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1.
Future Oncol ; 18(24): 2627-2638, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957139

ABSTRACT

Patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic cancer have poor prognosis despite treatment advancements. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-glycoprotein (GP; BI 1831169) is a chimeric VSV with its neurotropic glycoprotein G replaced by the non-neurotropic GP of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. This live, recombinant oncolytic virus has demonstrated preclinical efficacy as a viral-based immunotherapy due to its interferon-dependent tumor specificity, potent oncolysis and stimulation of antitumor immune activity. Co-administration of the immune checkpoint inhibitor, ezabenlimab (BI 754091), alongside VSV-GP may synergistically enhance antitumor immune activity. Here, we describe the rationale and design of the first-in-human, phase I, dose-escalation study of VSV-GP alone and in combination with the immune checkpoint inhibitor ezabenlimab in patients with advanced, metastatic or relapsed and refractory solid tumors (NCT05155332).


There is a need to develop new treatments for people living with cancer. Immunotherapy is a type of medicine that works by helping the body's natural defenses, known as the immune system, to destroy cancer cells. There are different types of immunotherapies such as oncolytic viruses (OVs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). OVs are viruses that may help destroy cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. They work by replicating within cancer cells; this causes them to burst and release more of the virus which then infects nearby cancer cells and activates the body's immune system. ICIs may be able to work together with OVs to amplify this effect. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-glycoprotein (GP) is a type of OV that has been shown to effectively destroy cancer cells in animal studies. This first-in-human study will investigate VSV-GP on its own and in combination with an ICI called ezabenlimab for the treatment of late-stage cancer or cancer that has spread to multiple parts of the body. Here, we describe the background and design of this study in progress which aims to find out if VSV-GP alone or in combination with ezabenlimab is effective against cancer, the suitable dose and if any side effects occur. Trial Registration Number: NCT05155332 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Oncolytic Virotherapy , Oncolytic Viruses , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Cell Line, Tumor , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Glycoproteins , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/therapy , Oncolytic Viruses/genetics
2.
J Vis Exp ; (184)2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911779

ABSTRACT

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is used to measure hemagglutinin (HA) binding to domain-swapped Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) dimer and to monitor interactions between mannosylated peptides and CV-N's high-affinity binding site. Virus envelope spikes gp120, HA, and Ebola glycoprotein (GP) 1,2 have been reported to bind both high- and low-affinity binding sites on dimeric CVN2. Dimannosylated HA peptide is also bound at the two low-affinity binding sites to an engineered molecule of CVN2, which is bearing a high-affinity site for the respective ligand and mutated to replace a stabilizing disulfide bond in the carbohydrate-binding pocket, thus confirming multivalent binding. HA binding is shown to one high-affinity binding site of pseudo-antibody CVN2 at a dissociation constant (KD) of 275 nM that further neutralizes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through oligomerization. Correlating the number of disulfide bridges in domain-swapped CVN2, which are decreased from 4 to 2 by substituting cystines into polar residue pairs of glutamic acid and arginine, results in reduced binding affinity to HA. Among the strongest interactions, Ebola GP1,2 is bound by CVN2 with two high-affinity binding sites in the lower nanomolar range using the envelope glycan without a transmembrane domain. In the present study, binding of the multispecific monomeric CV-N to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) glycoprotein is measured at KD = 18.6 µM as compared with nanomolar KD to those other virus spikes, and via its receptor-binding domain in the mid-µ-molar range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Disulfides , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010518, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902647

ABSTRACT

The three human pathogenic ebolaviruses: Zaire (EBOV), Bundibugyo (BDBV), and Sudan (SUDV) virus, cause severe disease with high fatality rates. Epitopes of ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) recognized by antibodies with binding breadth for all three ebolaviruses are of major interest for rational vaccine design. In particular, the heptad repeat 2 -membrane-proximal external region (HR2-MPER) epitope is relatively conserved between EBOV, BDBV, and SUDV GP and targeted by human broadly-neutralizing antibodies. To study whether this epitope can serve as an immunogen for the elicitation of broadly-reactive antibody responses, protein design in Rosetta was employed to transplant the HR2-MPER epitope identified from a co-crystal structure with the known broadly-reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb) BDBV223 onto smaller scaffold proteins. From computational analysis, selected immunogen designs were produced as recombinant proteins and functionally validated, leading to the identification of a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain displaying the BDBV-HR2-MPER epitope near its C terminus as a promising candidate. The immunogen was fused to one component of a self-assembling, two-component nanoparticle and tested for immunogenicity in rabbits. Robust titers of cross-reactive serum antibodies to BDBV and EBOV GPs and moderate titers to SUDV GP were induced following immunization. To confirm the structural composition of the immunogens, solution NMR studies were conducted and revealed structural flexibility in the C-terminal residues of the epitope. Overall, our study represents the first report on an epitope-focused immunogen design based on the structurally challenging BDBV-HR2-MPER epitope.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Glycoproteins , Rabbits
4.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 150(1): 9-20, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885946

