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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e063094, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: With the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has been increasingly deployed in lieu of face-to-face consultations for management of diabetes in primary care. There was a need to evaluate clinical effectiveness of telephone consultations for diabetes management and this study aimed to show whether one-off telephone consultation was inferior or not to face-to-face consultation in terms of glycaemic control among patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Data of all patients with type 2 diabetes who had a chronic disease consultation during the period 9 April 2020-18 September 2020, and met the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria was obtained from the electronic medical records. SETTING: A primary care clinic in the north-eastern region of Singapore. The clinic's patient population was representative of Singapore's population in terms of gender and age. PARTICIPANTS: 644 patients with type 2 diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.0% and above, aged 21-80 years old. INTERVENTIONS: Participants either underwent telephone or face-to-face consultation for diabetes management. OUTCOME MEASURE: Mean HbA1c change (∆HbA1c) between preintervention and postintervention. RESULTS: Over 4 months, the mean ∆HbA1c was -0.16 percentage points (p.p.) (95% CI -0.26 to -0.07) and -0.11 p.p. (95% CI -0.20 to -0.02) for face-to-face and telephone consultation groups, respectively. The difference in mean ∆HbA1c between the two groups was +0.05 p.p. (95% CI -∞ to 0.16), with the upper limit of the one-sided 95% CI less than the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 0.5 p.p. (p<0.05). In those with HbA1c≥9%, the difference in mean ∆HbA1c was +0.31 p.p. (95% CI -∞ to 0.79), which exceeded the non-inferiority margin. CONCLUSION: For patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes, one-time telephone consultation was non-inferior to face-to-face consultation in terms of glycaemic control in the short term. However, more studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of telephone consultations and for those with HbA1c≥9%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycemic Control , Referral and Consultation , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Telephone , Treatment Outcome
2.
Intern Med ; 62(6): 833-838, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309037

ABSTRACT

Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global restriction of public behavior due to lockdowns in various major cities. Lifestyle changes and reduced rates of outpatient lifestyle guidance/consulting may have had some impact on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study analyzed the impact of changes in the frequency of nutritional guidance/consulting (NGC) during the COVID-19 pandemic on outpatient care for type 2 diabetes. Methods Among 785 patients, 67 who received regular NGC during the COVID-19 pandemic were assigned to the continuation group (CG), 143 whose NGC was discontinued after the pandemic were assigned to the discontinuation group (DG), and 575 who did not receive regular NGC regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic status were assigned to the irregular NGC group (IGG). The three groups were followed up for two years. Analyses among the three categories were performed using the chi-square test or an analysis of covariance. Results The number of diabetes medications after the declaration of the COVID-19 emergency did not markedly increase in the CG (2.0±1.4 to 2.1±1.5, p>0.05) but significantly increased from 2.2±1.4 to 2.6±1.4 in the DG (p<0.005) and from 2.2±1.4 to 2.4±1.4 in the IGG (p<0.005). The increase in HbA1c adjusted for confounders was unchanged at 0.12±1.06% for the CG and -0.07±1.29% for the IGG but was significantly increased at 0.19±1.49% for the DG (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, regular nutritional guidance may be important for maintaining good glycemic control, even during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Pandemics , Glycemic Control , Glycated Hemoglobin , Communicable Disease Control , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use
3.
Ginekol Pol ; 94(5): 389-394, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The medical care of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during the COVID-19 pandemic was influenced by changing epidemiological conditions and government regulations. Aim - To compare the clinical pregnancy data of GDM women between waves I and III of the pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records from the GDM clinic and compared the periods of March-May 2020 (wave I) and March-May 2021 (wave III). RESULTS: Women with GDM during wave I (n = 119) compared to wave III (n = 116) were older (33.0 ± 4.7 vs 32.1 ± 4.8 years; p = 0.07), booked later (21.8 ± 8.4 vs 20.3 ± 8.5 weeks; p = 0.17), and had their last appointment earlier (35.5 ± 2.0 vs 35.7 ± 3.2 weeks; p < 0.01). Telemedicine consultations were used more frequently during wave I (46.8% vs 24.1%; p < 0.01), while insulin therapy was used less often (64.7% vs 80.2%; p < 0.01). Mean fasting self-measured glucose did not differ (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p = 0.49), but higher postprandial glucose was reported during wave I (6.6 ± 0.9 vs 6.3 ± 0.6 mmol/l; p < 0.01). Pregnancy outcome data were available for 77 wave I pregnancies and 75 wave III pregnancies. The groups were similar in terms of gestational week of delivery (38.3 ± 1.4 vs 38.1 ± 1.6 weeks), cesarean sections (58.4% vs 61.3%), APGAR scores (9.7 ± 1.0 vs 9.7 ± 1.0 pts), and birth weights (3306.6 ± 457.6 g vs 3243.9 ± 496.8 g) (p = NS for all). The mean wave I neonate length was slightly higher (54.3 ± 2.6 cm vs 53.3 ± 2.6 cm; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We identified differences between wave I and wave III pregnancies for several clinical characteristics. However, nearly all pregnancy outcomes were found to be similar.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Glycemic Control , Pregnancy Outcome , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Blood Glucose , Adult
4.
Acta Diabetol ; 60(6): 787-795, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275539

