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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 116(3): 640-652, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consensus has not been reached on what constitutes an optimal diet in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially between low-carbohydrate options. OBJECTIVES: We compared 2 low-carbohydrate diets with 3 key similarities (incorporating nonstarchy vegetables and avoiding added sugars and refined grains) and 3 key differences (incorporating compared with avoiding legumes, fruits, and whole, intact grains) for their effects on glucose control and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with prediabetes and T2DM. METHODS: Keto-Med was a randomized, crossover, interventional trial. Forty participants aged ≥18 years with prediabetes or T2DM followed the well-formulated ketogenic diet (WFKD) and the Mediterranean-plus diet (Med-Plus) for 12 weeks each, in random order. The diets shared the 3 key similarities noted above. The Med-Plus incorporated legumes, fruits, and whole, intact grains, while the WFKD avoided them. The primary outcome was the percentage change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) after 12 weeks on each diet. Secondary and exploratory outcomes included percentage changes in body weight, fasting insulin, glucose, and blood lipids; average glucose from continuous glucose monitor (CGM), and nutrient intake. RESULTS: The primary analysis was of 33 participants with complete data. The HbA1c values did not differ between diets at 12 weeks. Triglycerides decreased more for the WFKD [percentage changes, -16% (SEM, 4%) compared with -5% (SEM, 6%) for the Med-Plus; P = 0.02] and LDL cholesterol was higher for the WFKD [percentage changes, +10% (SEM, 4%) compared with -5% (SEM, 5%) for the Med-Plus; P = 0.01]. Weight decreased 8% (SEM, 1%) compared with 7% (SEM, 1%) and HDL cholesterol increased 11% (SEM, 2%) compared with 7% (SEM, 3%) for the WFKD compared with the Med-Plus, respectively; however, there was a significant interaction of diet × order for both. Participants had lower intakes of fiber and 3 nutrients on the WFKD compared with the Med-Plus. Twelve-week follow-up data suggest the Med-Plus is more sustainable. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c values were not different between diet phases after 12 weeks, but improved from baseline on both diets, likely due to several shared dietary aspects. The WFKD led to a greater decrease in triglycerides, but also had potential untoward risks from elevated LDL cholesterol and lower nutrient intakes from avoiding legumes, fruits, and whole, intact grains, as well as being less sustainable. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03810378.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, Ketogenic , Diet, Mediterranean , Prediabetic State , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol, LDL , Cross-Over Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Triglycerides , Vegetables
2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(11): 1925-1933, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287957

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To investigate overlooked diabetes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 462 COVID-19 inpatients were included in this retrospective study. The presence of diabetes before COVID-19 admission, and the HbA1c and blood glucose levels at admission were examined. RESULTS: Of the 462 patients, 116 had diabetes. Seventy-six patients had been diagnosed with diabetes before COVID-19 admission, and 40 patients were diagnosed for the first time. Of the patients with diabetes 72% required insulin. Patients with diabetes were significantly (P < 0.05) older, more likely to be male, heavier, and showed a lower eGFR. Patients with overlooked diabetes showed a lower HbA1c (average 7.1% vs 7.5%), a lower casual blood glucose (average 157 vs 179 mg/dL), and they used less insulin per day during hospitalization (average 16.0 units vs 34.5 units) than patients with previously diagnosed diabetes. Patients with overlooked diabetes tended to have more severe COVID-19 than those with pre-diagnosed diabetes. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that the increased odds ratios (ORs) of aggravation in all patients with COVID-19 were associated with age [OR 1.04], BMI [OR 1.05], and diabetes [OR 2.15]. The risk factors for aggravation in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes were age [OR 1.05] and HbA1c [OR 1.45]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is a predictor of COVID-19 aggravation. Furthermore, in COVID-19 patients with diabetes, high HbA1c levels are a risk factor for severe COVID-19. A total of 8.7% of COVID-19 inpatients were diagnosed with diabetes after HbA1c was measured on admission. Therefore, it is important to measure HbA1c in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Male , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Inpatients , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Insulin/therapeutic use
3.