ABSTRACT

In 2016, sepsis was newly defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis remains one of the crucial medical problems to be solved worldwide. Although the world health organization has made sepsis a global health priority, there remain no specific and effective therapy for sepsis so far. Indeed, over the previous decades almost all attempts to develop novel drugs have failed. This may be partly ascribable to the multifactorial complexity of the septic cascade and the resultant difficulties of identifying drug targets. In addition, there might still be missing links among dysregulated host responses in vital organs. In this review article, recent advances in understanding of the complex pathophysiology of sepsis are summarized, with a focus on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), the significant role of NETs in thrombosis/embolism, and the functional roles of plasma proteins, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) and inter-alpha-inhibitor proteins (IAIPs). The specific plasma proteins that are markedly decreased in the acute phase of sepsis may play important roles in the regulation of blood cells, vascular endothelial cells and coagulation. The accumulating evidence may provide us with insights into a novel aspect of the pathophysiology of sepsis and septic ARDS, including that in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Sepsis , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(15): 5909-5917, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882715

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 cellular infection is mediated by the heavily glycosylated spike protein. Recombinant versions of the spike protein and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) are necessary for seropositivity assays and can potentially serve as vaccines against viral infection. RBD plays key roles in the spike protein's structure and function, and thus, comprehensive characterization of recombinant RBD is critically important for biopharmaceutical applications. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been widely used to characterize post-translational modifications in proteins, including glycosylation. Most studies of RBDs were performed at the proteolytic peptide (bottom-up proteomics) or released glycan level because of the technical challenges in resolving highly heterogeneous glycans at the intact protein level. Herein, we evaluated several online separation techniques: (1) C2 reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), (2) capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), and (3) acrylamide-based monolithic hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) to separate intact recombinant RBDs with varying combinations of glycosylations (glycoforms) for top-down mass spectrometry (MS). Within the conditions we explored, the HILIC method was superior to RPLC and CZE at separating RBD glycoforms, which differ significantly in neutral glycan groups. In addition, our top-down analysis readily captured unexpected modifications (e.g., cysteinylation and N-terminal sequence variation) and low abundance, heavily glycosylated proteoforms that may be missed by using glycopeptide data alone. The HILIC top-down MS platform holds great potential in resolving heterogeneous glycoproteins for facile comparison of biosimilars in quality control applications.


Subject(s)
Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, Liquid , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Mass Spectrometry , Polysaccharides/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
6.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 131: 277-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881585

ABSTRACT

Molecular Dynamics (MD) is a method used to calculate the movement of atoms and molecules broadly applied to several aspects of science. It involves computational simulation, which makes it, at first glance, not easily accessible. The rise of several automated tools to perform molecular simulations has allowed researchers to navigate through the various steps of MD. This enables to elucidate structural properties of proteins that could not be analyzed otherwise, such as the impact of glycosylation. Glycosylation dictates the physicochemical and biological properties of a protein modulating its solubility, stability, resistance to proteolysis, interaction partners, enzymatic activity, binding and recognition. Given the high conformational and compositional diversity of the glycan chains, assessing their influence on the protein structure is challenging using conventional analytical techniques. In this manuscript, we present a step-by-step workflow to build and perform MD analysis of glycoproteins focusing on the SPIKE glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 to appraise the impact of glycans in structure stabilization and antibody occlusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6073, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860369

