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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(20): 9057-9065, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839492

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation of proteins is a complicated post-translational modification. Despite the significant progress in glycoproteomics, accurate functions of glycoproteins are still ambiguous owing to the difficulty in obtaining homogeneous glycopeptides or glycoproteins. Here, we describe a streamlined chemoenzymatic method to prepare complex glycopeptides by integrating hydrophobic tag-supported chemical synthesis and enzymatic glycosylations. The hydrophobic tag is utilized to facilitate peptide chain elongation in the liquid phase and expeditious product separation. After removal of the tag, a series of glycans are installed on the peptides via efficient glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions. The general applicability and robustness of this approach are exemplified by efficient preparation of 16 well-defined SARS-CoV-2 O-glycopeptides, 4 complex MUC1 glycopeptides, and a 31-mer glycosylated glucagon-like peptide-1. Our developed approach will open up a new range of easy access to various complex glycopeptides of biological importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycopeptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Glycopeptides/chemical synthesis , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycosylation , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732249

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is the most common form of post-translational modification of proteins, critically affecting their structure and function. Using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for high-resolution site-specific quantification of glycopeptides coupled with high-throughput artificial intelligence-powered data processing, we analyzed differential protein glycoisoform distributions of 597 abundant serum glycopeptides and nonglycosylated peptides in 50 individuals who had been seriously ill with COVID-19 and in 22 individuals who had recovered after an asymptomatic course of COVID-19. As additional comparison reference phenotypes, we included 12 individuals with a history of infection with a common cold coronavirus, 16 patients with bacterial sepsis, and 15 healthy subjects without history of coronavirus exposure. We found statistically significant differences, at FDR < 0.05, for normalized abundances of 374 of the 597 peptides and glycopeptides interrogated between symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Similar statistically significant differences were seen when comparing symptomatic COVID-19 patients to healthy controls (350 differentially abundant peptides and glycopeptides) and common cold coronavirus seropositive subjects (353 differentially abundant peptides and glycopeptides). Among healthy controls and sepsis patients, 326 peptides and glycopeptides were found to be differentially abundant, of which 277 overlapped with biomarkers that showed differential expression between symptomatic COVID-19 cases and healthy controls. Among symptomatic COVID-19 cases and sepsis patients, 101 glycopeptide and peptide biomarkers were found to be statistically significantly abundant. Using both supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques, we found specific glycoprotein profiles to be strongly predictive of symptomatic COVID-19 infection. LASSO-regularized multivariable logistic regression and K-means clustering yielded accuracies of 100% in an independent test set and of 96% overall, respectively. Our findings are consistent with the interpretation that a majority of glycoprotein modifications observed which are shared among symptomatic COVID-19 and sepsis patients likely represent a generic consequence of a severe systemic immune and inflammatory state. However, there are glycoisoform changes that are specific and particular to severe COVID-19 infection. These may be representative of either COVID-19-specific consequences or susceptibility to or predisposition for a severe course of the disease. Our findings support the potential value of glycoproteomic biomarkers in the biomedical understanding and, potentially, the clinical management of serious acute infectious conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Glycopeptides/analysis , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycopeptides/metabolism , Glycoproteins , Humans
3.
Glycobiology ; 32(1): 60-72, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501077

ABSTRACT

Extensive glycosylation of the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus not only shields the major part of it from host immune responses, but glycans at specific sites also act on its conformation dynamics and contribute to efficient host receptor binding, and hence infectivity. As variants of concern arise during the course of the coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic, it is unclear if mutations accumulated within the spike protein would affect its site-specific glycosylation pattern. The Alpha variant derived from the D614G lineage is distinguished from others by having deletion mutations located right within an immunogenic supersite of the spike N-terminal domain (NTD) that make it refractory to most neutralizing antibodies directed against this domain. Despite maintaining an overall similar structural conformation, our mass spectrometry-based site-specific glycosylation analyses of similarly produced spike proteins with and without the D614G and Alpha variant mutations reveal a significant shift in the processing state of N-glycans on one specific NTD site. Its conversion to a higher proportion of complex type structures is indicative of altered spatial accessibility attributable to mutations specific to the Alpha variant that may impact its transmissibility. This and other more subtle changes in glycosylation features detected at other sites provide crucial missing information otherwise not apparent in the available cryogenic electron microscopy-derived structures of the spike protein variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Mutation , Polysaccharides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Carbohydrate Sequence , Datasets as Topic , Glycopeptides/genetics , Glycopeptides/metabolism , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Peptide Mapping , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362397

ABSTRACT

Protein glycosylation that mediates interactions among viral proteins, host receptors, and immune molecules is an important consideration for predicting viral antigenicity. Viral spike proteins, the proteins responsible for host cell invasion, are especially important to be examined. However, there is a lack of consensus within the field of glycoproteomics regarding identification strategy and false discovery rate (FDR) calculation that impedes our examinations. As a case study in the overlap between software, here as a case study, we examine recently published SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein datasets with four glycoproteomics identification software with their recommended protocols: GlycReSoft, Byonic, pGlyco2, and MSFragger-Glyco. These software use different Target-Decoy Analysis (TDA) forms to estimate FDR and have different database-oriented search methods with varying degrees of quantification capabilities. Instead of an ideal overlap between software, we observed different sets of identifications with the intersection. When clustering by glycopeptide identifications, we see higher degrees of relatedness within software than within glycosites. Taking the consensus between results yields a conservative and non-informative conclusion as we lose identifications in the desire for caution; these non-consensus identifications are often lower abundance and, therefore, more susceptible to nuanced changes. We conclude that present glycoproteomics softwares are not directly comparable, and that methods are needed to assess their overall results and FDR estimation performance. Once such tools are developed, it will be possible to improve FDR methods and quantify complex glycoproteomes with acceptable confidence, rather than potentially misleading broad strokes.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Glycopeptides/analysis , Glycoproteins/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , Databases, Protein , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycosylation , Humans , Proteomics/methods , Proteomics/standards , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Viral Fusion Proteins/analysis , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 934, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341013

