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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25865, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191002

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. It involves multiple organs of infected individuals and encompasses diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of acute optic neuritis (ON) associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody possibly induced by COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old man presented to our clinic with left eye pain and vision loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed the bilateral high intensity of the optic nerve sheaths. He tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the day of admission but he had no signs of respiratory illness. Laboratory testing revealed that MOG immunoglobulin G (MOG IgG) was positive, but other antibodies including aquaporin-4 were negative. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive acute ON possibly induced by COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Steroid pulse therapy consisting of methylprednisolone 1 g/day for a total of 3 days, followed by an oral prednisolone taper was performed. OUTCOMES: His left eye pain was immediately relieved, and his decimal vision improved from 0.03 to 0.1 on the day of discharge. Outpatient follow-up 2 weeks later revealed left a decimal vision of 1.2, and a complete resolution of the left eye pain. LESSONS: Our case indicated that COVID-19 might trigger an autoimmune response that leads to MOG antibody-associated ON, similar to other pathogens that were reported in the past. The treatment response to steroid pulse therapy was preferable following a typical course of MOG antibody-positive ON.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Optic Neuritis/immunology , Autoantibodies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 185: 106511, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132084

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates globally, representing the greatest health and economic challenge today. Several drugs are currently approved for the treatment of COVID-19. Among these, glucocorticoids (GCs) have received particular attention due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. In fact, GC are widely used in current clinical practice to treat inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune diseases. Major mechanisms of GC action include inhibition of innate and adaptive immune activity. In particular, an important role is played by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of proteins with anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, as indicated by various national and international regulatory agencies, GCs are recommended for the treatment of COVID-19 in patients requiring oxygen therapy, with or without mechanical ventilation. Regarding the use of GCs for the COVID-19 treatment of non-hospitalized patients at an early stage of the disease, many controversial studies have been reported and regulatory agencies have not recommended their use. The decision to start GC therapy should be based not only on the severity of COVID-19 disease, but also on careful considerations of the benefit/risk profile in individual patients, including monitoring of adverse events. In this review we summarize the effects of GCs on the major cellular and molecular components of the inflammatory/immune system, the benefits and the adverse common reactions in the treatment of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, as well as in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy
3.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(1): 1-14, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130977

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 has impacted many children, severe disease is rare and most recover with supportive care. Manifestations are diverse and often nonrespiratory. Adolescents/children with medical comorbidities are at risk for severe respiratory compromise. The most serious manifestation in previously healthy children is a delayed multisystem inflammatory syndrome with cardiac compromise in severe cases. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies are available for adolescents at risk of progression and not hospitalized. Therapeutic options for severe respiratory disease with hypoxia include remdesivir and glucocorticoids. Therapies for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children include intravenous immunoglobulin and glucocorticoids. Refractory cases may benefit from additional immunomodulators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(11): 870-878, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose glucocorticoids are frequently used for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other chronic conditions, but the safety of long-term use remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk for hospitalized infection with long-term use of low-dose glucocorticoids in patients with RA receiving stable disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Medicare claims data and Optum's deidentified Clinformatics Data Mart database from 2006 to 2015. PATIENTS: Adults with RA receiving a stable DMARD regimen for more than 6 months. MEASUREMENTS: Associations between glucocorticoid dose (none, ≤5 mg/d, >5 to 10 mg/d, and >10 mg/d) and hospitalized infection were evaluated using inverse probability-weighted analyses, with 1-year cumulative incidence predicted from weighted models. RESULTS: 247 297 observations were identified among 172 041 patients in Medicare and 58 279 observations among 44 118 patients in Optum. After 6 months of stable DMARD use, 47.1% of Medicare patients and 39.5% of Optum patients were receiving glucocorticoids. The 1-year cumulative incidence of hospitalized infection in Medicare patients not receiving glucocorticoids was 8.6% versus 11.0% (95% CI, 10.6% to 11.5%) for glucocorticoid dose of 5 mg or less per day, 14.4% (CI, 13.8% to 15.1%) for greater than 5 to 10 mg/d, and 17.7% (CI, 16.5% to 19.1%) for greater than 10 mg/d (all P < 0.001 vs. no glucocorticoids). The 1-year cumulative incidence of hospitalized infection in Optum patients not receiving glucocorticoids was 4.0% versus 5.2% (CI, 4.7% to 5.8%) for glucocorticoid dose of 5 mg or less per day, 8.1% (CI, 7.0% to 9.3%) for greater than 5 to 10 mg/d, and 10.6% (CI, 8.5% to 13.2%) for greater than 10 mg/d (all P < 0.001 vs. no glucocorticoids). LIMITATION: Potential for residual confounding and misclassification of glucocorticoid dose. CONCLUSION: In patients with RA receiving stable DMARD therapy, glucocorticoids were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk for serious infection, with small but significant risks even at doses of 5 mg or less per day. Clinicians should balance the benefits of low-dose glucocorticoids with this potential risk. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Infections/chemically induced , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241622, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117818

