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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e071311, 2023 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241657

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalaemia is common, life-threatening and often requires emergency department (ED) management; however, no standardised ED treatment protocol exists. Common treatments transiently reducing serum potassium (K+) (including albuterol, glucose and insulin) may cause hypoglycaemia. We outline the design and rationale of the Patiromer Utility as an Adjunct Treatment in Patients Needing Urgent Hyperkalaemia Management (PLATINUM) study, which will be the largest ED randomised controlled hyperkalaemia trial ever performed, enabling assessment of a standardised approach to hyperkalaemia management, as well as establishing a new evaluation parameter (net clinical benefit) for acute hyperkalaemia treatment investigations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PLATINUM is a Phase 4, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in participants who present to the ED at approximately 30 US sites. Approximately 300 adult participants with hyperkalaemia (K+ ≥5.8 mEq/L) will be enrolled. Participants will be randomised 1:1 to receive glucose (25 g intravenously <15 min before insulin), insulin (5 units intravenous bolus) and aerosolised albuterol (10 mg over 30 min), followed by a single oral dose of either 25.2 g patiromer or placebo, with a second dose of patiromer (8.4 g) or placebo after 24 hours. The primary endpoint is net clinical benefit, defined as the mean change in the number of additional interventions less the mean change in serum K+, at hour 6. Secondary endpoints are net clinical benefit at hour 4, proportion of participants without additional K+-related medical interventions, number of additional K+-related interventions and proportion of participants with sustained K+ reduction (K+ ≤5.5 mEq/L). Safety endpoints are the incidence of adverse events, and severity of changes in serum K+ and magnesium. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: A central Institutional Review Board (IRB) and Ethics Committee provided protocol approval (#20201569), with subsequent approval by local IRBs at each site, and participants will provide written consent. Primary results will be published in peer-reviewed manuscripts promptly following study completion. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04443608.


Subject(s)
Hyperkalemia , Adult , Humans , Albuterol , Ethics Committees, Research , Glucose , Insulin , Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
2.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 17(4): 887-894, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When launched, FreeStyle Libre (FSL; a flash glucose monitor) onboarding was mainly conducted face-to-face. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated a change to online starts with patients directed to online videos such as Diabetes Technology Network UK for education. We conducted an audit to evaluate glycemic outcomes in people who were onboarded face-to-face versus those who were onboarded remotely and to determine the impact of ethnicity and deprivation on those outcomes. METHODS: People living with diabetes who started using FSL between January 2019 and April 2022, had their mode of onboarding recorded and had at least 90 days of data in LibreView with >70% data completion were included in the audit. Glucose metrics (percent time in ranges) and engagement statistics (previous 90-day averages) were obtained from LibreView. Differences between glucose variables and onboarding methods were compared using linear models, adjusting for ethnicity, deprivation, sex, age, percent active (where appropriate), and duration of FSL use. RESULTS: In total, 935 participants (face-to-face 44% [n = 413]; online 56% [n = 522]) were included. There were no significant differences in glycemic or engagement indices between onboarding methods and ethnicities, but the most deprived quintile had significantly lower percent active time (b = -9.20, P = .002) than the least deprived quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Online videos as an onboarding method can be used without significant differences in glucose and engagement metrics. The most deprived group within the audit population had lower engagement metrics, but this did not translate into differences in glucose metrics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Blood Glucose , Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Pandemics
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1199381, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232573

