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1.
Neurotoxicology ; 97: 101-108, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232294

ABSTRACT

Anxiety-related disorders are among the most important risks for global health, especially in recent years due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Benzodiazepines like diazepam are generally used to treat anxiety disorders, but the overall outcome is not always satisfactory. This is why psychiatrists encourage patients with anxiety to change their lifestyle habits to decrease the risk of anxiety recurrence. However, the effect of diazepam and exercise in combination is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of diazepam alone or in combination with swimming exercise on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice. Mice were exposed to diazepam and swimming exercise alone or in combination with each other and then received LPS. We assessed anxiety-like behavior using open field and light-dark box and measured oxidative markers including glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The findings showed that LPS increased anxiety-related symptoms and oxidative stress by decreasing GSH and increasing MDA and GSSG levels in the prefrontal cortex but not in the hippocampus. Although diazepam alone did not reduce anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress, it in combination with exercise significantly decreased anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex of LPS-treated mice. This drug and exercise combination also displayed a more effective effect in comparison with exercise alone. Overall, this study suggests that diazepam in combination with swimming exercise has higher efficacy on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress than when they are used alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Glutathione Disulfide , Diazepam/pharmacology , Pandemics , Oxidative Stress , Anxiety/chemically induced , Anxiety/prevention & control , Prefrontal Cortex , Glutathione/metabolism , Hippocampus
2.
Biomolecules ; 13(4)2023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299784

ABSTRACT

In humans, the cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) family of proteins is encoded by 16 genes presented in seven different classes. GSTs exhibit remarkable structural similarity with some overlapping functionalities. As a primary function, GSTs play a putative role in Phase II metabolism by protecting living cells against a wide variety of toxic molecules by conjugating them with the tripeptide glutathione. This conjugation reaction is extended to forming redox sensitive post-translational modifications on proteins: S-glutathionylation. Apart from these catalytic functions, specific GSTs are involved in the regulation of stress-induced signaling pathways that govern cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recently, studies on the effects of GST genetic polymorphisms on COVID-19 disease development revealed that the individuals with higher numbers of risk-associated genotypes showed higher risk of COVID-19 prevalence and severity. Furthermore, overexpression of GSTs in many tumors is frequently associated with drug resistance phenotypes. These functional properties make these proteins promising targets for therapeutics, and a number of GST inhibitors have progressed in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Proteins , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Glutathione/metabolism
3.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 174(4): 464-467, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279107

ABSTRACT

There is practically no information on the state of oxidative stress reactions in newborns with coronavirus infections. At the same time, such studies are extremely important and can contribute to better understanding of the process of reactivity in patients of different ages. The content of pro- and antioxidant status indicators was assessed in 44 newborns with confirmed COVID-19. It was found that the content of compounds with unsaturated double bonds, primary, secondary, and final LPO products were elevated in newborns with COVID-19. These changes were accompanied by higher SOD activity and retinol level and reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase. Contrary to popular opinion, newborns can be a COVID-19-susceptible age group and require more close monitoring of metabolic reactions during the period of neonatal adaptation that is an aggravating background during infection.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , COVID-19 , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Antioxidants/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidation-Reduction , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione/metabolism
4.
Free Radic Res ; 56(11-12): 740-748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254038

ABSTRACT

Oxidative Stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and in the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 causes injuries to tissues, leading to cytopathic hypoxia and ultimately multiple organ failure. The measurement of blood glutathione (GSH), H2O2, and catalase activity may help clarify the pathophysiology pathways of this disease. We developed and standardized a sensitive and specific chemiluminescence technique for H2O2 and GSH measurement in plasma and red blood cells of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Contrary to what was expected, the plasma concentration of H2O2 was substantially reduced (10-fold) in COVID-19 patients compared to the healthy control group. From the cohort of patients discharged from the hospital and those who were deceased, the former showed a 3.6-fold and the later 16-fold H2O2 reduction compared to the healthy control. There was a 4.4 reduction of H2O2 concentration in the deceased group compared to the discharged group. Interestingly, there was no variation in GSH levels between groups, and reduced catalase activity was found in discharged and deceased patients compared to control. These data represent strong evidence that H2O2 is converted into highly reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the worst prognosis and death outcome in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. Considering the difference in the levels of H2O2 between the control group and the deceased patients, it is proposed the quantification of plasma H2O2 as a marker of disease progression and the induction of the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes as a strategy to reduce the production of oxidative stress during severe COVID-19.HighlightsH2O2 plasma levels is dramatically reduced in patients who deceased compared to those discharged and to the control group.Plasmatic quantification of H2O2 can be possibly used as a predictor of disease progression.Catalase activity is reduced in COVID-19.GSH levels remain unchanged in COVID-19 compared to the control group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide , Catalase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism
5.
J Biochem ; 171(4): 367-377, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288636