ABSTRACT

Large-scale profiling of intact glycopeptides is critical but challenging in glycoproteomics. Data independent acquisition (DIA) is an emerging technology with deep proteome coverage and accurate quantitative capability in proteomics studies, but is still in the early stage of development in the field of glycoproteomics. We propose GproDIA, a framework for the proteome-wide characterization of intact glycopeptides from DIA data with comprehensive statistical control by a 2-dimentional false discovery rate approach and a glycoform inference algorithm, enabling accurate identification of intact glycopeptides using wide isolation windows. We further utilize a semi-empirical spectrum prediction strategy to expand the coverage of spectral libraries of glycopeptides. We benchmark our method for N-glycopeptide profiling on DIA data of yeast and human serum samples, demonstrating that DIA with GproDIA outperforms the data-dependent acquisition-based methods for glycoproteomics in terms of capacity and data completeness of identification, as well as accuracy and precision of quantification. We expect that this work can provide a powerful tool for glycoproteomic studies.


Subject(s)
Glycopeptides/analysis , Proteome/analysis , Proteomics/methods , Algorithms , Blood Proteins/chemistry , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins/chemistry , Workflow
8.
Cell Rep ; 39(11): 110924, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850803

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged B.1.1.529 (Omicron) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant has a highly divergent spike (S) glycoprotein. We compared the functional properties of B.1.1.529 BA.1 S with those of previous globally prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variants, D614G and B.1.617.2. Relative to these variants, B.1.1.529 S exhibits decreases in processing, syncytium formation, virion incorporation, and ability to mediate infection of cells with high TMPRSS2 expression. B.1.1.529 and B.1.617.2 S glycoproteins bind ACE2 with higher affinity than D614G S. The unliganded B.1.1.529 S trimer is less stable at low temperatures than the other SARS-CoV-2 Ss, a property related to its more "open" S conformation. Upon ACE2 binding, the B.1.1.529 S trimer sheds S1 at 37°C, but not at 0°C. B.1.1.529 pseudoviruses are relatively resistant to neutralization by sera from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and vaccinees. These properties of the B.1.1.529 S glycoprotein likely influence the transmission, cytopathic effects, and immune evasion of this emerging variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Glycoproteins , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(20): 9057-9065, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839492

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation of proteins is a complicated post-translational modification. Despite the significant progress in glycoproteomics, accurate functions of glycoproteins are still ambiguous owing to the difficulty in obtaining homogeneous glycopeptides or glycoproteins. Here, we describe a streamlined chemoenzymatic method to prepare complex glycopeptides by integrating hydrophobic tag-supported chemical synthesis and enzymatic glycosylations. The hydrophobic tag is utilized to facilitate peptide chain elongation in the liquid phase and expeditious product separation. After removal of the tag, a series of glycans are installed on the peptides via efficient glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions. The general applicability and robustness of this approach are exemplified by efficient preparation of 16 well-defined SARS-CoV-2 O-glycopeptides, 4 complex MUC1 glycopeptides, and a 31-mer glycosylated glucagon-like peptide-1. Our developed approach will open up a new range of easy access to various complex glycopeptides of biological importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycopeptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Glycopeptides/chemical synthesis , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycosylation , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
10.
Comput Biol Chem ; 98: 107668, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828156

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its spread since 2019 represents the major public health problem worldwide nowadays, which has generated a high number of infections and deaths. The spike protein (S protein) is the most studied protein of SARS-CoV-2, and key to host-cell entry through ACE2 receptor. This protein presents a large pattern of glycosylations with important roles in immunity and infection mechanisms. Therefore, understanding key aspects of the molecular mechanisms of these structures, during drug recognition in SARS-CoV-2, may contribute to therapeutic alternatives. In this work, we explored the impact of glycosylations on the drug recognition on two domains of the S protein, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) through molecular dynamics simulations and computational biophysics analysis. Our results show that glycosylations in the S protein induce structural stability and changes in rigidity/flexibility related to the number of glycosylations in the structure. These structural changes are important for its biological activity as well as the correct interaction of ligands in the RBD and NTD regions. Additionally, we evidenced a roto-translation phenomenon in the interaction of the ligand with RBD in the absence of glycosylation, which disappears due to the influence of glycosylation and the convergence of metastable states in RBM. Similarly, glycosylations in NTD promote an induced fit phenomenon, which is not observed in the absence of glycosylations; this process is decisive for the activity of the ligand at the cryptic site. Altogether, these results provide an explanation of glycosylation relevance in biophysical properties and drug recognition to S protein of SARS-CoV-2, which must be considered in the rational drug development and virtual screening targeting S protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Glycoproteins , Glycosylation , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820345