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine the association between COVID-19 Shutdown and within-subjects changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and glycemic parameters using electronic health record (EHR) data from 23,000 adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Patients with T2DM with outpatient visit data on body weight, BMI, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and blood glucose (≥ 2 measures before and after 3/16/2020) recorded in the EHR at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were included. A within-subjects analysis compared average and clinically significant changes in weight, BMI, HbA1c, and blood glucose during the year POST-Shutdown (Time 2-3) compared to the same interval during the PRE-Shutdown year (Time 0-1) using paired samples t-tests and the McNemar-Bowker test. RESULTS: We studied 23,697 adults with T2DM (51% female; 89% White; mean age = 66 ± 13 years; mean BMI = 34 ± 7 kg/m2; mean HbA1c = 7 ± 2% [53 ± 21.9 mmol/mol]). Weight and BMI decreased during both the PRE- and POST-Shutdown intervals, but the changes were statistically smaller during the year POST-Shutdown relative to PRE (0.32 kg and 0.11 units, p < 0.0001). HbA1c showed statistically greater improvements during the POST-Shutdown interval compared to PRE (- 0.18% [-2 mmol/mol], p < 0.0001), but changes in glucose did not differ for the two intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread discussion of weight gain in association with the COVID-19 Shutdown, study data showed no evidence of adverse effects of Shutdown on body weight, BMI, HbA1C, or blood glucose in a large sample of adults with T2DM. This information may help to inform future public health decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin , Glycemic Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Body Mass Index , Weight Gain , Body Weight
5.
Diabetes Care ; 46(3): 511-518, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To use combined glycemic (HbA1c) and BMI z-score (BMIZ) trajectories spanning the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to identify high-risk subgroups of adolescents with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort of adolescents 10-19 years old with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with one or more visits at a large pediatric hospital from January 2018 through February 2020 (prepandemic) and April 2020 through August 2021 (pandemic). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify latent classes of combined BMIZ and HbA1c trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of class membership, including Area Deprivation Index (ADI) (socioeconomic status proxy). RESULTS: The cohort included 1,322 youth with type 1 diabetes (93% White and 7% Black) and 59 with type 2 diabetes (53% Black and 47% White). For type 1 diabetes, six trajectory classes emerged. Black youth were more likely to be in the class with worsening glycemic control and concurrent BMIZ decrease at pandemic onset (relative risk ratio [RRR] vs. White: 3.0 [95% CI 1.3-6.8]) or in the class with progressively worsening glycemic control and obesity (RRR 3.0 [95% CI 1.3-6.8]), while those from the most deprived neighborhoods (RRR ADI tertile 3 vs. 1: 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]) were more likely to be in the class with stable obesity and glycemic control. For type 2 diabetes, three distinct trajectories emerged, two of which experienced worsening glycemic control with concurrent BMIZ decline at pandemic onset. CONCLUSIONS: Race and neighborhood deprivation were independently associated with distinct glycemic and BMIZ trajectory classes in youth with diabetes, highlighting persistent and widening disparities associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Glycated Hemoglobin , Body Mass Index , Glycemic Control , COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1068018, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248690

