment , Fomites/virology , Gloves, Protective/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Hosp Infect ; 118: 87-95, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals should consider environmental sustainability when using personal protective equipment (PPE). One of the most frequently used items of PPE in medical settings are gloves. AIM: This study aims to quantify the environmental impact of sterile versus non-sterile gloves using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. METHODS: This study used three glove types: non-sterile gloves and sterile gloves (latex and latex-free). Sixteen different environmental impact categories were used to demonstrate the impact of each glove type. FINDINGS: Non-sterile gloves had the least environmental impact in all categories. The two types of sterile gloves, non-latex (synthetic rubber) and latex (natural rubber), performed similarly, although the non-latex gloves had a greater impact on ozone depletion, mineral use and ionizing radiation. For climate change impact, sterile latex gloves were 11.6 times higher than non-sterile gloves. This study found that for both sterile type gloves (latex and non-latex), the manufacture of the gloves contributes to the most considerable environmental impact, with an average of 64.37% for sterile latex gloves and 60.48% for non-latex sterile gloves. CONCLUSION: Using the LCA methodology, this study quantitatively demonstrated the environmental impact of sterile versus non-sterile gloves.


Subject(s)
Gloves, Surgical , Latex , Gloves, Protective , Humans
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(4): 678-697, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385931

ABSTRACT

During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic new studies are emerging daily providing novel information about sources, transmission risks and possible prevention measures. In this review, we aimed to comprehensively summarize the current evidence on possible sources for SARS-CoV-2, including evaluation of transmission risks and effectiveness of applied prevention measures. Next to symptomatic patients, asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriers are a possible source with respiratory secretions as the most likely cause for viral transmission. Air and inanimate surfaces may be sources; however, viral RNA has been inconsistently detected. Similarly, even though SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected on or in personal protective equipment (PPE), blood, urine, eyes, the gastrointestinal tract and pets, these sources are currently thought to play a negligible role for transmission. Finally, various prevention measures such as handwashing, hand disinfection, face masks, gloves, surface disinfection or physical distancing for the healthcare setting and in public are analysed for their expected protective effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/virology , Gloves, Protective/virology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Masks/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/virology
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 549-551, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389662

ABSTRACT

We modeled the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on personal protective equipment (PPE) commonly worn in hospitals when carrying out high-risk airway procedures. Evaluated PPE included the visors and hoods of two brands of commercially available powered air purifying respirators, a disposable face shield, and Tyvek coveralls. Following an exposure to 4.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of SARS-CoV-2, all materials displayed a reduction in titer of > 4.2 log10 by 72 hours postexposure, with detectable titers at 72 hours varying by material (1.1-2.3 log10 PFU/mL). Our results highlight the need for proper doffing and disinfection of PPE, or disposal, to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 contact or fomite transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gloves, Protective/virology , Microbial Viability , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Half-Life , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional
9.
Med Lav ; 112(4): 320-326, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occupational hand dermatitis (OHD) is a skin disease occurring on employees' hands in certain jobs. Little is known about prevalence, incidence and characteristics of this adverse skin reaction and its associated risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate both prevalence and incidence of OHD and associated risk factors in Italian clinicians. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-report questionnaire. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty clinicians responded to the survey and 82% of responders did not report previous OHD history before the COVID-19 pandemic. Daily use of gloves was reported by 80% of responders. OHD prevalence was 18%, while incidence was 80%. We found a protective effect on symptom occurrence for vinyl/nitrile gloves if the time with gloves was ≥ 6 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: This survey reveals a high OHD incidence in an Italian population of clinicians. Furthermore, wearing vinyl/nitrile gloves for at least 6 hours a day had a protective effect on symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Occupational , Hand Dermatoses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Gloves, Protective , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(2): 126-131, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278346

ABSTRACT

Infection prevention and control practices represent a vital behavioral skill set, especially in the era of COVID-19. Standard precautions, correct use of personal protective equipment, proper hand hygiene, and appropriate cleaning and disinfecting are necessary to prevent health-care-acquired infections in care facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19 Testing , Delivery of Health Care , Gloves, Protective , History, 21st Century , Humans , Hygiene , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Practice Guidelines as Topic
12.
Dermatol Clin ; 39(4): 555-568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252651

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to the dramatic increase in use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among health care providers and the general public. Herein the authors discuss the various occupational dermatoses including allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and rosacea related to frequent handwashing, disinfecting of surfaces, and prolonged wear of various PPE including face masks, gloves, and gowns. The authors provide an overview of published PPE-associated occupational dermatoses during the COVID-19 pandemic and also discuss prevention strategies and treatment options to help patients with these complaints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Irritant/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Gloves, Protective/adverse effects , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Humans
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 125938, 2021 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233492

