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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715405

ABSTRACT

The abnormal accumulation of methylglyoxal (MG) leading to increased glycation of protein and DNA has emerged as an important metabolic stress, dicarbonyl stress, linked to aging, and disease. Increased MG glycation produces inactivation and misfolding of proteins, cell dysfunction, activation of the unfolded protein response, and related low-grade inflammation. Glycation of DNA and the spliceosome contribute to an antiproliferative and apoptotic response of high, cytotoxic levels of MG. Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) of the glyoxalase system has a major role in the metabolism of MG. Small molecule inducers of Glo1, Glo1 inducers, have been developed to alleviate dicarbonyl stress as a prospective treatment for the prevention and early-stage reversal of type 2 diabetes and prevention of vascular complications of diabetes. The first clinical trial with the Glo1 inducer, trans-resveratrol and hesperetin combination (tRES-HESP)-a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover phase 2A study for correction of insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects, was completed successfully. tRES-HESP corrected insulin resistance, improved dysglycemia, and low-grade inflammation. Cell permeable Glo1 inhibitor prodrugs have been developed to induce severe dicarbonyl stress as a prospective treatment for cancer-particularly for high Glo1 expressing-related multidrug-resistant tumors. The prototype Glo1 inhibitor is prodrug S-p-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester (BBGD). It has antitumor activity in vitro and in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. In the National Cancer Institute human tumor cell line screen, BBGD was most active against the glioblastoma SNB-19 cell line. Recently, potent antitumor activity was found in glioblastoma multiforme tumor-bearing mice. High Glo1 expression is a negative survival factor in chemotherapy of breast cancer where adjunct therapy with a Glo1 inhibitor may improve treatment outcomes. BBGD has not yet been evaluated clinically. Glycation by MG now appears to be a pathogenic process that may be pharmacologically manipulated for therapeutic outcomes of potentially important clinical impact.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glutathione/analogs & derivatives , Hesperidin/therapeutic use , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/metabolism , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Glutathione/chemistry , Glutathione/therapeutic use , Glycosylation/drug effects , Hesperidin/chemistry , Humans , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice , Molecular Structure , Neoplasms, Experimental/metabolism , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Pyruvaldehyde/chemistry , Pyruvaldehyde/metabolism , Resveratrol/chemistry
2.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(2): e00940, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712175

ABSTRACT

Anti-proinflammatory cytokine therapies against interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1 are major advancements in treating inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Such therapies are mainly performed by injection of antibodies against cytokines or cytokine receptors. We initially found that the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a simple monosaccharide, attenuated cellular responses to IL-6 by inhibiting N-linked glycosylation of the IL-6 receptor gp130. Aglycoforms of gp130 did not bind to IL-6 or activate downstream intracellular signals that included Janus kinases. 2-DG completely inhibited dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, a mouse model for inflammatory bowel disease, and alleviated laminarin-induced arthritis in the SKG mouse, an experimental model for human rheumatoid arthritis. These diseases have been shown to be partially dependent on IL-6. We also found that 2-DG inhibited signals for other proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, and interferon -γ, and accordingly, prevented death by another inflammatory disease, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock. Furthermore, 2-DG prevented LPS shock, a model for a cytokine storm, and LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, a model for acute respiratory distress syndrome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These results suggest that targeted therapies that inhibit cytokine receptor glycosylation are effective for treatment of various inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Glycosylation/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Receptors, Cytokine/drug effects , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytokine Receptor gp130/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokine Receptor gp130/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/chemically induced , Janus Kinases/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Receptors, Cytokine/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism
3.
Cell Rep ; 37(11): 110114, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604785