ABSTRACT

Background: The lockdown at the start of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Saudi Arabia (March 2020 to June 2020) shifted routine in-person care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to telemedicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact telemedicine had during this period on glycemic control (HbA1c) in patients with T2DM. Methods: 4,266 patients with T2DM were screened from five Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c (before and after the COVID-19 lockdown), duration of T2DM, comorbidities and antidiabetic medications data were obtained. Mean and standard deviation of differences in HbA1c were calculated to assess the impact of telemedicine intervention. Correlations between clinically significant variances (when change in the level is ≥0.5%) in HbA1c with demographics and clinical characteristic data were determined using chi square test. Results: Most of the participants were Saudis (97.7%) with 59.7% female and 56.4% ≥60 years of age. Obesity was 63.8%, dyslipidemia 91%, and hypertension 70%. Mean HbA1c of all patients slightly rose from 8.52% ± 1.5% before lockdown to 8.68% ± 1.6% after lockdown. There were n=1,064 patients (24.9%) whose HbA1c decreased by ≥0.5%, n =1,574 patients whose HbA1c increased by ≥0.5% (36.9%), and n =1,628 patients whose HbA1c changed by <0.5% in either direction (38.2%). More males had significant improvements in glycemia compared to females (28.1% vs 22.8%, p<0.0001), as were individuals below the age of 60 years (28.1% vs 22.5%, p<0.0001). Hypertensive individuals were less likely than non-hypertensive to have glycemic improvement (23.7% vs 27.9%, p=0.015). More patients on sulfonylureas had improvements in HbA1c (42.3% vs 37.9%, p=0.032), whereas patients on insulin had higher HbA1c (62.7% vs 56.2%, p=0.001). HbA1c changes were independent of BMI, duration of disease, hyperlipidemia, heart and kidney diseases. Conclusion: Telemedicine was helpful in delivering care to T2DM patients during COVID-19 lockdown, with 63.1% of patients maintaining HbA1c and improving glycemia. More males than females showed improvements. However, the HbA1c levels in this cohort of patients pre- and post-lockdown were unsatisfactorily high, and may be due to in part lifestyle, age, education, and hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Telemedicine , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Blood Glucose , Glycemic Control , Communicable Disease Control
7.
Diabetes Care ; 46(6): 1169-1176, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Produce prescriptions have shown promise in improving diabetes care, although most studies have used small samples or lacked controls. Our objective was to evaluate the impacts of a produce prescription program on glycemic control for patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants included a nonrandom enrollment of 252 patients with diabetes who received a produce prescription and 534 similar control participants from two clinics in Hartford, Connecticut. The start of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 coincided with program implementation. Produce prescription enrollees received vouchers ($60 per month) for 6 months to purchase produce at grocery retail. Controls received usual care. The primary outcome was change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between treatment and control at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included 6-month changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), BMI, hospitalizations, and emergency department admissions. Longitudinal generalized estimating equation models, weighted with propensity score overlap weights, assessed changes in outcomes over time. RESULTS: At 6 months, there was no significant difference in change in HbA1c between treatment and control groups, with a difference of 0.13 percentage points (95% CI -0.05, 0.32). No significant difference was observed for change in SBP (3.85 mmHg; -0.12, 7.82), DBP (-0.82 mmHg; -2.42, 0.79), or BMI (-0.22 kg/m2; -1.83, 1.38). Incidence rate ratios for hospitalizations and emergency department visits were 0.54 (0.14, 1.95) and 0.53 (0.06, 4.72), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A 6-month produce prescription program for patients with diabetes, implemented during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, was not associated with improved glycemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin , Glycemic Control , Pandemics , Prescriptions
9.
Acta Diabetol ; 60(6): 817-825, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261225