ABSTRACT

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol (-SH) in mammalian cells. Its synthesis and metabolism serve to maintain cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis, which is important for multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation and death. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the essential roles of GSH extended far beyond its oxidant and electrophile scavenger activities and regulatory role in the lifespan of cells. Recent findings revealed that altered GSH levels are closely associated with a wide range of pathologies including bacterial and viral infections, neurodegenerative diseases and autoimmune disorders, all of which are also characterized by aberrant activation of the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. As a result of these findings, GSH was assigned a central role in influencing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. To expand on our recent advances in understanding this process, we discuss here the emerging roles of GSH in activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and the therapeutic potential of GSH in its associated pathologies.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Animals , Glutathione/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mammals , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction
6.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997718

ABSTRACT

Several studies suggested the association of COVID-19 with systemic oxidative stress, in particular with lipid peroxidation and vascular stress. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant signaling in the plasma of eighty-eight patients upon admission to the Clinical Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, of which twenty-two died within a week, while the other recovered. The differences between the deceased and the survivors were found, especially in the reduction of superoxide dismutases (SOD-1 and SOD-2) activity, which was accompanied by the alteration in glutathione-dependent system and the intensification of the thioredoxin-dependent system. Reduced levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, especially tocopherol, were also observed, which correlated with enhanced lipid peroxidation (determined by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and neuroprostane levels) and oxidative modifications of proteins assessed as 4-HNE-protein adducts and carbonyl groups. These findings confirm the onset of systemic oxidative stress in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2, especially those who died from COVID-19, as manifested by strongly reduced tocopherol level and SOD activity associated with lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we propose that preventive and/or supplementary use of antioxidants, especially of lipophilic nature, could be beneficial for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , COVID-19 , Antioxidants/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tocopherols
7.
Nature ; 609(7928): 801-807, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960390

ABSTRACT

Anorexia and fasting are host adaptations to acute infection, and induce a metabolic switch towards ketogenesis and the production of ketone bodies, including ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)1-6. However, whether ketogenesis metabolically influences the immune response in pulmonary infections remains unclear. Here we show that the production of BHB is impaired in individuals with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but not in those with  influenza-induced ARDS. We found that BHB promotes both the survival of and the production of interferon-γ by CD4+ T cells. Applying a metabolic-tracing analysis, we established that BHB provides an alternative carbon source to fuel oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the production of bioenergetic amino acids and glutathione, which is important for maintaining the redox balance. T cells from patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS were exhausted and skewed towards glycolysis, but could be metabolically reprogrammed by BHB to perform OXPHOS, thereby increasing their functionality. Finally, we show in mice that a ketogenic diet and the delivery of BHB as a ketone ester drink restores CD4+ T cell metabolism and function in severe respiratory infections, ultimately reducing the mortality of mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Altogether, our data reveal that BHB is an alternative source of carbon that promotes T cell responses in pulmonary viral infections, and highlight impaired ketogenesis as a potential confounding factor in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Energy Metabolism , Ketones , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/biosynthesis , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/metabolism , Amino Acids/biosynthesis , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Diet, Ketogenic , Esters/metabolism , Glutathione/biosynthesis , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycolysis , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Ketone Bodies/metabolism , Ketones/metabolism , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
8.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(16): 1307-1325, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847036