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Risk factors for noncommunicable diseases such as insufficient physical activity (PA), overweight or hypertension are becoming increasingly predominant among children globally. While school-based interventions are promising preventive strategies, evidence of their long-term effectiveness, especially among vulnerable populations, is scarce. We aim to assess the short-term effects of the physical and health KaziKidz intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors and the long-term, pre-and post-COVID-19 pandemic changes thereof in high-risk children from marginalized communities. Methods: The intervention was tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial between January and October 2019 in eight primary schools near Gqeberha, South Africa. Children with overweight, elevated blood pressure, pre-diabetes, and/or borderline dyslipidemia were identified and re-assessed 2 years post-intervention. Study outcomes included accelerometry-measured PA (MVPA), body mass index (BMI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), glucose (HbA1c), and lipid levels (TC to HDL ratio). We conducted mixed regression analyses to assess intervention effects by cardiometabolic risk profile, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to evaluate longitudinal changes in the high-risk subpopulation. Results: We found a significant intervention effect on MVPA during school hours for physically inactive children, and among active as well as inactive girls. In contrast, the intervention lowered HbA1c and TC to HDL ratio only in children with glucose or lipid values within the norm, respectively. At follow-up, the intervention effects were not maintained in at-risk children, who showed a decline in MVPA, and an increase in BMI-for-age, MAP, HbA1c and TC to HDL ratio. Conclusion: We conclude that schools are key settings in which to promote PA and improve health; however, structural changes are necessary to ensure that effective interventions reach marginalized school populations and achieve sustainable impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Female , Humans , Child , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin , Overweight , Pandemics , Exercise , Glucose , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Lipids
4.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e072353, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243288

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: South Asians are more likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than white Europeans. Diet and lifestyle modifications may prevent GDM and reduce undesirable outcomes in both the mother and offspring. Our study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness and participant acceptability of a culturally tailored, personalised nutrition intervention on the glucose area under the curve (AUC) after a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant women of South Asian ancestry with GDM risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 190 South Asian pregnant women with at least 2 of the following GDM risk factors-prepregnancy body mass index>23, age>29, poor-quality diet, family history of type 2 diabetes in a first-degree relative or GDM in a previous pregnancy will be enrolled during gestational weeks 12-18, and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to: (1) usual care, plus weekly text messages to encourage walking and paper handouts or (2) a personalised nutrition plan developed and delivered by a culturally congruent dietitian and health coach; and FitBit to track steps. The intervention lasts 6-16 weeks, depending on week of recruitment. The primary outcome is the glucose AUC from a three-sample 75 g OGTT 24-28 weeks' gestation. The secondary outcome is GDM diagnosis, based on Born-in-Bradford criteria (fasting glucose>5.2 mmol/L or 2 hours post load>7.2 mmol/L). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HiREB #10942). Findings will be disseminated among academics and policy-makers through scientific publications along with community-orientated strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03607799.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Risk Factors , Blood Glucose , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1120769, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327368

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is identified as a potentially lethal organ impairment triggered by an inadequate host reaction to infection (Sepsis-3). Viral sepsis is a potentially deadly organ impairment state caused by the host's inappropriate reaction to a viral infection. However, when a viral infection occurs, the metabolism of the infected cell undergoes a variety of changes that cause the host to respond to the infection. But, until now, little has been known about the challenges faced by cellular metabolic alterations that occur during viral infection and how these changes modulate infection. This study concentrates on the alterations in glucose metabolism during viral sepsis and their impact on viral infection, with a view to exploring new potential therapeutic targets for viral sepsis.