ABSTRACT

AIM: The coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 incidence was higher in diabetes mellitus (DM), although several differences should be considered on the basis of characteristics of cohorts evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and potential consequences of COVID-19 in a large diabetic population in Northern Italy. DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal, retrospective, clinical study. METHODS: Subjects with both type 1 and type 2 DM living in the Province of Modena and submitted to at least one SARS-CoV-2 swab between March 2020 and March 2021 were included. Data were extracted from the Hospital data warehouse. RESULTS: 9553 diabetic subjects were enrolled (age 68.8 ± 14.1 years, diabetes duration 11.0 ± 6.9 years, glycated hemoglobin 57.2 ± 16.2 mmol/mol). COVID-19 was detected in 2302 patients (24.1%) with a death rate of 8.9%. The mean age and diabetes duration were significantly lower in infected versus non-infected patients. SARS-CoV-2 infection was more frequent in youngest people, according to quartile of age and retirement pension age of 65 years. No differences were detected considering sex. Higher HbA1c was detected in infected compared to non-infected patient. Death was predicted by diabetes duration and HbA1c. ROC analyses for death risk showed significant threshold for diabetes duration (10.9 years) and age (74.4 years). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, SARS-CoV-2 infection correlates with age, diabetes duration and disease control. Diabetic patients with COVID-19 should be carefully followed when older than 74 years and with more than 10 years of DM duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin , Glycemic Control , Prognosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 199, 2023 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In high-resource settings, structured diabetes self-management education is associated with improved outcomes but the evidence from low-resource settings is limited and inconclusive. AIM: To compare, structured diabetes self-management education to usual care, in adults with type 2 diabetes, in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Single-blind randomised parallel comparator controlled multi-centre trial. Adults (> 18 years) with type 2 diabetes from two hospitals in urban Ghana were randomised 1:1 to usual care only, or usual care plus a structured diabetes self-management education program. Randomisation codes were computer-generated, and allotment concealed in opaque numbered envelopes. The intervention effect was assessed with linear mixed models. MAIN OUTCOME: Change in HbA1c after 3-month follow-up. Primary analysis involved all participants. CLINICALTRIAL: gov identifier:NCT04780425, retrospectively registered on 03/03/2021. RESULTS: Recruitment: 22nd until 29th January 2021. We randomised 206 participants (69% female, median age 58 years [IQR: 49-64], baseline HbA1c median 64 mmol/mol [IQR: 45-88 mmol/mol],7.9%[IQR: 6.4-10.2]). Primary outcome data was available for 79 and 80 participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Reasons for loss to follow-up were death (n = 1), stroke(n = 1) and unreachable or unavailable (n = 47). A reduction in HbA1c was found in both groups; -9 mmol/mol [95% CI: -13 to -5 mmol/mol], -0·9% [95% CI: -1·2% to -0·51%] in the intervention group and -3 mmol/mol [95% CI -6 to 1 mmol/mol], -0·3% [95% CI: -0·6% to 0.0%] in the control group. The intervention effect was 1 mmol/mol [95%CI:-5 TO 8 p = 0.726]; 0.1% [95% CI: -0.5, 0.7], p = 0·724], adjusted for site, age, and duration of diabetes. No significant harms were observed. CONCLUSION: In low-resource settings, diabetes self-management education might not be associated with glycaemic control. Clinician's expectations from diabetes self-management education must therefore be guarded.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Glycated Hemoglobin , Glycemic Control , Single-Blind Method
11.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 17(4): 895-900, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care underwent rapid changes at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Care for people with diabetes shifted from an almost exclusively in-person model to a hybrid model consisting of in-person visits, telehealth visits, phone calls, and asynchronous messaging. METHODS: We analyzed data for all patients with diabetes and established with a provider at a large academic medical center to identify in-person and telehealth ambulatory provider visits over two periods of time (a "pre-COVID" and "COVID" period). RESULTS: While the number of people with diabetes and any ambulatory provider visit decreased during the COVID period, telehealth saw massive growth. Per Hemoglobin A1c, glycemic control remained stable from the pre-COVID to COVID time periods. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support continued use of telehealth, and we anticipate hybrid models of care will be utilized for people with diabetes beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Pandemics , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
12.
Hum Immunol ; 83(11): 789-795, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245965

