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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6890, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815590

ABSTRACT

2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) has recently received emergency approval for the treatment of COVID-19 in India, after a successful clinical trial. SARS-CoV-2 infection of cultured cells is accompanied by elevated glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial function, whereas 2DG represses glycolysis and stimulates respiration, and restricts viral replication. While 2DG has pleiotropic effects on cell metabolism in cultured cells it is not known which of these manifests in vivo. On the other hand, it is known that 2DG given continuously can have severe detrimental effects on the rodent heart. Here, we show that the principal effect of an extended, intermittent 2DG treatment on mice is to augment the mitochondrial respiratory chain proteome in the heart; importantly, this occurs without vacuolization, hypertrophy or fibrosis. The increase in the heart respiratory chain proteome suggests an increase in mitochondrial oxidative capacity, which could compensate for the energy deficit caused by the inhibition of glycolysis. Thus, 2DG in the murine heart appears to induce a metabolic configuration that is the opposite of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, which could explain the compound's ability to restrict the propagation of the virus to the benefit of patients with COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucose , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Electron Transport , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Elife ; 112022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761118

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to rage around the world. At the same time, despite strong public health measures and high vaccination rates in some countries, a post-COVID-19 syndrome has emerged which lacks a clear definition, prevalence, or etiology. However, fatigue, dyspnea, brain fog, and lack of smell and/or taste are often characteristic of patients with this syndrome. These are evident more than a month after infection, and are labeled as Post-Acute Sequelae of CoV-2 (PASC) or commonly referred to as long-COVID. Metabolic dysfunction (i.e., obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus) is a predisposing risk factor for severe acute COVID-19, and there is emerging evidence that this factor plus a chronic inflammatory state may predispose to PASC. In this article, we explore the potential pathogenic metabolic mechanisms that could underly both severe acute COVID-19 and PASC, and then consider how these might be targeted for future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Disease Management , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Intolerance , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
3.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732137

ABSTRACT

Associations between habitual dietary intake of minerals and glucose metabolism have been extensively studied in relation to metabolic disorders. However, similar research has yet to be conducted in individuals after acute pancreatitis (AP). The main aim was to investigate the associations between habitual intake of 13 minerals and glycaemic status: new-onset prediabetes/diabetes after AP (NODAP), pre-existing prediabetes/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and normoglycaemia after AP (NAP). Associations between the dietary intake of minerals and markers of glucose metabolism (glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose) were also studied. The EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional fashion to determine the habitual intake of 13 dietary minerals. ANCOVA as well as multiple linear regression analyses were conducted and five statistical models were built to adjust for covariates. The study included 106 individuals after AP. In the NODAP group, intake of 4 minerals was significantly less when compared with the NAP group: iron (B = -0.076, p = 0.013), nitrogen (B = -0.066, p = 0.003), phosphorous (B = -0.046, p = 0.006), and zinc (B = -0.078, p = 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin was significantly associated with iodine intake (B = 17.763, p = 0.032) and manganese intake (B = -17.147, p = 0.003) in the NODAP group. Fasting plasma glucose was significantly associated with manganese intake (B = -2.436, p = 0.027) in the NODAP group. Habitual intake of minerals differs between individuals with NODAP, T2DM, and NAP. Prospective longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials are now warranted to further investigate the associations between mineral intake and NODAP.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diet , Minerals/administration & dosage , Pancreatitis/complications , Prediabetic State/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Prospective Studies
4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(4): 1144-1155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685345