Subject(s)
Glucose , Sepsis , Humans , Glucose/metabolism , Viremia , Carbohydrate Metabolism
6.
J Diabetes Investig ; 14(6): 741-743, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327242
7.
Microb Cell Fact ; 22(1): 103, 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has been used as a host organism for the production of lignocellulosic biomass-degrading enzymes. Although this microorganism has high potential for protein production, it has not yet been widely used for heterologous recombinant protein production. Transcriptional induction of the cellulase genes is essential for high-level protein production in T. reesei; however, glucose represses this transcriptional induction. Therefore, cellulose is commonly used as a carbon source for providing its degraded sugars such as cellobiose, which act as inducers to activate the strong promoters of the major cellulase (cellobiohydrolase 1 and 2 (cbh1 and cbh2) genes. However, replacement of cbh1 and/or cbh2 with a gene encoding the protein of interest (POI) for high productivity and occupancy of recombinant proteins remarkably impairs the ability to release soluble inducers from cellulose, consequently reducing the production of POI. To overcome this challenge, we first used an inducer-free biomass-degrading enzyme expression system, previously developed to produce cellulases and hemicellulases using glucose as the sole carbon source, for recombinant protein production using T. reesei. RESULTS: We chose endogenous secretory enzymes and heterologous camelid small antibodies (nanobody) as model proteins. By using the inducer-free strain as a parent, replacement of cbh1 with genes encoding two intrinsic enzymes (aspartic protease and glucoamylase) and three different nanobodies (1ZVH, caplacizumab, and ozoralizumab) resulted in their high secretory productions using glucose medium without inducers such as cellulose. Based on signal sequences (carrier polypeptides) and protease inhibitors, additional replacement of cbh2 with the nanobody gene increased the percentage of POI to about 20% of total secreted proteins in T. reesei. This allowed the production of caplacizumab, a bivalent nanobody, to be increased to 9.49-fold (508 mg/L) compared to the initial inducer-free strain. CONCLUSIONS: In general, whereas the replacement of major cellulase genes leads to extreme decrease in the degradation capacity of cellulose, our inducer-free system enabled it and achieved high secretory production of POI with increased occupancy in glucose medium. This system would be a novel platform for heterologous recombinant protein production in T. reesei.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Single-Domain Antibodies , Trichoderma , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Trichoderma/metabolism
8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 173, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysglycemias have been associated with worse prognosis in critically ill patients with COVID-19, but data on the association of dysglycemia with COVID-19 in comparison with other forms of severe acute respiratory syndrome are lacking. This study aimed to compare the occurrence of different glycemic abnormalities in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome and COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units versus glycemic abnormalities in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome from other causes, to evaluate the adjusted attributable risk associated with COVID-19 and dysglycemia and to assess the influence of these dysglycemias on mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort of consecutive patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome and suspected COVID-19 hospitalized in intensive care units between March 11 and September 13, 2020, across eight hospitals in Curitiba-Brazil. The primary outcome was the influence of COVID-19 on the variation of the following parameters of dysglycemia: highest glucose level at admission, mean and highest glucose levels during ICU stay, mean glucose variability, percentage of days with hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia during ICU stay. The secondary outcome was the influence of COVID-19 and each of the six parameters of dysglycemia on hospital mortality within 30 days from ICU admission. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 841 patients, of whom 703 with and 138 without COVID-19. Comparing patients with and without COVID-19, those with COVID-19 had significantly higher glucose peaks at admission (165 mg/dL vs. 146 mg/dL; p = 0.002) and during ICU stay (242 mg/dL vs. 187md/dL; p < 0.001); higher mean daily glucose (149.7 mg/dL vs. 132.6 mg/dL; p < 0.001); higher percentage of days with hyperglycemia during ICU stay (42.9% vs. 11.1%; p < 0.001); and greater mean glucose variability (28.1 mg/dL vs. 25.0 mg/dL; p = 0.013). However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and C-reactive protein level, corticosteroid use and nosocomial infection. Dysglycemia and COVID-19 were each independent risk factors for mortality. The occurrence of hypoglycemia (< 70 mg/dL) during ICU stay was not associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome due to COVID-19 had higher mortality and more frequent dysglycemia than patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome due to other causes. However, this association did not seem to be directly related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Glucose , Critical Illness
9.
Anal Chem ; 95(19): 7620-7629, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315422