ABSTRACT

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that regulates energy metabolism mainly through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). It is well known that this enzyme participates in the antioxidant/oxidant balance via the synthesis of energy-rich molecules: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), the reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH) and glutathione (GSH), controlling reactive oxygen species generation. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a public health problem that has caused approximately 4.5 million deaths since December 2019. Concerning the role of G6PD in COVID-19 development, it is known from the existing literature that G6PD-deficient patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are more susceptible to thrombosis and hemolysis, suggesting that G6PD deficiency facilitates infection by SARS-CoV-2. Concerning G6PD and neuropathology, it has been observed that deficiency of this enzyme is also present with an increase in oxidative markers. Concerning the role of G6PD and the neurological manifestations of COVID-19, it has been reported that the enzymatic deficiency in patients infected with SARSCoV- 2 exacerbates the disease, and, in some clinical reports, an increase in hemolysis and thrombosis was observed when patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine (OH-CQ), a drug with oxidative properties. In the present work, we summarize the evidence of the role of G6PD in COVID- 19 and its possible role in the generation of oxidative stress and glucose metabolism deficits, and inflammation present in this respiratory disease and its progression including neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Hemolysis , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cells ; 11(6)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731953

ABSTRACT

The infection with SARS-CoV-2 impairs the glucose-insulin axis and this contributes to oxidative (OS) and nitrosative (NSS) stress. Here, we evaluated changes in glucose metabolism that could promote the loss of redox homeostasis in COVID-19 patients. This was comparative cohort and analytical study that compared COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 61 COVID-19 patients with and without comorbidities and 25 healthy subjects (HS). In all subjects the plasma glucose, insulin, 8-isoprostane, Vitamin D, H2S and 3-nitrotyrosine were determined by ELISA. The nitrites (NO2-), lipid-peroxidation (LPO), total-antioxidant-capacity (TAC), thiols, glutathione (GSH) and selenium (Se) were determined by spectrophotometry. The glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), 8-isoprostanes, 3-nitrotyrosine (p < 0.001) and LPO were increased (p = 0.02) while Vitamin D (p = 0.01), H2S, thiols, TAC, GSH and Se (p < 0.001) decreased in COVID-19 patients in comparison to HS. The SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in alterations in the glucose-insulin axis that led to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and IR in patients with and without comorbidities. These alterations increase OS and NSS reflected in increases or decreases in some oxidative markers in plasma with major impact or fatal consequences in patients that course with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, subjects without comorbidities could have long-term alterations in the redox homeostasis after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Selenium , Antioxidants/metabolism , Glucose , Glutathione/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Insulin/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Vitamin D , Vitamins
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 715-721, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is promising as a re-purposed drug for the adjunctive or supportive treatment of serious COVID-19, this article aimed to describe current evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed/Medline for "NAC", "viral Infection", COVID-19", oxidative stress", "inflammation", retrieving preclinical and clinical studies. RESULTS: NAC is a pleiotropic molecule with a dual antioxidant mechanism; it may neutralize free radicals and acts as a donor of cysteine, restoring the physiological pool of GSH. Serious COVID-19 patients have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals and often present with glutathione depletion, which prompts a cytokine storm. NAC, which acts as a precursor of GSH inside cells, has been currently used in many conditions to restore or protect against GSH depletion and has a wide safety margin. In addition, NAC has anti-inflammatory activity independently of its antioxidant activity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and experimental data suggest that NAC may act on the mechanisms leading to the prothrombotic state observed in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Acetylcysteine/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Glutathione/chemistry , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/metabolism
11.
Sci Adv ; 8(5): eabl8920, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673337