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Natural constituents are still a preferred route for counteracting the outbreak of COVID-19. Essentially, flavonoids have been found to be among the most promising molecules identified as coronavirus inhibitors. Recently, a new SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant has spread in many countries, which has raised awareness of the role of natural constituents in attempts to contribute to therapeutic protocols. (2) Methods: Using various chromatographic techniques, triterpenes (1-7), phenolics (8-11), and flavonoids (12-17) were isolated from Euphorbia dendroides and computationally screened against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. As a first step, molecular docking calculations were performed for all investigated compounds. Promising compounds were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations (MD) for 200 ns, in addition to molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations (MM/PBSA) to determine binding energy. (3) Results: MM/PBSA binding energy calculations showed that compound 14 (quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside) and compound 15 (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide 6″-O-methyl ester) exhibited strong inhibition of Omicron, with ΔGbinding of -41.0 and -32.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, drug likeness evaluations based on Lipinski's rule of five also showed that the discovered compounds exhibited good oral bioavailability. (4) Conclusions: It is foreseeable that these results provide a novel intellectual contribution in light of the decreasing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 and could be a good addition to the therapeutic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Euphorbia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Euphorbia/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810312

ABSTRACT

The complete nucleotide sequence of the S1 glycoprotein gene of the Japanese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains was determined and genetically analyzed. A total of 61 Japanese IBV strains were classified into seven genotypes, namely GI-1, 3, 7, 13, 18, 19, and GVI-1 using the classification scheme that was proposed by Valastro et al, with three exceptions. These genotypes practically corresponded to those defined in Japan, namely Mass, Gray, JP-II, 4/91, JP-I, JP-III, and JP-IV, which have been identified through their partial nucleotide sequences containing hypervariable regions 1 and 2. In addition, three exceptive strains were considered to be derived from recombination within the S1 gene of IBV strains G1-13 and GI-19. By analyzing the amino acid polymorphism of the S1 glycoprotein among Japanese genotypes, a diversity was observed based on the genotype-specific amino acid residue, the proteolytic cleavage motif at the S1/S2 cleavage site, and the position of the potential N-glycosylation sites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Glycoproteins/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Japan , Phylogeny
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by an infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was recognized in late 2019 and has since spread worldwide, leading to a pandemic with unprecedented health and financial consequences. There remains an enormous demand for new diagnostic methods that can deliver fast, low-cost, and easy-to-use confirmation of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have developed an affordable electrochemical biosensor for the rapid detection of serological immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in sera against the spike protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previously identified linear B-cell epitope (EP) specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and recognized by IgG in patient sera was selected for the target molecule. After synthesis, the EP was immobilized onto the surface of the working electrode of a commercially available screen-printed electrode (SPE). The capture of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgGs allowed the formation of an immunocomplex that was measured by square-wave voltammetry from its generation of hydroquinone (HQ). RESULTS: An evaluation of the performance of the EP-based biosensor presented a selectivity and specificity for COVID-19 of 93% and 100%, respectively. No cross-reaction was observed to antibodies against other diseases that included Chagas disease, Chikungunya, Leishmaniosis, and Dengue. Differentiation of infected and non-infected individuals was possible even at a high dilution factor that decreased the required sample volumes to a few microliters. CONCLUSION: The final device proved suitable for diagnosing COVID-19 by assaying actual serum samples, and the results displayed good agreement with the molecular biology diagnoses. The flexibility to conjugate other EPs to SPEs suggests that this technology could be rapidly adapted to diagnose new variants of SARS-CoV-2 or other pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrodes , Epitopes , Glycoproteins , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Development ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799075