ABSTRACT

A sensor capable of quantifying both anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody levels and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in saliva and serum was developed. This was accomplished by exploiting the enzymatic reaction of maltose and orthophosphate (PO43-) in the presence of maltose phosphorylase to generate an equivalent amount of glucose that was detected using a commercial glucometer test strip and a potentiostat. Important for this approach is the ability to generate PO43- in an amount that is directly related to the concentration of the analytes. RBD-modified magnetic microparticles were used to capture anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibodies, while particles modified with anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies were used to capture SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein from inactivated virus samples. A magnet was used to isolate and purify the magnetic microparticles (with analyte attached), and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibodies were bound to the analytes attached to the respective magnetic microparticles. Finally, through enzymatic reactions, specific amounts of PO43- (and subsequently glucose) were generated in proportion to the analyte concentration, which was then quantified using a commercial glucometer test strip. Utilizing glucose test strips makes the sensor relatively inexpensive, with a cost per test of ∼US $7 and ∼US $12 for quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibody and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Our sensor exhibited a limit of detection of 0.42 ng/mL for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibody, which is sensitive enough to quantify typical concentrations of antibodies in COVID-19-infected or vaccinated individuals (>1 µg/mL). The limit of detection for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is 300 pfu/mL (5.4 × 106 RNA copies/mL), which exceeds the performance recommended by the WHO (500 pfu/mL). In addition, the sensor exhibited good selectivity when challenged with competing analytes and could be used to quantify analytes in saliva and serum matrices with an accuracy of >94% compared to RT-qPCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Glucose
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) has emerged as a potential solution for diabetes management during the pandemic, as it reduces the need for in-person visits and allows for remote monitoring of patients. Telemedicine has also become increasingly important in the management of diabetes during the pandemic, as it allows healthcare providers to provide remote consultations and support. Here, we discuss the implications of this approach for diabetes management beyond the pandemic, including the potential for increased access to care and improved patient outcomes. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal observational study between 1 March 2020 and 31 December 2020 to evaluate glycemic parameters in diabetic patients with CSII in a telehealth service. Glycemic parameters were time in range (TIR), time above range, time below range, mean daily glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), and glycemic variability control. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were included in the study, with 29 having type 1 diabetes and 6 having type 2 diabetes. The study found that the proportion of patients achieving target glucose variability and GMI remained unchanged during follow-up. However, in patients with type 2 diabetes, the time in target range increased from 70% to 80%, and the time in hyperglycemia decreased from 2% to 0%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that telemedicine is a strategy for maintaining glycemic control in patients using CSII. However, the lack of access to the internet and adequate telemonitoring devices make it difficult to use on a large scale in emerging countries like ours.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Blood Glucose , Latin America , Glycated Hemoglobin , Insulin/therapeutic use , Glucose , Hospitals
11.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e069251, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320812

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been considered as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among women. Although the evidence regarding the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent CVD has been synthesised, there are no systematic reviews covering the evidence of the association among the non-GDM population. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, aim to fill the gap by summarising existing evidence on the association between maternal glucose levels and the risk of future CVD in pregnant women with or without a diagnosis of GDM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review protocol was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. Comprehensive literature searches were performed in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify relevant papers from inception to 31 December 2022. All observational studies (case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies) will be included. Two reviewers will perform the abstract and full-text screening based on the eligibility criteria through Covidence. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed by using the I2 test and Cochrane's Q test. If the included studies are found to be homogeneous, pooled estimates will be calculated and meta-analysis will be performed using Review Manager 5 (RevMan) software. Random effects will be used to determine weights for meta-analysis, if needed. Pre-specified subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will be performed, if needed. The study results will be presented in the sequence of main outcomes, secondary outcomes and important subgroup analysis for each type of glucose level separately. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Given no original data will be collected, ethics approval is not applicable for this review. The results of this review will be disseminated by publication and conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022363037.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes, Gestational , Hyperglycemia , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Glucose , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
12.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 19(8): 460-476, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314583