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with alterations of the immune response and T2DM patients have an increased risk for infections and certain sorts of cancers. Although CD14+HLA-DR-/low cells have emerged as important mediators of immunosuppression in several pathologies, including cancer and non-malignant diseases, the presence of these cells in T2DM is not fully characterized. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the frequency of CD14+HLA-DR-/low cells in non-obese T2DM patients and their association with glycemic control. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy controls (HC, n = 24) and non-obese T2DM patients (n = 25), the population was evaluated by flow cytometry, and an analysis of correlation between cell frequencies and clinical variables was performed. RESULTS: CD14+HLA-DR-/low monocytes were expanded in patients with T2DM compared to HC regardless of weight. Among the subjects with T2DM, the frequency of CD14+HLA-DR-/low was higher in patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 9%) compared to those with better glycemic control (HbA1c < 9%) and, positively correlated with the years since the diagnosis of T2DM, the age of the patients and the glycemic index. CONCLUSIONS: An increased frequency of CD14+HLA-DR-/low cells in the blood of T2DM patients was recorded. The influence of hyperglycemia seems to be independent of obesity, but related to glycemic control and age.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Neoplasms , Flow Cytometry , Glycated Hemoglobin , Glycemic Control , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Monocytes
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(3): e32650, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235439

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is closely associated with hyperglycemia and a worse prognosis in patients with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A few studies investigated the effects of diabetes treatment regimens in these patients during hospitalization. Here, we evaluate the impact of insulin and non-insulin therapy on glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted with COVID-19. This is a retrospective study including 359 COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to diabetes treatment during hospitalization. The first group included patients treated with insulin only, and the second group patients treated with other antidiabetic agents with or without insulin. Average blood glucose was higher in the insulin-only treatment group (201 ± 66 mg/dL vs 180 ± 71 mg/dL, P = .004), even after excluding mechanically ventilated patients (192 ± 69 vs 169 ± 59 mg/dL, P = .003). In patients with moderate severity of COVID-19, average blood glucose was also significantly higher in the insulin-only treated group (197 ± 76 vs 168 ± 51 mg/dL, P = .001). Most patients (80%) in the combination treatment group received metformin. Moderately affected COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes could safely be treated with antihyperglycemic medications with or without insulin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Blood Glucose , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use
14.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 329, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196210

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the attitudes of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) on COVID-19 vaccination and its influence on the glycemic control. METHODS: Data were collected from a consecutive series of adults (age > 18 years) with type 2 diabetes under regular follow-ups in the Integrated Care Diabetes Outpatient Clinic of Peking University First Hospital from December 1st to December 31st 2021. An online interview questionnaire was conducted, and demographic data including age, sex category, history of drug allergy, history of hypertension, the duration of diabetes, reasons for vaccine hesitancy (VH) and adverse reactions after each injection of vaccines was collected. Glucose levels were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (22.9%) subjects experienced VH and 131 (77.1%) people living with diabetes received inactivated vaccine against COVID-19. Hesitant individuals had a higher proportion of female gender (vaccinated group vs. VH group, 62/131 vs. 26/39, p = 0.044), higher baseline glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (vaccinated group vs. VH group, 6.56 ± 0.95% vs. 7.54 ± 2.01%, p < 0.001) and elevated baseline postprandial blood glucose (PBG) (vaccinated group vs. VH group, 8.32 ± 1.97 mmol/L vs. 9.44 ± 2.94 mmol/L, p = 0.015). Subjects of male gender (p = 0.025) and history of hypertension (p = 0.021) were likely to get vaccinated, while higher HbA1c was negatively associated with an elevated propensity to receive anti-COVID-19 vaccine (p = 0.003). Most common reasons for hesitating to receive COVID-19 vaccination were worrying about the possibility of leading to other diseases (30.8%), followed by fearing of glucose variation (17.9%). Systemic adverse reactions were reported in 30.5% individuals after the first injection of inactivated vaccines, and resolved within 3 days in medium. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) decreased significantly after the third injection compared with FBG after the second dose (second vs. third, 6.78 ± 1.24 mmol/L vs. 6.41 ± 1.30 mmol/L, p = 0.027). HbA1c reduced significantly from 6.56% before vaccination to 6.35% after the second injection (p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that vaccine hesitancy was lower among male subjects and people with hypertension, while vaccine confidence was reduced in people with poor glycemic control. HbA1c level was lower along with vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glycemic Control , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , East Asian People , Glucose , Vaccination
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1069559, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163001