ABSTRACT

Imprinting control region (ICR1) controls the expression of the Igf2 and H19 genes in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Appropriate expression of the Igf2-H19 locus is fundamental for normal fetal development, yet the importance of ICR1 in the placental production of hormones that promote maternal nutrient allocation to the fetus is unknown. To address this, we used a novel mouse model to selectively delete ICR1 in the endocrine junctional zone (Jz) of the mouse placenta (Jz-ΔICR1). The Jz-ΔICR1 mice exhibit increased Igf2 and decreased H19 expression specifically in the Jz. This was accompanied by an expansion of Jz endocrine cell types due to enhanced rates of proliferation and increased expression of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 23 in the placenta of both fetal sexes. However, changes in the endocrine phenotype of the placenta were related to sexually-dimorphic alterations to the abundance of Igf2 receptors and downstream signalling pathways (Pi3k-Akt and Mapk). There was no effect of Jz-ΔICR1 on the expression of targets of the H19-embedded miR-675 or on fetal weight. Our results demonstrate that ICR1 controls placental endocrine capacity via sex-dependent changes in signalling.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/genetics , Locus Control Region , Placenta/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Signal Transduction , Animals , Female , Genetic Loci , Genomic Imprinting , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Proteins/genetics , Pregnancy Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism
15.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792418

ABSTRACT

Lamellarin α 20-sulfate is a cell-impenetrable marine alkaloid that can suppress infection that is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We explored the antiviral action and mechanisms of this alkaloid against emerging enveloped RNA viruses that use endocytosis for infection. The alkaloid inhibited the infection of retroviral vectors that had been pseudotyped with the envelope glycoprotein of Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2. The antiviral effects of lamellarin were independent of the retrovirus Gag-Pol proteins. Interestingly, although heparin and dextran sulfate suppressed the cell attachment of vector particles, lamellarin did not. In silico structural analyses of the trimeric glycoprotein of the Ebola virus disclosed that the principal lamellarin-binding site is confined to a previously unappreciated cavity near the NPC1-binding site and fusion loop, whereas those for heparin and dextran sulfate were dispersed across the attachment and fusion subunits of the glycoproteins. Notably, lamellarin binding to this cavity was augmented under conditions where the pH was 5.0. These results suggest that the final action of the alkaloid against Ebola virus is specific to events following endocytosis, possibly during conformational glycoprotein changes in the acidic environment of endosomes. Our findings highlight the unique biological and physicochemical features of lamellarin α 20-sulfate and should lead to the further use of broadly reactive antivirals to explore the structural mechanisms of virus replication.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dextran Sulfate , Ebolavirus/metabolism , Glycoproteins , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
16.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(5): 1041-1050, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788265

ABSTRACT

A panel of O-acetylated N-glycolylneuraminic acid oligosaccharides has been prepared by diversification of common synthetic precursors by regioselective de-O-acetylation by coronaviral hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) combined with C7-to-C9 acetyl ester migration. The resulting compound library was printed on streptavidin-coated glass slides to give a microarray to investigate receptor binding specificities of viral envelope glycoproteins, including spike proteins and HEs from animal and human coronaviruses. It was found that the binding patterns of the viral proteins for N-glycolylated sialosides differ considerable from those of the previously synthesized N-acetylated counterparts. Generally, the spike proteins tolerate N-glycolyl modification, but selectivities differ among viruses targeting different hosts. On the other hand, the lectin domain of the corresponding HEs showed a substantial decrease or loss of binding of N-glycolylated sialosides. MD simulations indicate that glycolyl recognition by HE is mediated by polar residues in a loop region (109-119) that interacts with the 5-N-glycolyl moiety. Collectively, the results indicate that coronaviruses have adjusted their receptor fine specificities to adapt to the sialoglycome of their host species.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Glycoproteins , Neuraminic Acids , Oligosaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
Anal Chem ; 94(14): 5715-5722, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773910

ABSTRACT

Nanopipettes provide a promising confined space that enables advances in single-molecule analysis, and their unique conical tubular structure is also suitable for single-cell analysis. In this work, functionalized-nanopore-based single-entity electrochemistry (SEE) analysis tools were developed for the label-free monitoring of single-molecule glycoprotein-boronate affinity interaction for the first time, and immunoglobulin G (IgG, one of the important biomarkers for many diseases such as COVID-19 and cancers) was employed as the model glycoprotein. The principle of this method is based on a single glycoprotein molecule passing through 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA)-modified nanopipettes under a bias voltage and in the meantime interacting with the boronate group from modified 4-MPBA. This translocation and affinity interaction process can generate distinguishable current blockade signals. Based on the statistical analysis of these signals, the equilibrium association constant (κa) of single-molecule glycoprotein-boronate affinity interaction was obtained. The results show that the κa of IgG in the confined nanopore at the single-molecule level is much larger than that measured in the open system at the ensemble level, which is possibly due to the enhanced multivalent synergistic binding in the restricted space. Moreover, the functionalized-nanopore-based SEE analysis tools were further applied for the label-free detection of IgG, and the results indicate that our method has potential application value for the detection of glycoproteins in real samples, which also paves way for the single-cell analysis of glycoproteins.