N Engl J Med ; 388(11): 991-1001, 2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control systems of insulin delivery may improve glycemic outcomes in young children with type 1 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of initiating a closed-loop system virtually are unclear. METHODS: In this 13-week, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, children who were at least 2 years of age but younger than 6 years of age who had type 1 diabetes to receive treatment with a closed-loop system of insulin delivery or standard care that included either an insulin pump or multiple daily injections of insulin plus a continuous glucose monitor. The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter, as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. Secondary outcomes included the percentage of time that the glucose level was above 250 mg per deciliter or below 70 mg per deciliter, the mean glucose level, the glycated hemoglobin level, and safety outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 102 children underwent randomization (68 to the closed-loop group and 34 to the standard-care group); the glycated hemoglobin levels at baseline ranged from 5.2 to 11.5%. Initiation of the closed-loop system was virtual in 55 patients (81%). The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was within the target range increased from 56.7±18.0% at baseline to 69.3±11.1% during the 13-week follow-up period in the closed-loop group and from 54.9±14.7% to 55.9±12.6% in the standard-care group (mean adjusted difference, 12.4 percentage points [equivalent to approximately 3 hours per day]; 95% confidence interval, 9.5 to 15.3; P<0.001). We observed similar treatment effects (favoring the closed-loop system) on the percentage of time that the glucose level was above 250 mg per deciliter, on the mean glucose level, and on the glycated hemoglobin level, with no significant between-group difference in the percentage of time that the glucose level was below 70 mg per deciliter. There were two cases of severe hypoglycemia in the closed-loop group and one case in the standard-care group. One case of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in the closed-loop group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving young children with type 1 diabetes, the glucose level was in the target range for a greater percentage of time with a closed-loop system than with standard care. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; PEDAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796779.).


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulin , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems/adverse effects
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0275610, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent conclusions in past studies on the association between poor glycaemic control and the risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) have been reported largely due to the analysis of non-trajectory-based HbA1c values. Trajectory analysis can incorporate the effects of HbA1c variability across time, which may better elucidate its association with macrovascular complications. Furthermore, studies analysing the relationship between HbA1c trajectories from diabetes diagnosis and the occurrence of HHF are scarce. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of the SingHealth Diabetes Registry (SDR). 17,389 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from 2013 to 2016 with clinical records extending to the end of 2019 were included in the latent class growth analysis to extract longitudinal HbA1c trajectories. Association between HbA1c trajectories and risk of first known HHF is quantified with the Cox Proportional Hazards (PH) model. RESULTS: 5 distinct HbA1c trajectories were identified as 1. low stable (36.1%), 2. elevated stable (40.4%), 3. high decreasing (3.5%), 4. high with a sharp decline (10.8%), and 5. moderate decreasing (9.2%) over the study period of 7 years. Poorly controlled HbA1c trajectories (Classes 3, 4, and 5) are associated with a higher risk of HHF. Using the diabetes diagnosis time instead of a commonly used pre-defined study start time or time from recruitment has an impact on HbA1c clustering results. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that tracking the evolution of HbA1c with time has its importance in assessing the HHF risk of T2DM patients, and T2DM diagnosis time as a baseline is strongly recommended in HbA1c trajectory modelling. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to identify an association between HbA1c trajectories and HHF occurrence from diabetes diagnosis time.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glycated Hemoglobin , Heart Failure , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/ethnology , Hospitalization , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Diabetes Care ; 45(12): 2943-2949, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Kidney disease screening recommendations include annual urine testing for albuminuria after 5 years' duration of type 1 diabetes. We aimed to determine a simple, risk factor-based screening schedule that optimizes early detection and testing frequency. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Urinary albumin excretion measurements from 1,343 participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and its long-term follow-up were used to create piecewise-exponential incidence models assuming 6-month constant hazards. Likelihood of the onset of moderately or severely elevated albuminuria (confirmed albumin excretion rate AER ≥30 or ≥300 mg/24 h, respectively) and its risk factors were used to identify individualized screening schedules. Time with undetected albuminuria and number of tests were compared with annual screening. RESULTS: The 3-year cumulative incidence of elevated albuminuria following normoalbuminuria at any time during the study was 3.2%, which was strongly associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and AER. Personalized screening in 2 years for those with current AER ≤10 mg/24 h and HbA1c ≤8% (low risk [0.6% three-year cumulative incidence]), in 6 months for those with AER 21-30 mg/24 h or HbA1c ≥9% (high risk [8.9% three-year cumulative incidence]), and in 1 year for all others (average risk [2.4% three-year cumulative incidence]) was associated with 34.9% reduction in time with undetected albuminuria and 20.4% reduction in testing frequency as compared with annual screening. Stratification by categories of HbA1c or AER alone was associated with reductions of lesser magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: A personalized alternative to annual screening in type 1 diabetes can substantially reduce both the time with undetected kidney disease and the frequency of urine testing. ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS: Kidney disease screening recommendations include annual urine testing for albuminuria after 5 years' duration of type 1 diabetes. We investigated simple screening schedules that optimize early detection and testing frequency. Personalized screening in 2 years for those with current AER ≤10 mg/24 h and HbA1c ≤8%, in 6 months for those with AER 21-30 mg/24 h or HbA1c ≥9%, and in 1 year for all others yielded 34.9% reduction in time with undetected albuminuria and 20.4% fewer evaluations compared with annual screening. A personalized alternative to annual screening in type 1 diabetes can substantially reduce both the time with undetected kidney disease and the frequency of urine testing.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Humans , Albuminuria/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Incidence , Albumins , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology
6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 503-515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. RESULTS: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Weight Loss/drug effects
7.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 69(9): 657-668, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Verifying the clinical effectiveness and the impact on quality-of-life parameters, fear of hypoglycaemia and satisfaction with the treatment obtained with a flash glucose monitoring (MFG) devices implantation program that includes a telematic and group educational intervention in adults with type 1 diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective quasi-experimental study, carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic period with a 9-month follow-up at the Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Sevilla. RESULTS: Eighty-eight participants were included (men: 46.6%; mean age (years) 38.08, SD: 9.38); years of DM1 evolution: 18.4 (SD: 10.49); treatment with multiple doses insulin (MDI) 70.5% vs 29.5% subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (CSII)). Baseline HbA1c was 7.74% (1.08). After the intervention, the global decrease in HbA1c was -0.45% (95% CI [-0.6, -0.25], P < 0.01), increasing to -1.08% in the group that started with HbA1c ≥ 8% (P < 0.01). A mean decrease in the Fear of Hypoglycemia 15 (FH15) test score of -6.5 points was observed (P < 0.01). In the global score of the Spanish version of Diabetes Quality Of Life (DQOL-s) test, the decrease was -8.44 points (P < 0.01). In Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire test (DTQ-s), global score increased in + 4 points (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The incorporation of an educational program in group and telematic format within the development of MFG devices implantation strategies is an effective option, with associated benefits in quality of life and fear of hypoglycemia in adult patients with DM1. This option can be implemented in usual clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemia , Adult , Male , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Glucose , Blood Glucose , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065148, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During COVID-19 pandemic, complete lockdown of cities was one of the measures implemented by governments worldwide. Lockdown had a significant impact on people's lifestyles and access and utilisation of health services. This study aimed to assess the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study, electronic medical records at a leading University Hospital in Northern Jordan were used to extract study data. PARTICIPANTS: All outpatients with T2DM. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose and lipid profile for patients with T2DM, 6 months before and 6 months after the full COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 639 patients (289 (45.2%) males and 350 (54.8%) females) were included in this study. Their age ranged from 18 to 91 years, with a mean (SD) of 59.9 (13.8) years. The overall means of HbA1c (8.41 vs 8.20, <0.001), high-density lipoprotein (1.16 vs 1.12, <0.001), low-density lipoprotein (2.81 vs 2.49, <0.001) and total cholesterol (4.45 vs 4.25, p<0.001) levels were significantly higher in the period before lockdown compared with the period after the lockdown. However, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were not affected significantly after the lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The glycaemic control and lipid profile had significantly improved after COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The availability of medication and medical advice delivery systems (monthly medicine deliveries) during the lockdown in Jordan might have positive impact on patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Jordan/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Lipids