ABSTRACT

Importance: Minimal data are available regarding the postdischarge treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objectives: To evaluate clinical characteristics associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid use and assess postdischarge clinical course, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events in a multicenter cohort with MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with MIS-C hospitalized with severe illness and followed up for 3 months in an ambulatory setting. Patients younger than 21 years who were admitted between May 15, 2020, and May 31, 2021, at 13 US hospitals were included. Inclusion criteria were inpatient treatment comprising intravenous immunoglobulin, diagnosis of cardiovascular dysfunction (vasopressor requirement or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤55%), and availability of complete outpatient data for 3 months. Exposures: Glucocorticoid treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were patient characteristics associated with postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate factors associated with postdischarge weight gain (≥2 kg in 3 months) and hyperglycemia during illness. Results: Among 186 patients, the median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 6.7-14.2 years); most were male (107 [57.5%]), Black non-Hispanic (60 [32.3%]), and Hispanic or Latino (59 [31.7%]). Most children were critically ill (intensive care unit admission, 163 [87.6%]; vasopressor receipt, 134 [72.0%]) and received inpatient glucocorticoid treatment (178 [95.7%]). Most were discharged with continued glucocorticoid treatment (173 [93.0%]); median discharge dose was 42 mg/d (IQR, 30-60 mg/d) or 1.1 mg/kg/d (IQR, 0.7-1.7 mg/kg/d). Inpatient severity of illness was not associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment. Outpatient treatment duration varied (median, 23 days; IQR, 15-32 days). Time to normalization of C-reactive protein and ferritin levels was similar for glucocorticoid duration of less than 3 weeks vs 3 or more weeks. Readmission occurred in 7 patients (3.8%); none was for cardiovascular dysfunction. Hyperglycemia developed in 14 patients (8.1%). Seventy-five patients (43%) gained 2 kg or more after discharge (median 4.1 kg; IQR, 3.0-6.0 kg). Inpatient high-dose intravenous and oral glucocorticoid therapy was associated with postdischarge weight gain (adjusted odds ratio, 6.91; 95% CI, 1.92-24.91). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort of patients with MIS-C and cardiovascular dysfunction, postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment was often prolonged, but clinical outcomes were similar in patients prescribed shorter courses. Outpatient weight gain was common. Readmission was infrequent, with none for cardiovascular dysfunction. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to optimize postdischarge glucocorticoid courses for patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycemia , Pneumonia, Viral , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Aftercare , Ventricular Function, Left , Weight Gain
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937739, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND We present the report of the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that occurred 3 days after anticoagulation discontinuation in a patient with a history of pulmonary embolism in the course of COVID-19. CASE REPORT A previously healthy 38-year-old man was hospitalized in April 2021 with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, complicated by segmental and subsegmental pulmonary embolism. The patient was treated with a concurrent combination of remdesivir, dexamethasone, therapeutic enoxaparin, ceftriaxone, passive oxygen therapy, and convalescent plasma therapy, which led to pulmonary improvement. The treatment with therapeutic enoxaparin (80 mg/0.8 mL twice a day) was continued for 1 month after discharge, followed by 15 mg of rivaroxaban twice a day for 3 weeks and 20 mg of rivaroxaban once a day for 11 weeks. Within 3 days after rivaroxaban discontinuation, the patient experienced a decrease in visual acuity in his right eye, to the level of 5/25. Nonischemic CRVO with cystoid macular edema was diagnosed and an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed. Common identifiable factors contributing to CRVO were excluded, and the treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin was initiated. Two weeks later, macular edema decreased significantly and visual acuity improved to 20/20. The treatment with enoxaparin was discontinued. CONCLUSIONS Rebound hypercoagulability after discontinuation of rivaroxaban therapy can manifest as CRVO in a young patient with a history of COVID-19 pulmonary embolism. It was successfully treated with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Pulmonary Embolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Male , Humans , Adult , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Intravitreal Injections , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071503