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone is widely used as an immunosuppressive therapy and recently as COVID-19 treatment. Here, we demonstrate that dexamethasone sensitizes to ferroptosis, a form of iron-catalyzed necrosis, previously suggested to contribute to diseases such as acute kidney injury, myocardial infarction, and stroke, all of which are triggered by glutathione (GSH) depletion. GSH levels were significantly decreased by dexamethasone. Mechanistically, we identified that dexamethasone up-regulated the GSH metabolism regulating protein dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. DPEP1 knockdown reversed the phenotype of dexamethasone-induced ferroptosis sensitization. Ferroptosis inhibitors, the DPEP1 inhibitor cilastatin, or genetic DPEP1 inactivation reversed the dexamethasone-induced increase in tubular necrosis in freshly isolated renal tubules. Our data indicate that dexamethasone sensitizes to ferroptosis by a GR-mediated increase in DPEP1 expression and GSH depletion. Together, we identified a previously unknown mechanism of glucocorticoid-mediated sensitization to ferroptosis bearing clinical and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dipeptidases/genetics , Ferroptosis/drug effects , Ferroptosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Carbolines/adverse effects , Carbolines/pharmacology , Cell Line , Dipeptidases/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Piperazines/adverse effects , Piperazines/pharmacology
12.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 45(6): 2686-2698, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450322

ABSTRACT

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are synthetic and broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs derived from nalidixic acid. FQs are used against SARS-CoV-2 in our country, and for the treatment of some urinary tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory tract diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, and dermatological diseases. The present study investigated the effect of 1-,7-,14-day treatments of three different FQ derivatives; ciprofloxacin (CIP) 80 mg/kg/day, levofloxacin (LVX) 40 mg/kg/day, and moxifloxacin (MXF) 40 mg/kg/day, on biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and immunotoxicity. 72 Wistar albino male rats were distributed to four groups including 18 rats in each group and were sacrificed on three different time points. The 14-day treatment of MXF significantly reduced the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Furthermore, 14-day treatment of LVX increased liver [GSH, MPO, ADA, superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and GSH (erythrocyte) levels; whereas it significantly reduced the levels of AST, TG (triglycerides) and associated parameters levels in all the tissues (MDA), erythrocytes, and liver (MPO, CAT, SOD, GPx). After 14-day treatment of CIP; the erythrocyte levels of GSH, MPO, GPx, and CAT significantly decreased; whereas the levels of glucose, creatinine, MPO (liver), and GST (kidney and erythrocyte) significantly increased. It has been concluded that FQ derivatives used in this experiment did not display any correlation in terms of the efficacies in the different time points and tissues. Thus, it is recommended to use such FQ derivatives considering the duration of use and target tissue.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , COVID-19 , Animals , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Peroxidase/pharmacology , Adenosine Deaminase/pharmacology , Fluoroquinolones/toxicity , Creatinine , Levofloxacin/pharmacology , Moxifloxacin/pharmacology , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2 , Lipid Peroxidation , Glutathione/metabolism , Malondialdehyde , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Triglycerides , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Glucose , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress
13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9221693, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aminothiols (glutathione (GSH), cysteinylglycine (CG)) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the possible association of these indicators with the severity of COVID-19 has not yet been investigated. METHODS: The total content (t) and reduced forms (r) of aminothiols were determined in patients with COVID-19 (n = 59) on admission. Lung injury was characterized by computed tomography (CT) findings in accordance with the CT0-4 classification. RESULTS: Low tGSH level was associated with the risk of severe COVID-19 (tGSH ≤ 1.5 µM, mild vs. moderate/severe: risk ratio (RR) = 3.09, p = 0.007) and degree of lung damage (tGSH ≤ 1.8 µM, CT < 2 vs. CT ≥ 2: RR = 2.14, p = 0.0094). The rGSH level showed a negative association with D-dimer levels (ρ = -0.599, p = 0.014). Low rCG level was also associated with the risk of lung damage (rCG ≤ 1.3 µM, CT < 2 vs. CT ≥ 2: RR = 2.28, p = 0.001). Levels of rCG (ρ = -0.339, p = 0.012) and especially tCG (ρ = -0.551, p = 0.004) were negatively associated with platelet count. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the advanced oxidation protein product level and tGSH in patients with moderate or severe but not in patients with mild COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Thus, tGSH and rCG can be seen as potential markers for the risk of severe COVID-19. GSH appears to be an important factor to oxidative damage prevention as infection progresses. This suggests the potential clinical efficacy of correcting glutathione metabolism as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dipeptides/blood , Glutathione/blood , Advanced Oxidation Protein Products/blood , Aged , Amino Acids, Sulfur/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Dipeptides/metabolism , Female , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5446-5451, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363689