9.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(11): 789-796, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097242

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid expansion of telemedicine have increased the need for accurate and reliable capillary hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. Nevertheless, validation studies of commercially available products suitable for home use have been in short supply. Methods: Three commercial home-use capillary blood sample HbA1c tests (Home Access, CoreMedica, and A1cNow+) were evaluated in 219 participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (4-80 years years of age, HbA1c 5.1%-13.4% [32-123 mmol/mol]) at four clinical sites. Comparisons were made between HbA1c measurements from the commercial tests and paired venous samples for which HbA1c was measured at two central reference laboratories. The primary outcome was percentage of commercial HbA1c values within 5% of the corresponding reference values. Results: HbA1c values were within 5% (relative difference) of paired reference values for 82% of Home Access samples, 29% of CoreMedica samples, and 46% of A1cNow+ samples. Absolute differences were within 0.3% of the reference value for 75% of Home Access samples, 28% of CoreMedica samples, and 44% of A1cNow+ samples and exceeded 0.5% for 8%, 55%, and 37%, respectively. Conclusions: None of the commercial home-use HbA1c tests produced the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program goal of ≥90% measurements within 5% of a DCCT venous reference. However, the Home Access product performed substantially better than the CoreMedica or A1cNow+ products. Telemedicine is likely to persist as a mainstay of diabetes care well after the COVID-19 era. As such, accurate home-based HbA1c assessment represents an urgent need for the diabetes community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Pandemics , Reference Standards
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 193: 110135, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086111

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the impact of primarily telemedical care for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes by monthly video consultations on metabolic control and parents' treatment satisfaction and disease-specific burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this 12-month multicenter observational follow-up VIDIKI 2.0 study, 100 participants (3-18 years) received monthly video consultations, which partially replaced quarterly outpatient clinic appointments during the pandemic. The children's metabolic parameters as well as the parents' treatment satisfaction and diabetes specific burden were assessed at study entry and 12 months later. RESULTS: During the study, 912 video consultations took place (mean 0.84 ±â€¯0.23 / patient/month). The children's HbA1c remained stable, while mean sensor glucose level and glucose management indicator decreased. Simultaneously, parents' treatment satisfaction significantly increased, and their diabetes-specific burden and distress decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Primarily telemedical care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic via monthly video consultations resulted in a significant improvement in parents' treatment satisfaction and their diabetes-specific burden and distress. It was associated with a slight improvement in mean sensor glucose and glucose management indicator, while HbA1c remained stable. Thus, video consultations offer great potential to enhance standard care for children and adolescents with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Telemedicine/methods , Glucose
11.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(4): 1093-1102, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are not many studies conducted to detect and recognize the symptoms during the prediabetes period. In our study, we aimed to determine the symptoms that can be seen in prediabetes and diabetes and their prevalence and to determine the similarities and differences between the two groups. METHODS: Individuals who were diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes, over the age of 18, literate, and accepted to collaborate were included in our study. The "Diabetes Symptoms Checklist Scale" was used by interviewing 321 participants, 161 prediabetic and 160 diabetic, face-to-face. RESULTS: It has been found that the most common symptom in both the prediabetes and the diabetes group is "fatigue" (88.2% prediabetes, 89.4% diabetes). The symptoms seen in the dimensions of neurology and hyperglycemia are more common in individuals with diabetes than in individuals with prediabetes [neurology score: 1.85 ± 0.84 vs. 1.66 ± 0.64 (p = 0.02), respectively; hyperglycemia score: 2.39 ± 0.94 vs. 2.08 ± 0.83 (p = 0.002), respectively]. It was observed that the symptom burden increased in all subdimensions with the long duration of illness, being a female, not working, having a family history, and not doing exercise, and high fasting blood glucose and high HbA1c values. The level of education, family history, accompanying hyperlipidemia, neurology, and hyperglycemia symptoms are associated with diabetes; and it has been determined that cardiology symptoms are associated with prediabetes. DISCUSSION: Especially; during the follow-up of patients with prediabetes who have a low education level and diabetic family history and concomitant hyperlipidemia, there may be an increase in neurological and hyperglycemic symptoms at the point of development of type 2 diabetes. In this respect, we recommend that these factors, which we found to be predictive of diabetes compared to prediabetes, should be questioned more carefully during patient visits.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Prediabetic State , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Blood Glucose