ABSTRACT

High glucose (HG) is one of the basic factors of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which leads to high morbidity and disability. During DN, the expression of glomerular glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) increases, but the relationship between HG and GLUT1 is unclear. Glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) have multiple roles in HG-induced DN. Here, we report prominent glomerular dysfunction, especially GMC abnormalities, in DN mice, which is closely related to GLUT1 alteration. In vivo studies have shown that BBR can alleviate pathological changes and abnormal renal function indicators of DN mice. In vitro, BBR (30, 60 and 90 µmol/L) not only increased the proportion of G1 phase cells but also reduced the proportion of S phase cells under HG conditions at different times. BBR (60 µmol/L) significantly reduced the expression of PI3K-p85, p-Akt, p-AS160, membrane-bound GLUT1 and cyclin D1, but had almost no effect on total protein. Furthermore, BBR significantly declined the glucose uptake and retarded cyclin D1-mediated GMC cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. This study demonstrated that BBR can inhibit the development of DN, which may be due to BBR inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/AS160/GLUT1 signalling pathway to regulate HG-induced abnormal GMC proliferation and the cell cycle, supporting BBR as a potential therapeutic drug for DN.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Animals , Berberine/pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Glucose Transporter Type 1/metabolism , Mesangial Cells/metabolism , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
5.
Life Sci ; 295: 120411, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683412

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Virus-infected host cells switch their metabolism to a more glycolytic phenotype, required for new virion synthesis and packaging. Therefore, we investigated the effect and mechanistic action of glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) on virus multiplication in host cells following SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 induced change in glycolysis was examined in Vero E6 cells. Effect of 2-DG on virus multiplication was evaluated by RT-PCR (N and RdRp genes) analysis, protein expression analysis of Nucleocapsid (N) and Spike (S) proteins and visual indication of cytopathy effect (CPE), The mass spectrometry analysis was performed to examine the 2-DG induced change in glycosylation status of receptor binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. KEY FINDINGS: We observed SARS-COV-2 infection induced increased glucose influx and glycolysis, resulting in selectively high accumulation of the fluorescent glucose analog, 2-NBDG in Vero E6 cells. 2-DG inhibited glycolysis, reduced virus multiplication and alleviated cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. The progeny virions produced from 2-DG treated cells were found unglycosylated at crucial N-glycosites (N331 and N343) of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein, resulting in production of defective progeny virions with compromised infective potential. SIGNIFICANCE: The mechanistic study revealed that the inhibition of SARS-COV-2 multiplication is attributed to 2-DG induced glycolysis inhibition and possibly un-glycosylation of the spike protein, also. Therefore, based on its previous human trials in different types of Cancer and Herpes patients, it could be a potential molecule to study in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glucose/metabolism , Glycolysis/drug effects , Glycosylation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Mannose/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virion/drug effects , Virion/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662663

ABSTRACT

Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) is the primary causative agent of the highly contagious eye infection designated acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). It is solely responsible for two pandemics and several recurring outbreaks of the disease over the last decades, thus affecting millions of individuals throughout the world. To date, no antiviral agents or vaccines are available for combating this disease, and treatment is mainly supportive. CVA24v utilizes Neu5Ac-containing glycans as attachment receptors facilitating entry into host cells. We have previously reported that pentavalent Neu5Ac conjugates based on a glucose-scaffold inhibit CVA24v infection of human corneal epithelial cells. In this study, we report on the design and synthesis of scaffold-replaced pentavalent Neu5Ac conjugates and their effect on CVA24v cell transduction and the use of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to study the binding of these multivalent conjugates to CVA24v. The results presented here provide insights into the development of Neu5Ac-based inhibitors of CVA24v and, most significantly, the first application of cryo-EM to study the binding of a multivalent ligand to a lectin.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coxsackievirus Infections/diet therapy , Enterovirus C, Human/drug effects , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/pharmacology , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/metabolism , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/virology , Coxsackievirus Infections/metabolism , Coxsackievirus Infections/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Lectins/metabolism , Ligands , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
7.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 562-570, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625582

ABSTRACT

Aging is associated with functional deficits in the naive T cell compartment, which compromise the generation of de novo immune responses against previously unencountered Ags. The mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon have nonetheless remained unclear. We found that naive CD8+ T cells in elderly humans were prone to apoptosis and proliferated suboptimally in response to stimulation via the TCR. These abnormalities were associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism under homeostatic conditions and enhanced levels of basal activation. Importantly, reversal of the bioenergetic anomalies with lipid-altering drugs, such as rosiglitazone, almost completely restored the Ag responsiveness of naive CD8+ T cells. Interventions that favor lipid catabolism may therefore find utility as adjunctive therapies in the elderly to promote vaccine-induced immunity against targetable cancers and emerging pathogens, such as seasonal influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apoptosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Cell Division , Female , Fenofibrate/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation , MART-1 Antigen/chemistry , MART-1 Antigen/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Rosiglitazone/pharmacology , Single-Blind Method , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
9.
Nat Metab ; 4(1): 29-43, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612214