ABSTRACT

We describe an analytical method for the identification, mapping and relative quantitation of glycopeptides from SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. The method may be executed using a LC-TOF mass spectrometer, requires no specialized knowledge of glycan analysis and exploits the differential resolving power of reverse phase HPLC. While this separation technique resolves peptides with high efficiency, glycans are resolved poorly, if at all. Consequently, glycopeptides consisting of the same peptide bearing different glycan structures will all possess very similar retention times and co-elute. Rather than a disadvantage, we show that shared retention time can be used to map multiple glycan species to the same peptide and location. In combination with MSMS and pseudo MS3, we have constructed a detailed mass-retention time database for Spike glycopeptides. This database allows any accurate mass LC-MS laboratory to reliably identify and quantify Spike glycopeptides from a single overnight elastase digest in less than 90 minutes.


Subject(s)
Glycopeptides/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Databases, Protein , Time Factors
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(55): 6804-6807, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284708

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation plays important roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We describe here a facile chemoenzymatic synthesis of core-fucosylated N-glycopeptides derived from the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and their binding with glycan-dependent neutralizing antibody S309 and human lectin CLEC4G. The synthetic glycopeptides provide tools for further functional characterization of viral glycosylation.


Subject(s)
Glycopeptides/chemical synthesis , Glycopeptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycopeptides/immunology , Glycosylation , Polysaccharides/metabolism
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(29): 7295-7303, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274805

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a serious threat to human health all over the world. The development of effective vaccines has been focusing on the spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates viral invasion to human cells through its interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. In this work, we perform analytical characterization of N- and O-linked glycosylation of the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein. We explore the novel use of dual-functionalized titanium (IV)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (Ti-IMAC) material for simultaneous enrichment and separation of neutral and sialyl glycopeptides of a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein from HEK293 cells. This strategy helps eliminate signal suppression from neutral glycopeptides for the detection of sialyl glycopeptides and improves the glycoform coverage of the S protein. We profiled 19 of its 22 potential N-glycosylated sites with 398 unique glycoforms using the dual-functional Ti-IMAC approach, which exhibited improvement of coverage by 1.6-fold compared to the conventional hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) glycopeptide enrichment method. We also identified O-linked glycosylation site that was not found using the conventional HILIC approach. In addition, we reported on the identification of mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) glycosylation, which substantially expands the current knowledge of the spike protein's glycosylation landscape and enables future investigation into the influence of M6P glycosylation of the spike protein on its cell entry.


Subject(s)
Glycopeptides/isolation & purification , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Glycopeptides/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mannosephosphates/chemistry , Static Electricity , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
9.
Glycobiology ; 31(1): 69-80, 2021 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592209

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses hijack human enzymes to assemble the sugar coat on their spike glycoproteins. The mechanisms by which human antibodies may recognize the antigenic viral peptide epitopes hidden by the sugar coat are unknown. Glycosylation by insect cells differs from the native form produced in human cells, but insect cell-derived influenza vaccines have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this study, we analyzed recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein secreted from BTI-Tn-5B1-4 insect cells, by trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We acquired tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectrums for glycopeptides of all 22 predicted N-glycosylated sites. We further analyzed the surface accessibility of spike proteins according to cryogenic electron microscopy and homolog-modeled structures and available antibodies that bind to SARS-CoV-1. All 22 N-glycosylated sites of SARS-CoV-2 are modified by high-mannose N-glycans. MS/MS fragmentation clearly established the glycopeptide identities. Electron densities of glycans cover most of the spike receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, except YQAGSTPCNGVEGFNCYFPLQSYGFQPTNGVGYQ, similar to a region FSPDGKPCTPPALNCYWPLNDYGFYTTTGIGYQ in SARS-CoV-1. Other surface-exposed domains include those located on central helix, connecting region, heptad repeats and N-terminal domain. Because the majority of antibody paratopes bind to the peptide portion with or without sugar modification, we propose a snake-catching model for predicted paratopes: a minimal length of peptide is first clamped by a paratope and sugar modifications close to the peptide either strengthen or do not hinder the binding.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/therapy , Glycopeptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acid Motifs , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycopeptides/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Science ; 369(6501): 330-333, 2020 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-187772

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents a considerable threat to global human health. Vaccine development is focused on the principal target of the humoral immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates cell entry and membrane fusion. The SARS-CoV-2 S gene encodes 22 N-linked glycan sequons per protomer, which likely play a role in protein folding and immune evasion. Here, using a site-specific mass spectrometric approach, we reveal the glycan structures on a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S immunogen. This analysis enables mapping of the glycan-processing states across the trimeric viral spike. We show how SARS-CoV-2 S glycans differ from typical host glycan processing, which may have implications in viral pathobiology and vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycopeptides/immunology , Glycosylation , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Models, Molecular , Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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