12.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(6): 745-752, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a telehealth intervention on metabolic outcomes and self-perceptions of the patients regarding their management of diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a non-blind randomized controlled clinical trial to assess a telehealth intervention. We included adults with diabetes mellitus. The outcomes assessed were the level of HbA1c, lipid profile, blood pressure levels, weight, body mass index and self-perceptions about diabetes management. RESULTS: A total of 150 individuals with diabetes participated in the study and at the end of telehealth intervention there were no changes in the patient's HbA1c levels between intervention and control groups for neither type 1 (8.1% vs. 8.6%; p = 0.11) nor type 2 diabetes (8.6% vs. 9.0%; p = 0.09), respectively. From the rest of the metabolic profile, triglyceride levels from type 1 diabetes group was the only variable that demonstrated improvement with telehealth intervention (66.5% intervention group vs. 86.5% control group; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: After 4 months of telehealth intervention, no statistically significant results were observed in HbA1c nor in secondary outcomes (with the exception of triglycerides for the type 1 diabetes group).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Metabolome
13.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased prevalence and mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) globally. With limited access to specialised care, most patients with DKA in South Africa are managed at district hospital level. This study describes the profile of patients admitted to a district hospital in South Africa with DKA and COVID-19 and examines associated risk factors encountered. METHODS:  This was a case series of all patients presenting to a district hospital with DKA and COVID-19 infection between July 2020 and July 2021. Data extracted included patients' demographic profiles, biochemical results, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:  The median age of the 10 patients admitted during the study period was 39 years old (±12), six of whom were male. The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values on admission ranged from 9.7 to 13.8. Five of the patients had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Four of the known DM patients were on metformin only, and one was on biphasic insulin. Three patients had other pre-existing comorbidities, two patients with hypertension and one with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three patients demised, two of whom were hypoxic on admission. CONCLUSION:  Diabetic ketoacidosis appears more commonly in COVID-19 infected patients with type 2 DM and at a young age. Suboptimal glycaemic control was associated with DKA, and hypoxia was a strong predictor for mortality. Treatment inertia was evident in the known DM group, who were on monotherapy despite persistent hyperglycaemia. Greater vigilance is required to detect ketosis in type 2 DM and intensify therapy to improve glycaemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Metformin , Adult , Biphasic Insulins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/therapeutic use , Hospitals, District , Humans , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
14.
Trials ; 23(1): 841, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programs have struggled to deliver sustainable, effective support for adults with diabetes (AWDs) to improve self-management behaviors, achieve glycemic goals, and reduce risk for complications. One largely untapped resource for this support is AWDs' social networks. Fifty to 75% of AWDs have an unpaid family member or friend ("support person") who provides ongoing help with diabetes management. However, DSMES interventions to date lack structured and effective approaches to directly engage support persons in AWDs' diabetes management. METHODS: This parallel arm randomized trial is designed to determine the effectiveness of Family Support for Health Action (FAM-ACT), a novel community health worker (CHW)-delivered program focused on educating and supporting patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their support persons (SPs), relative to an established, CHW-delivered, individual patient-focused DSMES and care management (I-DSMES) intervention. Both interventions were developed using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. The study will be conducted in partnership with an urban Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) serving a low-income, Latino/a community, with target enrollment of 268 dyads consisting of an FQHC patient with T2D with high HbA1c and an SP. Patient-SP dyads will be randomized to receive FAM-ACT or I-DSMES over 6 months. The primary outcome is change in patient HbA1c from baseline to 6 months. Secondary patient outcomes include 12-month change in HbA1c, changes in patient blood pressure, diabetes self-management behaviors, diabetes distress, patient activation, diabetes self-efficacy, and perceptions of and satisfaction with SP support for diabetes. Secondary SP outcomes include self-efficacy for helping the patient with diabetes management and SP distress about the patient's diabetes. We also will assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient's ability to manage diabetes. DISCUSSION: This study will inform scalable, evidence-based approaches that leverage family support to help AWDs improve and sustain self-management strategies that underpin optimal management of multiple diabetes complication risk factors. The protocol is designed for and evaluated with a low-income and predominantly Latino/a community, which may increase applicability to other similar communities. The COVID-19 pandemic presented several challenges to study protocol and intervention delivery; modifications made to address these challenges are described. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03812614. Registered on 18 January 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Community Health Workers , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043205