Subject(s)
Electrochemistry , Nanopores , Electrochemistry/methods , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Humans , Immunoglobulin G
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2119680119, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768985

ABSTRACT

Muco-obstructive lung diseases are typically associated with high risks of COVID-19 severity; however, allergic asthma showed reduced susceptibility. To investigate viral spread, primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cell cultures were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and host­virus interactions were examined via electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and gene expression analyses. In HAE cell cultures, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression governed cell tropism and viral load and was up-regulated by infection. Electron microscopy identified intense viral egress from infected ciliated cells and severe cytopathogenesis, culminating in the shedding of ciliated cells packed with virions, providing a large viral reservoir for spread and transmission. Intracellular stores of MUC5AC, a major airway mucin involved in asthma, were rapidly depleted, likely to trap viruses. To mimic asthmatic airways, HAE cells were treated with interleukin-13 (IL-13), which reduced viral titers, viral messenger RNA, and cell shedding, and significantly diminished the number of infected cells. Although mucus hyperproduction played a shielding role, IL-13­treated cells maintained a degree of protection despite the removal of mucus. Using Gene Expression Omnibus databases, bulk RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that IL-13 up-regulated genes controlling glycoprotein synthesis, ion transport, and antiviral processes (albeit not the typical interferon-induced genes) and down-regulated genes involved in cilial function and ribosomal processing. More precisely, we showed that IL-13 reduced ACE2 expression, intracellular viral load, and cell-to-cell transmission while increasing the cilial keratan sulfate coating. In conclusion, intense viral and cell shedding caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was attenuated by IL-13, which affected viral entry, replication, and spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-13 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-13/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4867, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758369

ABSTRACT

Leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) is a secreted glycoprotein that under physiological conditions is produced predominantly by the liver. In disease, its local induction promotes pathogenic neovascularisation while its inhibition leads to reduced dysfunctional angiogenesis. Here we examine the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in defective angiogenesis mediated by LRG1. IL-6 treatment induced LRG1 expression in endothelial cells and ex vivo angiogenesis cultures and promoted vascular growth with reduced mural cell coverage. In Lrg1-/- explants, however, IL-6 failed to stimulate angiogenesis and vessels exhibited improved mural cell coverage. IL-6 activated LRG1 transcription through the phosphorylation and binding of STAT3 to a conserved consensus site in the LRG1 promoter, the deletion of which abolished activation. Blocking IL-6 signalling in human lung endothelial cells, using the anti-IL6 receptor antibody Tocilizumab, significantly reduced LRG1 expression. Our data demonstrate that IL-6, through STAT3 phosphorylation, activates LRG1 transcription resulting in vascular destabilisation. This observation is especially timely in light of the potential role of IL-6 in COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary microvascular complications, where targeting IL-6 has been beneficial. However, our data suggest that a therapy directed towards blocking the downstream angiopathic effector molecule LRG1 may be of greater utility.


Subject(s)
Glycoproteins , Interleukin-6 , Neovascularization, Pathologic , STAT3 Transcription Factor , COVID-19 , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 208: 105-125, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751045

ABSTRACT

Late in 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) emerged, causing an unknown type of pneumonia today called coronaviruses disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 is still an ongoing global outbreak that has claimed and threatened many lives worldwide. Along with the fastest vaccine developed in history to fight SARS-CoV-2 came a critical problem, SARS-CoV-2. These new variants are a result of the accumulation of mutations in the sequence and structure of spike (S) glycoprotein, which is by far the most critical protein for SARS-CoV-2 to recognize cells and escape the immune system, in addition to playing a role in SARS-CoV-2 infection, pathogenicity, transmission, and evolution. In this review, we discuss mutation of S protein and how these mutations have led to new variants that are usually more transmissible and can thus mitigate the immunity produced by vaccination. Here, analysis of S protein sequences and structures from variants point out the mutations among them, how they emerge, and the behavior of S protein from each variant. This review brings details in an understandable way about how the variants of SARS-CoV-2 are a result of mutations in S protein, making them more transmissible and even more aggressive than their relatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycoproteins/genetics , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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