ABSTRACT

Currently, metformin is the first-line medication to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in most guidelines and is used daily by >200 million patients. Surprisingly, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic action are complex and are still not fully understood. Early evidence highlighted the liver as the major organ involved in the effect of metformin on reducing blood levels of glucose. However, increasing evidence points towards other sites of action that might also have an important role, including the gastrointestinal tract, the gut microbial communities and the tissue-resident immune cells. At the molecular level, it seems that the mechanisms of action vary depending on the dose of metformin used and duration of treatment. Initial studies have shown that metformin targets hepatic mitochondria; however, the identification of a novel target at low concentrations of metformin at the lysosome surface might reveal a new mechanism of action. Based on the efficacy and safety records in T2DM, attention has been given to the repurposing of metformin as part of adjunct therapy for the treatment of cancer, age-related diseases, inflammatory diseases and COVID-19. In this Review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of action of metformin and discuss potential emerging novel therapeutic uses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Metformin/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Glucose
13.
Trials ; 23(1): 433, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) places an extraordinary burden on individuals and their families, as well as on the healthcare system. Despite recent advances in glucose sensors and insulin pump technology, only a minority of patients meet their glucose targets and face the risk of both acute and long-term complications, some of which are life-threatening. The JAK-STAT pathway is critical for the immune-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction in T1D. Our pre-clinical data show that inhibitors of JAK1/JAK2 prevent diabetes and reverse newly diagnosed diabetes in the T1D non-obese diabetic mouse model. The goal of this study is to determine if the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor baricitinib impairs type 1 diabetes autoimmunity and preserves beta cell function. METHODS: This will be as a multicentre, two-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial in individuals aged 10-30 years with recent-onset T1D. Eighty-three participants will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio within 100 days of diagnosis to receive either baricitinib 4mg/day or placebo for 48 weeks and then monitored for a further 48 weeks after stopping study drug. The primary outcome is the plasma C-peptide 2h area under the curve following ingestion of a mixed meal. Secondary outcomes include HbA1c, insulin dose, continuous glucose profile and adverse events. Mechanistic assessments will characterize general and diabetes-specific immune responses. DISCUSSION: This study will determine if baricitinib slows the progressive, immune-mediated loss of beta cell function that occurs after clinical presentation of T1D. Preservation of beta cell function would be expected to improve glucose control and prevent diabetes complications, and justify additional trials of baricitinib combined with other therapies and of its use in at-risk populations to prevent T1D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR ACTRN12620000239965 . Registered on 26 February 2020. CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT04774224. Registered on 01 March 2021.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Animals , Azetidines , C-Peptide , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Glucose/therapeutic use , Humans , Janus Kinases/therapeutic use , Mice , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Purines , Pyrazoles , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , STAT Transcription Factors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Sulfonamides , Treatment Outcome
14.
Endocr Rev ; 43(5): 763-793, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319684

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) traditionally refers to abnormal glucose tolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM has long been associated with obstetric and neonatal complications primarily relating to higher infant birthweight and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for future maternal and offspring cardiometabolic disease. The prevalence of GDM continues to rise internationally due to epidemiological factors including the increase in background rates of obesity in women of reproductive age and rising maternal age and the implementation of the revised International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups' criteria and diagnostic procedures for GDM. The current lack of international consensus for the diagnosis of GDM reflects its complex historical evolution and pragmatic antenatal resource considerations given GDM is now 1 of the most common complications of pregnancy. Regardless, the contemporary clinical approach to GDM should be informed not only by its short-term complications but also by its longer term prognosis. Recent data demonstrate the effect of early in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia, with evidence for fetal overgrowth present prior to the traditional diagnosis of GDM from 24 weeks' gestation, as well as the durable adverse impact of maternal hyperglycemia on child and adolescent metabolism. The major contribution of GDM to the global epidemic of intergenerational cardiometabolic disease highlights the importance of identifying GDM as an early risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, broadening the prevailing clinical approach to address longer term maternal and offspring complications following a diagnosis of GDM.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Hyperglycemia , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Fetal Macrosomia , Glucose , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 912579, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313484