ABSTRACT

Severe cases of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with elevated blood glucose levels and metabolic complications. However, the molecular mechanisms for how SARS-CoV-2 infection alters glycometabolic control are incompletely understood. Here, we connect the circulating protein GP73 with enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We first demonstrate that GP73 secretion is induced in multiple tissues upon fasting and that GP73 stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. We further show that GP73 secretion is increased in cultured cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, after overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins and in lungs and livers of mice infected with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain. GP73 blockade with an antibody inhibits excessive glucogenesis stimulated by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and lowers elevated fasting blood glucose levels in infected mice. In patients with COVID-19, plasma GP73 levels are elevated and positively correlate with blood glucose levels. Our data suggest that GP73 is a glucogenic hormone that likely contributes to SARS-CoV-2-induced abnormalities in systemic glucose metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biomarkers , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Fasting , Gene Expression , Gluconeogenesis/drug effects , Gluconeogenesis/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/blood , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Organ Specificity/genetics
10.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(11): 1132-1146, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552202

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem of physical inactivity and weight gain. Consequently, new strategies to counteract weight gain are being sought. Because of their accessibility, interval training and cold therapy are the most popular such strategies. We here aimed to examine the effect of 6 units of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), applied alone or in combination with 10 sessions of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC; 3 min at -110 ∘C per session) on incretins, myokines, and adipokines levels. Materials and methods: The study involved 65 subjects (body mass index of approximately 30 kg•m-2). The subjects were randomly divided into training group (TR; n = 27) and training supported by WBC group (TR-WBC; n = 38). Blood samples were collected before, immediately following, and 4 weeks after the intervention. Results: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels significantly increased (p = 0.03) and adiponectin levels increased in the TR group (p = 0.05) compared with those recorded in TR-WBC group 24 h after the end of experimental protocol. Beneficial changes in the lipid profile (p = 0.07), a significant drop in visfatin levels (p < 0.05), and the improvement in ß-cell function (HOMA-B; p = 0.02) were also observed in the TR group in the same time point of study. While TR-WBC did not induce similar changes, it ameliorated blood glucose levels (p = 0.03). Changes induced by both interventions were only sustained for 4 weeks after treatment. Conclusion: Collectively, HIIT, alone and in combination with WBC, positively affects metabolic indicators, albeit, most likely, different mechanisms drive the beneficial effects of different treatments.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/metabolism , Cryotherapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , High-Intensity Interval Training , Homeostasis , Obesity/physiopathology , Overweight/physiopathology , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism
11.
Transl Res ; 241: 52-69, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510374

ABSTRACT

Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) is common world-wide, and is correlated with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) the virus that causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no systematic reviews are available on the topic, and little is known about the strength of the evidence underlying published associations. The current systematic review identified consistent, reproducible associations but several limitations were observed including: (1) a consistent lack of robust confounder adjustment for risk factors collected prior to infection; (2) lack of data on insulin resistance or glycemia measures [Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or glucose]; (3) few studies considering insulin resistance, glucose or HbA1c values in the clinically normal range as a predictor of SARS-CoV-2 risk; (4) few studies assessed the role of IGR as a risk factor for infection among initially uninfected samples; (5) a paucity of population-based data considering SARS-CoV-2 as a risk factor for the onset of IGR. While diabetes status is a clear predictor of poor prognosis following a SARS-CoV-2 infection, causal conclusions are limited. It is uncertain whether interventions targeting dysglycemia to improve SARS-CoV-2 outcomes have potential to be effective, or if risk assessment should include biomarkers of diabetes risk (ie, insulin and glucose or HbA1c) among diabetes-free individuals. Future studies with robust risk factor data collection, among population-based samples with pre-pandemic assessments will be important to inform these questions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Complications , Glucose/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(4): G355-G366, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511528