ABSTRACT

Treatments for COVID-19 infections have improved dramatically since the beginning of the pandemic, and glucocorticoids have been a key tool in improving mortality rates. The UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance is for treatment to be targeted only at those requiring oxygen supplementation, however, and the interactions between glucocorticoids and COVID-19 are not completely understood. In this work, a multi-omic analysis of 98 inpatient-recruited participants was performed by quantitative metabolomics (using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and data-independent acquisition proteomics. Both 'omics datasets were analysed for statistically significant features and pathways differentiating participants whose treatment regimens did or did not include glucocorticoids. Metabolomic differences in glucocorticoid-treated patients included the modulation of cortisol and bile acid concentrations in serum, but no alleviation of serum dyslipidemia or increased amino acid concentrations (including tyrosine and arginine) in the glucocorticoid-treated cohort relative to the untreated cohort. Proteomic pathway analysis indicated neutrophil and platelet degranulation as influenced by glucocorticoid treatment. These results are in keeping with the key role of platelet-associated pathways and neutrophils in COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide opportunity for further understanding of glucocorticoid action. The findings also, however, highlight that glucocorticoids are not fully effective across the wide range of 'omics dysregulation caused by COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Proteomics/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone , Metabolomics/methods , Amino Acids/metabolism , Tyrosine , Arginine , Bile Acids and Salts
8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 308, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064835

ABSTRACT

The 40-year-old experience with glucocorticosteroids (GCs) in the context of severe infections is complex and troublesome. Recently, however, a clear indication for GCs in severe COVID-19 has been established. This may constitute a harbinger of a wider use of GCs in critical illnesses. A fundamental prerequisite of such an action is a better understanding of the heterogeneity of critical illness and GCs operationalization within the precision medicine approach. In this perspective, we formulate ten major questions regarding the use of GCs in critical illness. Answering them will likely facilitate a new era of effective and personalized GCs use in modern critical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans
9.
Cornea ; 40(11): 1502-1504, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063050

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 global pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several ophthalmic manifestations have been reported to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, including conjunctivitis, acute sixth nerve palsy, and multiple cranial neuropathies. We present a unique case of unilateral phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis in a 5-year-old boy in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Keratoconjunctivitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Fluorometholone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Keratoconjunctivitis/drug therapy , Keratoconjunctivitis/virology , Male , Ophthalmic Solutions , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology
10.
Endocr Pract ; 28(10): 1100-1106, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061131