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a global health issue and develops into a broad range of illnesses from asymptomatic to fatal respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with oxidative stress that triggers cytokine production, inflammation, and other pathophysiological processes. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with electrophiles to protect the cell from oxidative damage and participates in the antioxidant defense mechanism in the lungs. Thus, in this study, we investigated the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism with COVID-19 susceptibility, as well as its outcome. The study included 269 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients with mild (n = 149) and severe (n = 120) conditions. All subjects were genotyped for GSTM1 and GSTT1 by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) followed by statistical analysis. The frequency of GSTM1-/- , GSTT1-/- and GSTM1-/- /GSTT1-/- was higher in severe COVID-19 patients as compared to mild patients but we did not observe a significant association. In the Cox hazard model, death was significantly 2.28-fold higher in patients with the GSTT1-/- genotype (p = 0.047). In combination, patients having GSTM1+/+ and GSTT1-/- genotypes showed a poor survival rate (p = 0.02). Our results suggested that COVID-19 patients with the GSTT1-/- genotype showed higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glutathione Transferase/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Alleles , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Expression , Gene Frequency , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress , Proportional Hazards Models , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325680

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, type II diabetes mellitus, more specifically ensuing diabetic nephropathy, and severe COVID-19 disease are known to be closely associated. The exact mechanisms behind this association are less known. An implication for the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 remains controversial. Some researchers have started looking into other potential actors, such as neuropilin-1, mitochondrial glutathione, vitamin D, and DPP4. In particular, neuropilin-1 seems to play an important role in the underlying mechanism linking COVID-19 and diabetic nephropathy. We suggest, based on the findings in this review, that its up-regulation in the diabetic kidney facilitates viral entry in this tissue, and that the engagement of both processes leads to a depletion of neuropilin-1, which was demonstrated to be strongly associated with the pathogenesis of DN. More studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, and research should be directed towards elucidating the potential roles of all these suggested actors and eventually discovering new therapeutic strategies that could reduce the burden of COVID-19 in patients with diabetic nephropathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Vitamin D/metabolism
16.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lippia javanica (lemon bush) is commonly used in the treatment of respiratory ailments, including asthma in southern African countries but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic effects of L. javanica using a rat model of asthma. METHODS: A 5% w/v L. javanica tea infusion was prepared and characterised by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Animals were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently challenged intranasal with OVA on day 15 except the control group. Animals were grouped (n = 5/group) for treatment: unsensitised control, sensitised control, sensitised + prednisolone and sensitised + L. javanica at 50 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day - equivalent to 1 and 2 cups of tea per day, respectively. After 2 weeks of treatment, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count. Nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were also assessed in BALF. Ovalbumin specific IgE antibody and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-alpha were measured in serum. Lung and muscle tissues were histological examined. RESULTS: L. javanica was rich in phenolic compounds. OVA sensitisation resulted in development of allergic asthma in rats. L. javanica treatment resulted in a reduction in total WBC count as well as eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils in BALF. L. javanica inhibited Th2-mediated immune response, which was evident by a decrease in serum IgE and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α. L. javanica treatment also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO, and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Histology showed significant attenuation of lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, alveolar thickening, and bronchiole smooth muscle thickening. CONCLUSION: L. javanica suppressed allergic airway inflammation by reducing Th2-mediated immune response and oxidative stress in OVA-sensitized rats which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compound in the plant. This finding validates the traditional use of L. javanica in the treatment of respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , Lippia , Teas, Herbal , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Th2 Cells/drug effects
18.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102041, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263367