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota is a potent biological modulator of many physiological and pathological states. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the local gastrointestinal RAS (GI RAS), emerges as a potential mediator of microbiota-related effects. The RAS is involved in cardiovascular system homeostasis, water-electrolyte balance, intestinal absorption, glycemic control, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and aging-related processes. Ample evidence suggests a bidirectional interaction between the microbiome and RAS. On the one hand, gut bacteria and their metabolites may modulate GI and systemic RAS. On the other hand, changes in the intestinal habitat caused by alterations in RAS may shape microbiota metabolic activity and composition. Notably, the pharmacodynamic effects of the RAS-targeted therapies may be in part mediated by the intestinal RAS and changes in the microbiome. This review summarizes studies on gut microbiota and RAS physiology. Expanding the research on this topic may lay the foundation for new therapeutic paradigms in gastrointestinal diseases and multiple systemic disorders.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Gastrointestinal Absorption , Glucose/metabolism , Humans
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480800

ABSTRACT

Plenty of research has revealed virus induced alternations in metabolic pathways, which is known as metabolic reprogramming. Studies focusing on COVID-19 have uncovered significant changes in metabolism, resulting in the perspective that COVID-19 is a metabolic disease. Reprogramming of amino acid, glucose, cholesterol and fatty acid is distinctive characteristic of COVID-19 infection. These metabolic changes in COVID-19 have a critical role not only in producing energy and virus constituent elements, but also in regulating immune response, offering new insights into COVID-19 pathophysiology. Remarkably, metabolic reprogramming provides great opportunities for developing novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for COVID-19 infection. Such novel agents are expected to be effective adjuvant therapies. In this review, we integrate present studies about major metabolic reprogramming in COVID-19, as well as the possibility of targeting reprogrammed metabolism to combat virus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Amino Acids/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism
14.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448932

ABSTRACT

Infection has recently started receiving greater attention as an unusual causative/inducing factor of obesity. Indeed, the biological plausibility of infectobesity includes direct roles of some viruses to reprogram host metabolism toward a more lipogenic and adipogenic status. Furthermore, the probability that humans may exchange microbiota components (virome/virobiota) points out that the altered response of IFN and other cytokines, which surfaces as a central mechanism for adipogenesis and obesity-associated immune suppression, is due to the fact that gut microbiota uphold intrinsic IFN signaling. Last but not least, the adaptation of both host immune and metabolic system under persistent viral infections play a central role in these phenomena. We hereby discuss the possible link between adenovirus and obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The mechanisms of adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) involvement in hepatic steatosis/NAFLD consist in reducing leptin gene expression and insulin sensitivity, augmenting glucose uptake, activating the lipogenic and pro-inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, and increasing the level of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, all of these ultimately leading to chronic inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. Moreover, by reducing leptin expression and secretion Ad-36 may have in turn an obesogenic effect through increased food intake or decreased energy expenditure via altered fat metabolism. Finally, Ad-36 is involved in upregulation of cAMP, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and p38 signaling pathways, downregulation of Wnt10b expression, increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 with consequential lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
Inflammation , Lipid Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/virology , Adenoviridae/immunology , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Adenoviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Lipogenesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/immunology , Signal Transduction
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448237