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID lockdown has posted a great challenge to paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their caregivers on the disease management. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to compare the glycaemic control among paediatric patients with T1D (aged under 18 years) pre- during, and post-lockdown period. Methods and materials: We did a systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Embase, and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature) for the literature published between 1 Jan 2019 to 10 Sep 2022. Studies meeting the following inclusion criteria were eligible for this study: (1) a COVID-19 related study; (2) inclusion of children aged 18 years old or under with established T1D; (3) comparing the outcomes of interest during or after the COVID lockdown with that before the lockdown. Study endpoints included mean difference (MD) in HbA1c, blood glucose, time in range (TIR, 70-180 mg/dl), time above range (TAR, >180mg/dl), time below range (TBR,<70mg/dl) and glucose variability (coefficient of variation [CV]) between pre-lockdown and during lockdown and/or between pre- and post-lockdown period. The MD and its corresponding 95% CI of each endpoint were pooled using random-effect model considering the potential between-study heterogeneity in COVID restrictions and T1D management. Results: Initial search identified 4488 records and 22 studies with 2106 paediatric patients with T1D were included in the final analysis. Compared with pre-lockdown period, blood glucose was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.18, -0.04) during lockdown period and by 0.42 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.73, -0.11) after lockdown. The improvement was also found for TIR, TAR, TBR, and CV during and post-lockdown (all p values<0.05) except for the post-lockdown TBR (p =0.35). No significant change in HbA1c was observed during and post- lockdown period when compared with the pre-lockdown value. There was moderate to high between-study heterogeneity for most of the analyses. Conclusion: Compared with pre-lockdown period, there was significant improvement in T1D paediatric patients' glucose metrics during and post-lockdown. The underlying reasons for this positive impact warrant further investigation to inform future paediatric diabetes management. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier CRD42022359213.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Blood Glucose , Glycemic Control , Glycated Hemoglobin , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
17.
Rev Diabet Stud ; 18(3): 152-156, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated glycemic control among T1DM pediatric patients attending the endocrinology pediatrics clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) prior to and during COVID-19 restraining regulations. In addition, we assessed the trends and variations in the incidence of T1DM during 2017-2021, including the COVID-19 years by identifying newly diagnosed patients presenting to pediatrics emergency department (ED) in KFHU. METHODS: To estimate the effect of COVID-19 on the incidence of T1DM, we identified newly diagnosed cases of T1DM among pediatric patients attending the ED during the years 2017- 2021. The participants' data were collected through electronic medical records. Information collected included patient age, sex, and HbA1c readings. Three HbA1c readings of interest that were defined and collected are pre-COVID reading, in-COVID reading, and post-COVID reading. RESULTS: The difference of female participants' readings was statistically non-significant (Z= -0.416, p = 0.678), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.70 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.15), and 10.50 (Q1= 8.80, Q3= 12.35), respectively. In contrast, the difference was statistically significant among male participants (Z= -2.334, p = 0.02), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.20 (Q1= 8.70, Q3= 11.80), and 10.65 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.70), respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in HbA1c of persons > 11 years old (Z= -2.471, p= 0.013), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.40 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.10), and 10.90 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.60), respectively. Conversely, persons ≤ 11 years old showed no statistically significant change in HbA1c (Z= -.457, p= 0.648), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.45 (Q1= 8.70, Q3= 11.85), and 10.20 (Q1= 8.40, Q3= 12.075), respectively. Disregarding any influence of time, the effect of sex showed no statistically significant difference in HbA1c between males and females [F (1,125) = 0.008, p = 0.930]. Meanwhile, the age effect on HbA1c, regardless of time influence, was statistically significant [F (1,125) = 4.993, p = 0.027]. There was no statistically significant interaction between time and sex on HbA1c levels [F (1.74, 217) = 0.096, p = 0.883] and between age and time [F (3.92,289.57) = 1.693, p = 0.190]. CONCLUSIONS: The number of visits to healthcare facilities dropped significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the rate of newly diagnosed T1DM increased. There was a variable effect on HbA1c levels of those patients, which suggests that each demographic group in the population might have been affected differently by the pandemic. Future research should determine factors associated with better glycemic control and measures to sustain these changes the pandemic might have created.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Child , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Glycated Hemoglobin , Incidence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Glycemic Control , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals, Teaching
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 195: 110192, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122413