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since January 2020, the highly contagious novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic. Severe COVID-19 leads to a massive release of proinflammatory mediators, leading to diffuse damage to the lung parenchyma, and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Treatment with the highly potent glucocorticoid (GC) dexamethasone was found to be effective in reducing mortality in severely affected patients. METHODS: To review the effects of glucocorticoids in the context of COVID-19 we performed a literature search in the PubMed database using the terms COVID-19 and glucocorticoid treatment. We identified 1429 article publications related to COVID-19 and glucocorticoid published from 1.1.2020 to the present including 238 review articles and 36 Randomized Controlled Trials. From these studies, we retrieved 13 Randomized Controlled Trials and 86 review articles that were relevant to our review topics. We focused on the recent literature dealing with glucocorticoid metabolism in critically ill patients and investigating the effects of glucocorticoid therapy on the immune system in COVID-19 patients with severe lung injury. RESULTS: In our review, we have discussed the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with critical illness, selection of a specific GC for critical illness-related GC insufficiency, and recent studies that investigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. We have also addressed the specific activation of the immune system with chronic endogenous glucocorticoid excess, as seen in patients with Cushing syndrome, and, finally, we have discussed immune activation due to coronavirus infection and the possible mechanisms leading to improved outcomes in patients with COVID-19 treated with GCs. CONCLUSION: For clinical endocrinologists prescribing GCs for their patients, a precise understanding of both the molecular- and cellular-level mechanisms of endogenous and exogenous GCs is imperative, including timing of administration, dosage, duration of treatment, and specific formulations of GCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pituitary-Adrenal System , SARS-CoV-2
11.
N Engl J Med ; 387(13): 1173-1184, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many persons with a history of smoking tobacco have clinically significant respiratory symptoms despite an absence of airflow obstruction as assessed by spirometry. They are often treated with medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but supporting evidence for this treatment is lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned persons who had a tobacco-smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, respiratory symptoms as defined by a COPD Assessment Test score of at least 10 (scores range from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating worse symptoms), and preserved lung function on spirometry (ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] to forced vital capacity [FVC] ≥0.70 and FVC ≥70% of the predicted value after bronchodilator use) to receive either indacaterol (27.5 µg) plus glycopyrrolate (15.6 µg) or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was at least a 4-point decrease (i.e., improvement) in the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating worse health status) after 12 weeks without treatment failure (defined as an increase in lower respiratory symptoms treated with a long-acting inhaled bronchodilator, glucocorticoid, or antibiotic agent). RESULTS: A total of 535 participants underwent randomization. In the modified intention-to-treat population (471 participants), 128 of 227 participants (56.4%) in the treatment group and 144 of 244 (59.0%) in the placebo group had at least a 4-point decrease in the SGRQ score (difference, -2.6 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -11.6 to 6.3; adjusted odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.37; P = 0.65). The mean change in the percent of predicted FEV1 was 2.48 percentage points (95% CI, 1.49 to 3.47) in the treatment group and -0.09 percentage points (95% CI, -1.06 to 0.89) in the placebo group, and the mean change in the inspiratory capacity was 0.12 liters (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.18) in the treatment group and 0.02 liters (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.08) in the placebo group. Four serious adverse events occurred in the treatment group, and 11 occurred in the placebo group; none were deemed potentially related to the treatment or placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled dual bronchodilator therapy did not decrease respiratory symptoms in symptomatic, tobacco-exposed persons with preserved lung function as assessed by spirometry. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; RETHINC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02867761.).


Subject(s)
Bronchodilator Agents , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Forced Expiratory Volume , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Glycopyrrolate , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Tobacco/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30634, 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042657

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In December 2019, a new epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and spread rapidly to other parts of China and worldwide. Although established methods exist for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 infection, the management of dermatomyositis (DM) patients with COVID-19 is unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this article, we describe case reports of 2 patients with DM. The first case was a 67-year-old patient with DM and infected with COVID-19 who was admitted to Leishenshan Hospital for a 1-month history of fever, cough, and expectoration. The second case was a 51-year-old male patient who was admitted to Leishenshan Hospital due to fever with cough, expectoration and shortness of breath for 1 month. DIAGNOSES: The first patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 secondary to DM based on repeated SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) test, detailed medical history and chest computed tomography; The second patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease associated with anti-MDA5 DM based on the results of antirheumatic and anti-inflammatory therapy and the above 3 methods. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The first patient received supportive and empirical treatment, including antiviral treatment, anti-inflammatory treatment, oxygen therapy and prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. The symptoms and laboratory results got improved after the treatments. He was discharged with thrice negative PCR tests for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The second patient received a comprehensive treatment, including glucocorticoid and plasma exchange; his symptoms were relieved and improved. LESSONS: These cases suggest that repeated new pathogenic test results for the coronavirus and a detailed diagnosis of the medical history are important means to distinguish these diseases. Increased attention to the individual characteristics of different cases may allow for more effective diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatomyositis , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Anticoagulants , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Cough/drug therapy , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , Dermatomyositis/drug therapy , Dermatomyositis/therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023733

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs), which are secreted by the adrenal cortex, are important regulators in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. For the proper functioning of the body, strict control of their release is necessary, as increased GCs levels may contribute to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and other pathological conditions contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome. 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (11ß-HSD1) locally controls the availability of the active glucocorticoid, namely cortisol and corticosterone, for the glucocorticoid receptor. Therefore, the participation of 11ß-HSD1 in the development of metabolic diseases makes both this enzyme and its inhibitors attractive targets in the pharmacotherapy of the above-mentioned diseases.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolic Syndrome , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(11): 1386, 2022 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018231
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14772, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016839