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408630

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are widely distributed in tissues and function in homeostasis. During cancer development, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) dominatingly support disease progression and resistance to therapy by promoting tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunosuppression, thereby making TAMs a target for tumor immunotherapy. Here, we started with evidence that TAMs are highly plastic and heterogeneous in phenotype and function in response to microenvironmental cues. We pointed out that efforts to tear off the heterogeneous "camouflage" in TAMs conduce to target de facto protumoral TAMs efficiently. In particular, several fate-mapping models suggest that most tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) are generated from embryonic progenitors, and new paradigms uncover the ontogeny of TAMs. First, TAMs from embryonic modeling of TRMs and circulating monocytes have distinct transcriptional profiling and function, suggesting that the ontogeny of TAMs is responsible for the functional heterogeneity of TAMs, in addition to microenvironmental cues. Second, metabolic remodeling helps determine the mechanism of phenotypic and functional characteristics in TAMs, including metabolic bias from macrophages' ontogeny in macrophages' functional plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. Both models aim at dissecting the ontogeny-related metabolic regulation in the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in TAMs. We argue that gleaning from the single-cell transcriptomics on subclonal TAMs' origins may help understand the classification of TAMs' population in subclonal evolution and their distinct roles in tumor development. We envision that TAM-subclone-specific metabolic reprogramming may round-up with future cancer therapies.


Subject(s)
Embryo, Mammalian/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 724, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387326

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in cell-free synthetic biology have given rise to gene circuit-based sensors with the potential to provide decentralized and low-cost molecular diagnostics. However, it remains a challenge to deliver this sensing capacity into the hands of users in a practical manner. Here, we leverage the glucose meter, one of the most widely available point-of-care sensing devices, to serve as a universal reader for these decentralized diagnostics. We describe a molecular translator that can convert the activation of conventional gene circuit-based sensors into a glucose output that can be read by off-the-shelf glucose meters. We show the development of new glucogenic reporter systems, multiplexed reporter outputs and detection of nucleic acid targets down to the low attomolar range. Using this glucose-meter interface, we demonstrate the detection of a small-molecule analyte; sample-to-result diagnostics for typhoid, paratyphoid A/B; and show the potential for pandemic response with nucleic acid sensors for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Glucose/analysis , Nucleic Acids/analysis , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Typhoid Fever/blood , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
18.
J Neurophysiol ; 126(4): 1221-1233, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381185

ABSTRACT

Frontal-midline theta (FMT) oscillations are increased in amplitude during cognitive control tasks. Since these tasks often conflate cognitive control and cognitive effort, it remains unknown if FMT amplitude maps onto cognitive control or effort. To address this gap, we utilized the glucose facilitation effect to manipulate cognitive effort without changing cognitive control demands. We performed a single-blind, crossover human study in which we provided participants with a glucose drink (control session: volume-matched water) to reduce cognitive effort and improve performance on a visuospatial working memory task. Following glucose consumption, participants performed the working memory task at multiple time points of a 3-h window to sample across the rise and fall of blood glucose. Using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), we calculated FMT amplitude during the delay period of the working memory task. Source localization analysis revealed that FMT oscillations originated from bilateral prefrontal cortex. We found that glucose increased working memory accuracy during the high working memory load condition but decreased FMT amplitude. The decrease in FMT amplitude coincided with both peak blood glucose elevation and peak performance enhancement for glucose relative to water. Therefore, the positive association between glucose consumption and task performance provided causal evidence that the amplitude of FMT oscillations may correspond to cognitive effort, rather than cognitive control. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, data collection was terminated prematurely; the preliminary nature of these findings due to small sample size should be contextualized by rigorous experimental design and use of a novel causal perturbation to dissociate cognitive effort and cognitive control.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated whether frontal-midline theta (FMT) oscillations tracked with cognitive control or cognitive effort by simultaneous manipulation of cognitive control demands in a working memory task and causal perturbation of cognitive effort using glucose consumption. Facilitation of performance from glucose consumption corresponded with decreased FMT amplitude, which provided preliminary causal evidence for a relationship between FMT amplitude with cognitive effort.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Theta Rhythm , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Over Studies , Electroencephalography , Female , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Spatial Processing/physiology , Young Adult
19.
IUBMB Life ; 73(10): 1198-1204, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366237

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms discovered to drive increased glucose metabolism in cancer cells are found to be similar to those in viral-infected cells. In this mini review, we summarize the major pathways by which the sugar analog, 2-Deoxy-d-glucose, has been shown to exploit increased glucose metabolism in cancer and how this information applies to viral-infected cells. Moreover, we highlight the relevance of these findings to the emergency approval of 2-Deoxy-d-glucose in India to be used against SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , India , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313840

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
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