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To conduct a study on glycemic control improvement by appropriate re-education on the self-injection technique (SIT) in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing insulin therapy. METHODS: Patients who received appropriate SIT and were treated with insulin for more than a year were re-educated. For the observation period of six months, the subjects' SIT was checked, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured at each visit. HbA1c levels, insulin doses, and behavioral changes in SIT were investigated at baseline and at the end of the observation period. RESULTS: In the per-protocol set population, the HbA1c level decreased by 0.2 % (2.0 mmol/mol) on average, showing a significant difference (p = 0.009). No significant difference was observed in the proportion of subjects with decreased HbA1c levels, changes in total daily insulin doses, or blood glucose levels. Four of the six SIT items covered by re-education were improved. CONCLUSIONS: Providing re-education on insulin SIT was considered effective in reducing HbA1c levels and improving adherence to proper SIT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Self Administration , Humans , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use , Pandemics
19.
Diabetes Care ; 45(11): 2709-2717, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severity of infection with longer-term glycemic control and weight in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using longitudinal electronic health record data of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). Patients were ≥18 years old with an ICD-10 diagnosis of T2D and at least one HbA1c and weight measurement prior to and after an index date of their first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis or negative SARS-CoV-2 test. We used propensity scores to identify a matched cohort balanced on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and medications used to treat diabetes. The primary outcome was the postindex average HbA1c and postindex average weight over a 1 year time period beginning 90 days after the index date among patients who did and did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection. Secondary outcomes were postindex average HbA1c and weight in patients who required hospitalization or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the postindex average HbA1c or weight in patients who had SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with control subjects. Mechanical ventilation was associated with a decrease in average HbA1c after COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter cohort of patients in the U.S. with preexisting T2D, there was no significant change in longer-term average HbA1c or weight among patients who had COVID-19. Mechanical ventilation was associated with a decrease in HbA1c after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Glycemic Control , Glycated Hemoglobin , Retrospective Studies
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(9): 2157-2167, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Menopause may reduce fat oxidation. We investigated whether sex hormone profile explains resting fat oxidation (RFO) or peak fat oxidation (PFO) during incremental cycling in middle-aged women. Secondarily, we studied associations of RFO and PFO with glucose regulation. METHOD AND RESULTS: We measured RFO and PFO of 42 women (age 52-58 years) with indirect calorimetry. Seven participants were pre- or perimenopausal, 26 were postmenopausal, and nine were postmenopausal hormone therapy users. Serum estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, and testosterone levels were quantified with immunoassays. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and glucose tolerance (area under the curve) were determined by glucose tolerance testing. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; physical activity with self-report and accelerometry; and diet, with food diaries. Menopausal status or sex hormone levels were not associated with the fat oxidation outcomes. RFO determinants were fat mass (ß = 0.44, P = 0.006) and preceding energy intake (ß = -0.40, P = 0.019). Cardiorespiratory fitness (ß = 0.59, P = 0.002), lean mass (ß = 0.49, P = 0.002) and physical activity (self-reported ß = 0.37, P = 0.020; accelerometer-measured ß = 0.35, P = 0.024) explained PFO. RFO and PFO were not related to insulin sensitivity. Higher RFO was associated with poorer glucose tolerance (ß = 0.52, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Among studied middle-aged women, sex hormone profile did not explain RFO or PFO, and higher fat oxidation capacity did not indicate better glucose control.


Subject(s)
Glycemic Control , Insulin Resistance , Blood Glucose , Body Composition , Female , Glucose , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Middle Aged
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