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1.
Endocr J ; 68(7): 849-856, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150573

ABSTRACT

At the current time of rising demand for hospital beds, it is important to triage COVID-19 patients according to the treatment needed during hospitalization. The need for oxygen therapy is an important factor determining hospital admission of these patients. Our retrospective study was designed to identify risk factors associated with the progression to oxygen requirement in COVID-19 patients. A total of 133 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to our hospital from February 22, 2020, to August 23. After excluding asymptomatic, non-Japanese, pediatric, pregnant patients and also those who needed oxygen immediately at admission, data of the remaining 84 patients were analyzed. The patients were separated into those who required oxygen after admission and those who did not, and their characteristics were compared. Age, body mass index (BMI), lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were significantly different between the two groups. Multivariate analysis identified four significant and independent risk factors of oxygen requirement, including advanced age, obesity, glucose intolerance and lymphocytopenia. Dividing the patients into subgroups according to the number of these risk factors found in each patient indicated that the need for oxygen increased with higher number of these risk factors in the same individual. Our results suggest that the presence of higher number of these risk factors in COVID-19 patients is associated with future oxygen requirement and that this index can be potentially useful in triaging COVID-19 patients staying home in the context of need for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Obesity/complications , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Glucose Intolerance/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5494, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125236

ABSTRACT

It is important to pay attention to the indirect effects of the social distancing implemented to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on children and adolescent health. The aim of the present study was to explore impacts of a reduction in physical activity caused by COVID-19 outbreak in pediatric patients diagnosed with obesity. This study conducted between pre-school closing and school closing period and 90 patients aged between 6- and 18-year-old were included. Comparing the variables between pre-school closing period and school closing period in patients suffering from obesity revealed significant differences in variables related to metabolism such as body weight z-score, body mass index z-score, liver enzymes and lipid profile. We further evaluated the metabolic factors related to obesity. When comparing patients with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), only hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was the only difference between the two time points (p < 0.05). We found that reduced physical activity due to school closing during COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated obesity among children and adolescents and negatively affects the HbA1C increase in NAFLD patients compared to non-NAFLD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Glucose Intolerance/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/virology , Child , Exercise , Female , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Lipids/analysis , Liver/enzymology , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108299, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912139

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and high- resolution CT (HRCT) features and to explore the risk factors for in-hospital death and complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes. METHODS: From Dec 31, 2019, to Apr 5, 2020, a total of 132 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with diabetes from two hospitals were retrospectively included in our study. Clinical, laboratory and chest CT data were analyzed and compared between the two groups with an admission glucose level of ≤11 mmol/L (group 1) and >11 mmol/L (group 2). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital death and complications. RESULTS: Of 132 patients, 15 died in hospital and 113 were discharged. Patients in group 2 were more likely to require intensive care unit care (21.4% vs. 9.2%), to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (23.2% vs. 9.2%) and acute cardiac injury (12.5% vs. 1.3%), and had a higher death rate (19.6% vs. 5.3%) than group 1. In the multivariable analysis, patients with admission glucose of >11 mmol/l had an increased risk of death (OR: 7.629, 95%CI: 1.391-37.984) and in-hospital complications (OR: 3.232, 95%CI: 1.393-7.498). Admission d-dimer of ≥1.5 µg/mL (OR: 6.645, 95%CI: 1.212-36.444) and HRCT score of ≥10 (OR: 7.792, 95%CI: 2.195-28.958) were associated with increased odds of in-hospital death and complications, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients with diabetes, poorly-controlled blood glucose (>11 mmol/L) may be associated with poor outcomes. Admission hyperglycemia, elevated d-dimer and high HRCT score are potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Glucose Intolerance/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 525, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690147

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes correlates with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19, but very few studies have evaluated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is also a risk factor for the poor outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Here we aimed to examine the associations between IFG and diabetes at admission with risks of complications and mortality among patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 312 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 5 hospitals in Wuhan from Jan 1 to Mar 17, 2020. Clinical information, laboratory findings, complications, treatment regimens, and mortality status were collected. The associations between hyperglycemia and diabetes status at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: The median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range 38-66), and 172 (55%) were women. At the time of hospital admission, 84 (27%) had diabetes (and 36 were new-diagnosed), 62 (20%) had IFG, and 166 (53%) had normal fasting glucose (NFG) levels. Compared to patients with NFG, patients with IFG and diabetes developed more primary composite end-point events (9 [5%], 11 [18%], 26 [31%]), including receiving mechanical ventilation (5 [3%], 6 [10%], 21 [25%]), and death (4 [2%], 9 [15%], 20 [24%]). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed diabetes was associated increased risks of primary composite end-point events (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 1.48-8.40) and mortality (6.25; 1.91-20.45), and IFG was associated with an increased risk of mortality (4.11; 1.15-14.74), after adjusting for age, sex, hospitals and comorbidities. Conclusion: IFG and diabetes at admission were associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Fasting , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose Intolerance/virology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
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