ABSTRACT

The appearance of the virus SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 and its spreading all over the world has caused global panic and increase of personal protection equipment usage to protect people against infection. Increased usage of disposable protective gloves, their discarding to random spots and getting to landfills may result in significant environmental pollution. The knowledge concerning possible influence of gloves and potential of gloves debris on the environment (water, soil, etc.), wildlife and humans is crucial to predict future consequences of disposable gloves usage caused by the pandemic. This review focuses on the possibility of chemical release (heavy metals and organic pollutants) from gloves and gloves materials, their adsorptive properties in terms of contaminants accumulation and effects of gloves degradation under environmental conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Gloves, Protective , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 253-257, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213002

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and highly contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2, emergency departments (EDs) have been forced to implement new measures and protocols to minimize the spread of the disease within their departments. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the implementation of a designated COVID-19 cohort area (hot zone) within a busy ED mitigated the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 throughout the rest of the department. METHODS: In an ED of a tertiary academic medical center, with 64,000 annual visits, an eight room pod was designated for known COVID-19 or individuals with high suspicion for infection. There was a single entry and exit for donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE). Health care workers (HCW) changed gowns and gloves between patients, but maintained their N-95 mask and face shield, cleaning the shield with a germicidal wipe between patients. Staffing assignments designated nurses and technicians to remain in this area for 4 h, where physicians regularly moved between the hot zone and rest of the ED. Fifteen surface samples and four air samples were taken to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 contamination levels and the effectiveness of infection control practices. Samples were collected outside of patient rooms in 3 primary ED patient care areas, the reception area, the primary nurses station, inside the cohort area, and the PPE donning and doffing areas immediately adjacent. Samples were recovered and analyzed for the presence of the E gene of SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected on any surface samples, including in and around the cohort area. All air samples outside the COVID-19 hot zone were negative for SARS-CoV-2, but air samples within the cohort area had a low level of viral contamination. CONCLUSION: A designated COVID-19 cohort area resulted in no air or surface contamination outside of the hot zone, and only minimal air, but no surface contamination, within the hot zone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gloves, Protective , Health Personnel , Humans , Patients' Rooms , Personal Protective Equipment , Protective Clothing , Respiratory Protective Devices , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 36(5): 294-300, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nurses, as the largest group of health professionals, are at the frontline of the healthcare system in response to COVID-19 epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate the nurses' certainty and satisfaction with medical gloves when exposed to coronavirus in Fars province, south of Iran. METHODS: Using convenience sampling, 400 hospital nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak were selected from eight hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). A questionnaire about glove reliability, including protection in tasks, durability, integrity and tear resistance, feeling fearful, and focusing on duties, and the nurses' anxiety regarding their infection with coronavirus was distributed to the selected nurses to complete. 375 questionnaires were completed (response rate of 93.75%). Among the participants, 180 (48%) were in the corona section and 195 (52%) were hardly possible to have contact with coronavirus pneumonia patients. RESULTS: The mean score (SD) of anxiety about infection with COVID-19 for nurses in the COVID-19 section and those in the non-COVID-19 section were 6.08 (2.8) and 4.56 (2.58), respectively (p<0.05). The mean duration of gloves usage in a day was almost similar in the two groups (about 5h), but the number of glove replacements was significantly higher among the nurses in the corona section (6 times) compared to those in the non-corona section (3 times). The two groups were also significantly different regarding glove protection in daily tasks and glove durability. CONCLUSION: The nurses in the corona section had more concerns about medical gloves as a type of personal protective equipment. In addition to health education on controlling and preventing the spread of diseases, raising awareness about the reliability of personal protective equipment can improve nurses' performance.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Gloves, Protective/adverse effects , Job Satisfaction , Nursing , Uncertainty , Adult , Female , Humans , Male
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(3): 261-267, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to capture perspectives of healthcare workers (HCWs) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and infection prevention and control (IPAC) measures implemented during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of HCWs. PARTICIPANTS: HCWs from the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. INTERVENTION: A self-administered survey was distributed to HCWs. We analyzed factors influencing HCW knowledge and self-reported use of personal protective equipment (PPE), concerns about contracting COVID-19 and acceptance of the recommended IPAC precautions for COVID-19. RESULTS: In total, 175 HCWs completed the survey between March 6 and March 10: 35 staff physicians (20%), 24 residents or fellows (14%), 72 nurses (41%), 14 respiratory therapists (8%), 14 administration staff (8%), and 14 other employees (8%). Most of the respondents were from the emergency department (n = 58, 33%) and the intensive care unit (n = 58, 33%). Only 86 respondents (50%) identified the correct donning order; only 60 (35%) identified the correct doffing order; but the majority (n = 113, 70%) indicated the need to wash their hands immediately prior to removal of their mask and eye protection. Also, 91 (54%) respondents felt comfortable with recommendations for droplet and/or contact precautions for routine care of patients with COVID-19. HCW occupation and concerns about contracting COVID-19 outside work were associated with nonacceptance of the recommendations (P = .016 and P = .036 respectively). CONCLUSION: As part of their pandemic response plans, healthcare institutions should have ongoing training for HCWs that focus on appropriate PPE doffing and discussions around modes of transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gloves, Protective , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Middle Aged , Perception , Respiratory Protective Devices , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 148(2): 106-111, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with psoriasis may have been directly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and their illness may also have affected their ability to follow preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with psoriasis. METHODS: A survey of children (<18 years) with psoriasis, conducted from June 10 to June 29, 2020. RESULTS: In total, 92 children were included: 71.7% had psoriasis lesions at the time of home lockdown while 45.2% were receiving systemic treatments, and two contracted COVID-19. During lockdown, psoriasis worsened in 47.3% of the children and 18.8% stopped their systemic treatments, mainly for reasons linked to the pandemic. A total of 41.3% had a consultation for psoriasis during lockdown (71.1% by teleconsultation): 39.5% due to worsening of their psoriasis and 21.1% for pandemic-related issues. Among patients not having a consultation during lockdown, 27.5% had a cancellation by the doctor and 9.3% had concerns over going to see the doctor. Finally, 22.8% of patients reported finding it difficult to respect hygiene measures because of their psoriasis, e.g., application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (47.6%), handwashing routines (42.9%), and wearing a mask (28.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the major clinical impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with psoriasis. Teleconsultations played a key role in patient management as regards patient monitoring, provision of information, and renewal of treatments. It is vital that we learn from these data to improve and adapt the monitoring of chronic dermatoses in both children and adults in the event of a future health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Gloves, Protective/adverse effects , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(2): 76-81, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presented a major medical management challenge to ophthalmology departments throughout Israel. OBJECTIVES: To examine the managerial challenges, actions taken, and insights of directors of ophthalmology departments in Israel during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey of directors of ophthalmology departments during the COVID-19 pandemic while the Israeli population was quarantined. RESULTS: All 21 directors answered the survey. The majority of the COVID-19 admissions were located in the center of Israel (53%) and Jerusalem (30%). E-communication took a central role in coping with the pandemic with 80% of the directors satisfied with this form of communication; 75% reported a reduction in clinical and surgery volume of at least 25%, and 40% reported reallocations of manpower. Most of the medical staff used gloves, a face shield, disposable robe, and a mask with no uniformity across departments. Cross satisfaction was noted regarding a hospital's ability to equip the departments. Lack of preparation for post-pandemic era was reported by all directors, but one (95%). Directors sought guidelines and uniformity regarding outpatient referral to the hospital (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines via safe digital platforms aid in management decisions and uniformity across departments. Advanced preparation is needed to prevent adverse clinical outcomes and to maintain treatment continuum. Our results can be used to guide and help improve the preparedness of ophthalmology departments during COVID-19 and for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Ophthalmology/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disposable Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Gloves, Protective/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Departments/standards , Humans , Israel , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Quarantine , Referral and Consultation , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Med Pr ; 71(6): 725-734, 2020 Dec 03.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic skin exposure to a wet work environment, as well as disinfectants are factors contributing to epidermal barrier damage. This disturbs its protective functions and promotes the development of dermatoses. All these factors occur in the work environment of a laboratory diagnostician. The aim of the paper was to analyze selected skin parameters and skin lesions in the hands of laboratory diagnosticians. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 50 laboratory diagnosticians employed in a laboratory in Kraków, Poland, took part in the study. After the interview, the skin pH and moisture content were examined. Measurements were performed on the dorsal side of the dominant hand using the Skin-ph-Meter® PH 905 and Corneometer® CM 825 devices. RESULTS: The obtained moisture level values were qualified as dry or very dry skin, and the skin pH was within the reference range. No correlation between the skin pH value and the features examined (professional experience, the number of hours spent in protective gloves during the day, the number of hand washing episodes during the day) was not indicated. The level of skin moisture content seems to positively correlate with the time of wearing gloves. The use of hand moisturizers after each hand washing episode correlated with the level of skin moisture content. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, this professional group has been facing huge challenges, and mental and physical stressors (including wet work environment) will be the source of future occupational diseases. Med Pr. 2020;71(6):725-34.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Water Loss, Insensible , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Female , Gloves, Protective/statistics & numerical data , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Poland , Workplace/organization & administration
20.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(1): 14-17, 2021 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000638

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus SARS-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the disease known as COVID-19. The global community is struggling with the health and economic repercussions of this novel disease, and this article is part of a series that seeks to explore and explain the science behind the foci of infection control measures being considered at both the individual and population health levels. Understanding the factors influencing the ability of this virus to select an appropriate host, breach initial defences and successfully assume a new reservoir from which to disseminate and disperse infective viral particles is considered here. Brief reference is made to infection control measures such as effective hand hygiene, glove usage, environmental decontamination and social distancing guidance against the context of the specific evidence around COVID-19 transmission. Predictors of poorer outcome are introduced in the light of these being target themes for therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications , Disinfection , Gloves, Protective , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Virulence , Virus Replication
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