ABSTRACT

Limited data exists on SARS-CoV-2 sustained-response to vaccine in patients with rheumatic diseases. This study aims to evaluate neutralizing antibodies (nAB) induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine after 3 to 6 months from administration in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients, as a surrogate of sustained-immunological response. This cross-sectional study compared nAB titre of 39 SLE patients and 37 Healthy individuals with no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, who had all received a complete regimen of a mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine within the last 3 to 6 months. We included four lines of SLE treatment including Not-treated, Hydroxychloroquine, immunosuppressive drugs and biological therapy. Glucocorticoids were allowed in all groups. Healthy and Not-treated individuals showed the highest levels of nAB. Treated patients presented lower nAB titres compared to Healthy: a 73% decrease for First-Line patients, 56% for Second-Line treatment and 72% for Third-Line. A multivariate analysis pointed to Glucocorticoids as the most associated factor with declining nAB levels (75% decrease) in treated SLE. Furthermore, a significant reduction in nAB titres was observed for Rituximab-users compared to Healthy subjects (89% decrease). Medium-term response of SLE patients to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines is negatively impacted in Glucocorticoids and Rituximab users. These findings might help to inform recommendations in vaccination protocols for SLE patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997651

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) syndrome and infectious disease are defined as pathogen detection with appropriate clinical symptoms, but there are not pathognomonic signs of CMV disease. Although the prodrome of acute minor viral infections leukopenia (lymphopenia and neutropenia) is noted with onset of fever, followed by monocytosis, the role of monocytosis in CMV disease has not been described. Furthermore, under influence of corticosteroid therapy, CMV reactivation and monocytosis are described, but without a strict relationship with steroids dose. In the study, the monocyte level was investigated during the CMV infectious process. Regrettably, a non-selected group of 160 patients with high CMV viremia showed high dispersion of monocyte level and comparable with the median value for healthy subjects. Therefore, we investigated monocyte level in CMV-infected patients in relation to the logarithmic phase of the infectious process. Samples from patients with active CMV replication (exponential growth of CMV viremia) were tested. Significant monocytosis (above 1200/µL) during the logarithmic phase of CMV infection (with exponent between 3.23 and 5.77) was observed. Increased count and percentage of monocytes correlated with viral replication in several clinical situations except when there was a rapid recovery without relapse. Furthermore, glucocorticoids equivalent to 10 and 20 mg of dexamethasone during a 2-3-week period caused monocytosis-significant increase (to 1604 and 2214/µL, respectively). Conclusion: In light of the logarithmic increase of viral load, high monocytosis is a hallmark of CMV replication. In the COVID-19 era, presence of high virus level, especially part of virome (CMV) in the molecular technique, is not sufficient for the definition of either proven or probable CMV replication at any site. These preliminary observations merit additional studies to establish whether this clinical response is mediated by monocyte production or by decrease of differentiation to macrophages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Neutropenia , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Monocytes , Viremia/complications , Viremia/drug therapy
17.
Steroids ; 188: 109102, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996573

ABSTRACT

Several drugs and antibodies have been repurposed to treat COVID-19. Since the outcome of the drugs and antibodies clinical studies have been mostly inconclusive or with lesser effects, therefore the need for alternative treatments has become unavoidable. However, corticosteroids, which have a history of therapeutic efficacy against coronaviruses (SARS and MERS), might emerge into one of the pandemic's heroic characters. Corticosteroids serve an immunomodulatory function in the post-viral hyper-inflammatory condition (the cytokine storm, or release syndrome), suppressing the excessive immunological response and preventing multi-organ failure and death. Therefore, corticosteroids have been used to treat COVID-19 patients for more than last two years. According to recent clinical trials and the results of observational studies, corticosteroids can be administered to patients with severe and critical COVID-19 symptoms with a favorable risk-benefit ratio. Corticosteroids like Hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, Prednisolone and Methylprednisolone has been reported to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 virus in comparison to that of non-steroid drugs, by using non-genomic and genomic effects to prevent and reduce inflammation in tissues and the circulation. Clinical trials also show that inhaled budesonide (a synthetic corticosteroid) increases time to recovery and has the potential to reduce hospitalizations or fatalities in persons with COVID-19. There is also a brief overview of the industrial preparation of common glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 939842, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993783