ABSTRACT

Viral infections sustain their replication cycle promoting a pro-oxidant environment in the host cell. In this context, specific alterations of the levels and homeostatic function of the tripeptide glutathione have been reported to play a causal role in the pro-oxidant and cytopathic effects (CPE) of the virus. In this study, these aspects were investigated for the first time in SARS-CoV2-infected Vero E6 cells, a reliable and well-characterized in vitro model of this infection. SARS-CoV2 markedly decreased the levels of cellular thiols, essentially lowering the reduced form of glutathione (GSH). Such an important defect occurred early in the CPE process (in the first 24 hpi). Thiol analysis in N-acetyl-Cys (NAC)-treated cells and membrane transporter expression data demonstrated that both a lowered uptake of the GSH biosynthesis precursor Cys and an increased efflux of cellular thiols, could play a role in this context. Increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and protein glutathionylation were also observed along with upregulation of the ER stress marker PERK. The antiviral drugs Remdesivir (Rem) and Nelfinavir (Nel) influenced these changes at different levels, essentially confirming the importance or blocking viral replication to prevent GSH depletion in the host cell. Accordingly, Nel, the most potent antiviral in our in vitro study, produced a timely activation of Nrf2 transcription factor and a GSH enhancing response that synergized with NAC to restore GSH levels in the infected cells. Despite poor in vitro antiviral potency and GSH enhancing function, Rem treatment was found to prevent the SARS-CoV2-induced glutathionylation of cellular proteins. In conclusion, SARS-CoV2 infection impairs the metabolism of cellular glutathione. NAC and the antiviral Nel can prevent such defect in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glutathione , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/metabolism , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 598601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170084

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the leading cause of mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although treatment strategies for CM are continually being developed, the mortality rate is still high. Therefore, we need to explore more therapeutic strategies that are aimed at hindering its pathogenic mechanism. In the field of CM, several studies have observed rapid iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation within the brain, all of which are hallmarks of ferroptosis, which is a type of programmed cell death that is characterized by iron dependence and lipid peroxidation. In recent years, many studies have confirmed the involvement of ferroptosis in many diseases, including infectious diseases such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, ferroptosis is considered as immunogenic and pro-inflammatory as the ferroptotic cells release damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) and alarmin, both of which regulate immunity and pro-inflammatory activity. Hence, we hypothesize that there might be a relationship between this unique cell death modality and CM. Herein, we review the evidence of ferroptosis in CM and consider the hypothesis that ferroptotic cell death may be involved in the cell death of CM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Ferroptosis , Iron/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/metabolism , Tuberculosis/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Ferroptosis/immunology , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Lipid Metabolism , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/immunology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/pathology , Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/pathology
20.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(2): 325-341, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067095

ABSTRACT

To assess the chondroprotective effect and influence of N,N'-bis(1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3-oxopyrazol-4-yl) sebacamide (dpdo) that was synthesized through the reaction of phenazone with sebacoyl chloride and screened for its biological activity especially as anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agent in a monoiodoacetate (MA)-induced experimental osteoarthritis (OA) model. Thirty male albino rats weighing "190-200 g" were divided randomly into three groups (10 each): control, MA-induced OA, and MA-induced OA + dpdo. In MA-induced OA rat, the tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factors, reactive oxygen species, as well as all the mitochondrial markers such as mitochondria membrane potential, swelling mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and serum oxidative/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and activities of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase) are elevated. Also, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), levels of ATP, the level of glutathione (GSH), and thiol were markedly diminished in the MA-induced OA group compared to the normal control rats. These findings showed that mitochondrial function is associated with OA pathophysiological alterations and high gene expressions of (IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-1b) and suggests a promising use of dpdo as potential ameliorative agents in the animal model of OA and could act as anti-inflammatory agent in case of severe infection with COVID-19. It is clearly appeared in improving the bone cortex and bone marrow in the treated group with the novel compound in histological and transmission electron microscopic sections which is a very important issue today in fighting severe infections that have significant effects on the blood indices and declining of blood corpuscles like COVID-19, in addition to declining the genotoxicity and inflammation induced by MA in male rats. The novel synthesized compound was highly effective in improving all the above mentioned parameters.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/ultrastructure , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione/metabolism , Iodoacetic Acid , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/physiology , Osteoarthritis/chemically induced , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Succinate Dehydrogenase/metabolism
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