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) disease is driven by an unchecked immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus which alters host mitochondrial-associated mechanisms. Compromised mitochondrial health results in abnormal reprogramming of glucose metabolism, which can disrupt extracellular signalling. We hypothesized that examining mitochondrial energy-related signalling metabolites implicated in host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection would provide potential biomarkers for predicting the risk of severe COVID-19 illness. Methods: We used a semi-targeted serum metabolomics approach in 273 patients with different severity grades of COVID-19 recruited at the acute phase of the infection to determine the relative abundance of tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle-related metabolites with known extracellular signaling properties (pyruvate, lactate, succinate and α-ketoglutarate). Abundance levels of energy-related metabolites were evaluated in a validation cohort (n=398) using quantitative fluorimetric assays. Results: Increased levels of four energy-related metabolites (pyruvate, lactate, a-ketoglutarate and succinate) were found in critically ill COVID-19 patients using semi-targeted and targeted approaches (p<0.05). The combined strategy proposed herein enabled us to establish that circulating pyruvate levels (p<0.001) together with body mass index (p=0.025), C-reactive protein (p=0.039), D-Dimer (p<0.001) and creatinine (p=0.043) levels, are independent predictors of critical COVID-19. Furthermore, classification and regression tree (CART) analysis provided a cut-off value of pyruvate in serum (24.54 µM; p<0.001) as an early criterion to accurately classify patients with critical outcomes. Conclusion: Our findings support the link between COVID-19 pathogenesis and immunometabolic dysregulation, and show that fluorometric quantification of circulating pyruvate is a cost-effective clinical decision support tool to improve patient stratification and prognosis prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Creatinine , Glucose , Humans , Ketoglutaric Acids , Lactates , Prognosis , Pyruvic Acid , SARS-CoV-2 , Succinates , Tricarboxylic Acids
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(21): e2217119120, 2023 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312891

ABSTRACT

Occurrence of hyperglycemia upon infection is associated with worse clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. However, it is still unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 directly triggers hyperglycemia. Herein, we interrogated whether and how SARS-CoV-2 causes hyperglycemia by infecting hepatocytes and increasing glucose production. We performed a retrospective cohort study including patients that were admitted at a hospital with suspicion of COVID-19. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the chart records and daily blood glucose values were analyzed to test the hypothesis on whether COVID-19 was independently associated with hyperglycemia. Blood glucose was collected from a subgroup of nondiabetic patients to assess pancreatic hormones. Postmortem liver biopsies were collected to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and its transporters in hepatocytes. In human hepatocytes, we studied the mechanistic bases of SARS-CoV-2 entrance and its gluconeogenic effect. SARS-CoV-2 infection was independently associated with hyperglycemia, regardless of diabetic history and beta cell function. We detected replicating viruses in human hepatocytes from postmortem liver biopsies and in primary hepatocytes. We found that SARS-CoV-2 variants infected human hepatocytes in vitro with different susceptibility. SARS-CoV-2 infection in hepatocytes yields the release of new infectious viral particles, though not causing cell damage. We showed that infected hepatocytes increase glucose production and this is associated with induction of PEPCK activity. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 entry in hepatocytes occurs partially through ACE2- and GRP78-dependent mechanisms. SARS-CoV-2 infects and replicates in hepatocytes and exerts a PEPCK-dependent gluconeogenic effect in these cells that potentially is a key cause of hyperglycemia in infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Gluconeogenesis , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Hepatocytes , Hyperglycemia/complications , Glucose
17.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(6): 856-862, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290555

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between glucose coefficient of variation (CV) and mortality and disease severity in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Subjects and Methods: Retrospective cohort study in a tertiary center of patients with COVID-19 admitted to designated departments between March 11th, 2020, and November 2nd, 2020. We divided patients based on quartiles of glucose CV after stratification to those with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Main outcomes were length of stay and in-hospital mortality. Results: The cohort included 565 patients with a mean age of 67.71 ± 15.45 years, and 62.3% were male. Of the entire cohort, 44.4% had DM. The median glucose CV was 32.8% and 20.5% in patients with and without DM, respectively. In patients with DM, higher glucose CV was associated with a longer hospitalization in the unadjusted model (OR = 2.7, 95% CI [1.3,5.6] for Q4), and when adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and laboratory markers, this association was no longer statistically significant (OR = 1.3, 95% CI [0.4,4.5] for Q4). In patients with and without DM, higher glucose CV was associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality in the unadjusted model, but adjustment for comorbidities and laboratory markers eliminated the association (OR = 0.5, 95% CI [0.1,3.4] for Q4 in patients with DM). Conclusion: Higher glucose CV was associated with increased in-hospital mortality and length of stay, but this association disappeared when the adjustment included laboratory result data. Glucose CV can serve as a simple and cheap marker for mortality and severity of disease in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hyperglycemia/complications , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Hospitalization , Biomarkers
18.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 152: 108434, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300718