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the eating behaviours of many people, especially Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study aimed to determine the level of mindful eating and its associated factors among T2DM patients at a primary care clinic near Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 18th December 2020 to 5th March 2021 during the movement control order in Malaysia. Respondents were recruited using systematic random sampling via an electronic appointment system. They completed a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic, clinical profiles, and a Malay-translated Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-M). Their blood pressure and body mass index were taken during the appointment day while the remaining clinical profiles such as fasting blood sugar (FBS) were obtained from the medical record. Two hundred respondents were recruited with a mean (SD) age of 57.0 (10.90) years. More than half of them were female (54%). Two-thirds of them had uncontrolled diabetes based on elevated FBS of >7 mmol/L (61.5%) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of >7% (67%), respectively. The mean (SD) score for mindful eating was 2.9 (0.25). Multiple logistic regression revealed that older respondents had a higher level of mindful eating [(AOR = 1.05, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09)]. In addition, elevated FBS level was also associated with a greater level of mindful eating [(AOR = 2.55, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.28-5.07)]. Therefore, healthcare providers should promote mindful eating during the consultation, especially among younger patients. Blood glucose monitoring is also recommended to instil awareness of the importance of healthy eating habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fasting , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
16.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(8): 799-803, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038551

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and program satisfaction of diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) for type 2 diabetes patients delivered by telehealth during COVID-19 pandemic to in-person delivery during pre-COVID-19. A retrospective case-controlled study was conducted (95 telehealth and 95 on-site). Differences in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reductions between groups were analyzed by linear mixed-effects models, and satisfaction was collected. Compared with baseline, at the three-month follow-up, the HbA1c reductions of the telehealth and on-site DSMES were 1.20 ± 0.15% and 1.21 ± 0.15%, respectively (P < .001), whereas these were 1.28 ± 0.16% and 1.18 ± 0.15% at six-month follow-up, respectively (P < .001). There were no significant differences in HbA1c reduction between the two groups (P = .967 and .674 at three- and six-month follow-up). Majority of participants in both groups had high program satisfaction (telehealth 98.7% vs on-site 95.1%, P = .269). In conclusion, DSMES delivered via telehealth is as effective in lowering HbA1c as that delivered in-person, with a high satisfaction rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Telemedicine , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Self-Management/education , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Thailand
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(11): 2588-2593, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the processes of routine care for chronic patients due to disrupted delivery care. The aim of the present study is to verify the COVID-19 pandemic effects on diabetes control and management. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was designed as a retrospective observational study, performed on two cohorts of patients with diabetes in 2019 and 2020. Data used for the analyses were gathered from administrative and laboratory databases, which do not include any sensible information on COVID-19. The Tuscany Regional Health Agency is data controller for current administrative databases and has been working to produce available information for policy decision-making. In 2020, in comparison with 2019, a relevant reduction of the number of patients measuring HbA1c was observed during the March-April lockdown, and again during the second pandemic wave in Autumn. A similar pattern was observed for specialist visits for diabetes, for which the introduction of televisits only partly compensated for the reduction of traditional office visits. The number of patients receiving drugs for diabetes each week in 2020 was very similar to 2019. The mean HbA1c values and the proportion of HbA1c values > 8% for each week, were higher during the 2020 Spring and Autumn lockdown. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts diabetes management, reducing specialist visits and HbA1c determinations during the first and second pandemic wave. Despite a satisfactory continuity in pharmacological treatment, short-term impairment of average glycemic control was detected, particularly in Autumn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 963834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022990

ABSTRACT