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic calls for extensive research on various medical topics. Since the beginning of the pandemic, multiple studies investigated the impact of SARS CoV-2 on thyroid function. However, crucial data, such as trend progression over time or influence of commonly used drugs, might still be missing. We checked the thyroid function in 174 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19. Our research covered three separate time points of hospitalization (days 1, 4, and 10). We did not exclude patients treated with glucocorticoids but, instead, compared them with patients not treated with steroids. We correlated the results of thyroid function tests with markers of systemic inflammation. We checked if abnormal thyroid function can predict unfavorable outcomes defined as combined primary endpoint and/or secondary endpoints; the combined primary endpoint was the occurrence of death, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation, vasopressor infusion, or prolonged hospital stay, and the secondary endpoint was any of the listed events. In general, 80.46% of evaluated patients displayed abnormalities in thyroid function tests over at least one time point throughout the observation. We noticed a high prevalence of features typical for thyroid dysfunction in non-thyroidal illness (NTI). Free triiodothyronine (fT3) concentration was significantly lower in the group requiring glucocorticoids. Patients displaying abnormal thyroid function were statistically more likely to meet the predefined combined primary endpoint. We found that fT3 measured at admission could be perceived as an independent predictor of endpoint completion for all analyzed groups. Thyroid involvement is common in COVID-19. Our study supports the idea of thyroid function abnormalities being important clinical tools and allowing early recognition of possible detrimental outcomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Dysgenesis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Function Tests
19.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(8): 532-539, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984482

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently one of the major health concerns worldwide accounting for many deaths and posing a great social and economic burden. Early activation of adrenal hormone secretion is pivotal to surviving systemic microbial infections. In addition, clinical studies demonstrated that glucocorticoids might also be beneficial in reducing disease progression and life deterioration in certain patients with COVID-19. Recent studies demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 might target the adrenal glands, raising the possibility that at least some COVID-19 complications may be associated with adrenal dysfunction. Whether SARS-CoV-2 infection might cause adrenal dysfunction remains unknown. Histopathological examinations provided evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection might indeed cause certain structural damage to the adrenal glands, especially concerning its vascular system. However, since no widespread cellular damage to cortical cells was observed, it is less likely that those changes could lead to an immediate adrenal crisis. This assumption is supported by the limited number of studies reporting rather adequate cortisol levels in patients with acute COVID-19. Those studies, however, could not exclude a potential late-onset or milder form of adrenal insufficiency. Although structural damage to adrenal glands is a rarely reported complication of COVID-19, some patients might develop a critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), or iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency resulting from prolonged treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids. In this mini-review article, we aimed at describing and discussing factors involved in the adrenal gland function and possible dysfunction during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Adrenal Glands , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(3): 676-687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1970080

ABSTRACT

Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a common aetiopathogenic basis affecting all ages characterised by a systemic phenotypic expression with a wide range of severity and outcomes that often require immunosuppressive therapies, leaving patients at high risk of infection. Knowledge of the impact of COVID-19 in patients with SAD is limited because most are included in studies carried out in patients with autoimmune and rheumatic diseases (mainly inflammatory arthritis). Most studies supported an increased risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection in patients with AD and SAD. Although case-control studies reported no significant differences in the rate of poor outcomes between patients with and without AD, large population-based studies analysing baseline risk factors reported a 2-3 times higher rate of poor outcomes in patients with AD, especially in those with SAD. Individual risk factors associated with poor outcomes included gender male, older age, and underlying comorbidities and therapies (glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, immunosuppressants and rituximab). Patients with SAD had less favourable COVID-19 outcomes than those with inflammatory arthritis, possibly due to a differentiated underlying therapeutic approach (glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants and B-cell depleting agents for most SAD, anti-cytokine therapies and JAK inhibitors for inflammatory arthritis). Despite the limited evidence, most studies suggest that patients with SAD have an increased risk of a worse evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including a greater risk of hospitalisation/ICU admission and worse survival rates and, therefore, should be considered a high-risk group for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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