ABSTRACT

For clinical research, the precise measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose (Glu) is of paramount importance, due to their imbalanced concentrations in blood glucose, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a huge role in COVID-19 viral disease. It is critical to construct and develop a simple, rapid, flexible, long-term, and sensitive detection of H2O2 and glucose. In this paper, we have developed a unique morphological structure of MOF(Cu) on a single-walled carbon nanotube-modified gold wire (swnt@gw). Highly designed frameworks with nanotube composites enhance electron rate-transfer behavior while extending conductance and electroactive surface area.The composite sensing system delivers wide linear-range concentrations, low detection limit, and interference-free performance in co-existence with other biomolecules and metal ions. Endogenous quantitative tracking of H2O2 was performed in macrophage live-cells with the help of a strong stimulator lipopolysaccharide.The composite device was effectively utilized for the measurement of H2O2 and glucose in turbid samples of whole blood and milk samples without a pretreatment process. The practical results of biofluids showed favorable voltammetric results and acceptance recovery percentage levels between 97.49 and 98.88%. Finally, a flexible MOF-based hybrid system may provide a suitable detection platform in the construction of electro-biosensors and hold potential promise for clinical-sensory applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Copper/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Glucose , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Limit of Detection
19.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 131(5): 260-267, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276753

ABSTRACT

The growing amount of evidence suggests the existence of a bidirectional relation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as these two conditions exacerbate each other, causing a significant healthcare and socioeconomic burden. The alterations in innate and adaptive cellular immunity, adipose tissue, alveolar and endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulation, the propensity to an increased viral load, and chronic diabetic complications are all associated with glucometabolic perturbations of T2DM patients that predispose them to severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection negatively impacts glucose homeostasis due to its effects on insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function, further aggravating the preexisting glucometabolic perturbations in individuals with T2DM. Thus, the most effective ways are urgently needed for countering these glucometabolic disturbances occurring during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients. The novel classes of antidiabetic medications (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) are considered candidate drugs for this purpose. This review article summarizes current knowledge regarding glucometabolic disturbances during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients and the potential ways to tackle them using novel antidiabetic medications. Recent observational data suggest that preadmission use of GLP-1 RAs and SGLT-2is are associated with decreased patient mortality, while DPP-4is is associated with increased in-hospital mortality of T2DM patients with COVID-19. Although these results provide further evidence for the widespread use of these two classes of medications in this COVID-19 era, dedicated randomized controlled trials analyzing the effects of in-hospital use of novel antidiabetic agents in T2DM patients with COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/therapeutic use , Glucose
20.
Acta Diabetol ; 60(6): 757-766, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262018

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess effects of the SARS-CoV2 pandemic on metabolic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Germany in a population-based analysis. METHODS: Data from 33,372 pediatric T1D patients from the Diabetes Prospective Follow-up (DPV) registry, with face-to-face visits or telemedicine contacts in the years 2019-2021, were available. Datasets from eight time periods between March 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021, according to SARS-CoV2 incidence waves, were compared to those from five control time periods. Parameters of metabolic control were assessed with adjustment for sex, age, diabetes duration, and repeated measurements. Laboratory-measured HbA1c values and those estimated from CGM were aggregated into a combined glucose indicator (CGI). RESULTS: There was no clinically relevant difference in metabolic control between pandemic and control time periods with adjusted CGI values ranging from 7.61% [7.60-7.63] (mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]) in the third quarter of 2019 to 7.83% [7.82-7.85] in the time period from January 1 to March 15 2020, in the other control periods, and during the pandemic, CGI values lay between these values. BMI-SDS rose during the pandemic from 0.29 [0.28-0.30] (mean [95% CI]) in the third quarter of 2019 to 0.40 [0.39-0.41] during the fourth wave. Adjusted insulin dose rose during the pandemic. Event rates for hypoglycemic coma and diabetic ketoacidosis remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: We found no clinically relevant change of glycemic control or incidence of acute diabetes complications during the pandemic. The observed BMI increase may represent an important health risk for youth with T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Pandemics , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Glucose
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