The literature presents several reports of the impact of glycemic control and diabetes in the inflammatory and coagulatory response during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, the long-term impact of the COVID-19 in diabetic patients is still to be explored. Therefore, we recruited 128 patients and performed a longitudinal analysis on COVID-19-associated biomarkers of patients with COVID-19, tree and 6 months after COVID-19 recovery and put into perspective the possible long-term complication generated after COVID-19. In our investigation, we failed to verify any long-term modification on inflammatory biomarkers, but detected an increase in the glycemia and glycated hemoglobin in patients without any pre-existing history or diagnosis of diabetes (non-diabetic patients). Although diabetic and non-diabetic patients presented elevated levels of glycated hemoglobin, the c-peptide test indicated a normal beta cell function in all patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans
19.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 54(5): 569-577, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019459

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and understand the process of a nurse-led social media intervention for health behavior and glucose control for diabetes self-management among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: This study had an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, with a randomized controlled trial and qualitative interviews. METHODS: A total of 89 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. Patients in the intervention group were invited to join the closed nurse-led social media platform that included diabetes information, action planning, unmoderated chat, and questions and answers. The outcomes of diabetes self-care behavior, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) percentage, fasting blood sugar level (FBS), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol levels were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. A linear mixed model was used to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention over time. Qualitative data were collected from interviews with seven patients engaged in the intervention and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. FINDINGS: After 6 months, insulin users who were provided with the social media intervention had significantly lower FBS and TG levels than those with usual care (135.80 ± 12.37 vs. 175.82 ± 15.34 mg/dL, p = 0.049; 206.85 ± 38.26 vs. 387.50 ± 56.19 mg/dL, p = 0.013; respectively). Although a similar rate of decrease in the HbA1c level over time was observed among insulin and noninsulin users after the social media intervention, this decrease was significantly greater among noninsulin users at 3 and 6 months compared with the control group (6.38 ± 0.34 vs. 7.25 ± 0.24, p = 0.040; 6.31 ± 0.37 vs. 7.28 ± 0.26, p = 0.036; respectively). Interview with seven patients who engaged in the intervention revealed that their engagement in the intervention was primarily determined by their acceptance of the role of managing their diabetes. Being engaged in the intervention, patients benefited from information sharing and interactive support to motivate their self-care, nurses' professional advice to modify their behaviors, and action planning to make progress toward behavioral change. CONCLUSIONS: The positive outcomes of the nurse-led social media intervention indicate that the social media platform is an effective strategy to implement diabetes self-management in clinical nursing practice. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The social media intervention would be successfully implemented by nurses to facilitate patients accepting their role in diabetes management and employing key services for diabetes information, support, professional advice, and action planning.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulins , Social Media , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Nurse's Role
20.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 34(3)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During 2020, Israel experienced two COVID-19-related lockdowns that impacted the provision of primary and secondary preventive care. METHODS: We examined the month-by-month performance of selected preventive care services using data from Israel's national Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare program. Process of care measures included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing, cholesterol testing, colon cancer screening and mammography. Intermediate outcome measures included low-density lipoprotein control and HbA1c control. Measures were stratified by sex and by area-level socioeconomic position (SEP). Diabetes and mammography are presented in this abstract due to space limitations. RESULTS: Annual HbA1c testing among persons with diabetes decreased from 90.9% in 2019 to 88.0% in 2020. Performance of HbA1c tests during lockdown months was as low as half the usual amount. There were compensatory increases in testing during post-lockdown months that did not quite make up for the missed tests. In 2019, 9.0% of Israelis with diabetes had poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 9.0); in 2020, it was 8.8%. In total, 4.5% fewer mammograms were performed in 2020 compared with 2019. Women in the lowest SEP level performed 10.4% fewer mammograms in 2020 than in 2019, while women in the highest SEP level performed 3.1% more mammograms. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged COVID lockdowns in 2020 were associated with marked decreases in the performance of preventive health services during those months. Compensatory spikes following the end of lockdowns partly, but did not completely, make up for the missed care. COVID lockdowns may have exacerbated socioeconomic disparities in some preventive health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholesterol , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Lipoproteins, LDL , Preventive Health Services
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