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA-based vaccines against COVID-19 induce a robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response with potent viral neutralization activity. Antibody effector functions are determined by their constant region subclasses and by their glycosylation patterns, but their role in vaccine efficacy is unclear. Moreover, whether vaccination induces antibodies similar to those in patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. We analyze BNT162b2 vaccine-induced IgG subclass distribution and Fc glycosylation patterns and their potential to drive effector function via Fcγ receptors and complement pathways. We identify unique and dynamic pro-inflammatory Fc compositions that are distinct from those in patients with COVID-19 and convalescents. Vaccine-induced anti-Spike IgG is characterized by distinct Fab- and Fc-mediated functions between different age groups and in comparison to antibodies generated during natural viral infection. These data highlight the heterogeneity of Fc responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination and suggest that they support long-lasting protection differently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Glycosylation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/metabolism , /metabolism
4.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103712, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite clinical success with anti-spike vaccines, the effectiveness of neutralizing antibodies and vaccines has been compromised by rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants. Viruses can hijack the glycosylation machinery of host cells to shield themselves from the host's immune response and attenuate antibody efficiency. However, it remains unclear if targeting glycosylation on viral spike protein can impair infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. METHODS: We adopted flow cytometry, ELISA, and BioLayer interferometry approaches to assess binding of glycosylated or deglycosylated spike with ACE2. Viral entry was determined by luciferase, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence assays. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed a significant relationship between STT3A and COVID-19 severity. NF-κB/STT3A-regulated N-glycosylation was investigated by gene knockdown, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and promoter assay. We developed an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that couples non-neutralization anti-spike antibody with NGI-1 (4G10-ADC) to specifically target SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. FINDINGS: The receptor binding domain and three distinct SARS-CoV-2 surface N-glycosylation sites among 57,311 spike proteins retrieved from the NCBI-Virus-database are highly evolutionarily conserved (99.67%) and are involved in ACE2 interaction. STT3A is a key glycosyltransferase catalyzing spike glycosylation and is positively correlated with COVID-19 severity. We found that inhibiting STT3A using N-linked glycosylation inhibitor-1 (NGI-1) impaired SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and that of its variants [Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351)]. Most importantly, 4G10-ADC enters SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and NGI-1 is subsequently released to deglycosylate spike protein, thereby reinforcing the neutralizing abilities of antibodies, vaccines, or convalescent sera and reducing SARS-CoV-2 variant infectivity. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that targeting evolutionarily-conserved STT3A-mediated glycosylation via an ADC can exert profound impacts on SARS-CoV-2 variant infectivity. Thus, we have identified a novel deglycosylation method suitable for eradicating SARS-CoV-2 variant infection in vitro. FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.


Subject(s)
Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycosylation/drug effects , Hexosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Hexosyltransferases/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488607

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that males are more susceptible to severe infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus than females. A variety of mechanisms may underlie the observed gender-related disparities including differences in sex hormones. However, the precise mechanisms by which female sex hormones may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infectivity remains unknown. Here we report new insights into the molecular basis of the interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and the human ACE2 receptor. We further report that glycosylation of the ACE2 receptor enhances SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Importantly, estrogens can disrupt glycan-glycan interactions and glycan-protein interactions between the human ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 thereby blocking its entry into cells. In a mouse model of COVID-19, estrogens reduced ACE2 glycosylation and thereby alveolar uptake of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These results shed light on a putative mechanism whereby female sex hormones may provide protection from developing severe infection and could inform the development of future therapies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Estrogens/chemistry , Estrogens/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Biological Transport , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Estrogens/pharmacology , Glycosylation/drug effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tunicamycin/pharmacology
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0119921, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398600

ABSTRACT

Human angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as the major cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The viral spike (S) protein is required for the attachment to ACE2 and subsequent virus-host cell membrane fusion. Previous work has demonstrated the presence of N-linked glycans in ACE2. N-glycosylation is implicated in many biological activities, including protein folding, protein activity, and cell surface expression of biomolecules. However, the contribution of N-glycosylation to ACE2 function is poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of N-glycosylation in the activity and localization of two species with different susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, porcine ACE2 (pACE2) and hACE2. The elimination of N-glycosylation by tunicamycin (TM) treatment, or mutagenesis, showed that N-glycosylation is critical for the proper cell surface expression of ACE2 but not for its carboxiprotease activity. Furthermore, nonglycosylable ACE2 was localized predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and not at the cell surface. Our data also revealed that binding of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 S protein to porcine or human ACE2 was not affected by deglycosylation of ACE2 or S proteins, suggesting that N-glycosylation does not play a role in the interaction between SARS coronaviruses and the ACE2 receptor. Impairment of hACE2 N-glycosylation decreased cell-to-cell fusion mediated by SARS-CoV S protein but not that mediated by SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Finally, we found that hACE2 N-glycosylation is required for an efficient viral entry of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotyped viruses, which may be the result of low cell surface expression of the deglycosylated ACE2 receptor. IMPORTANCE Understanding the role of glycosylation in the virus-receptor interaction is important for developing approaches that disrupt infection. In this study, we showed that deglycosylation of both ACE2 and S had a minimal effect on the spike-ACE2 interaction. In addition, we found that the removal of N-glycans of ACE2 impaired its ability to support an efficient transduction of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotyped viruses. Our data suggest that the role of deglycosylation of ACE2 on reducing infection is likely due to a reduced expression of the viral receptor on the cell surface. These findings offer insight into the glycan structure and function of ACE2 and potentially suggest that future antiviral therapies against coronaviruses and other coronavirus-related illnesses involving inhibition of ACE2 recruitment to the cell membrane could be developed.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Tunicamycin/pharmacology , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Carboxypeptidases/drug effects , Cell Line , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Glycosylation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine
7.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368372

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an economically important coronavirus, causing damaging losses to the poultry industry worldwide as the causative agent of infectious bronchitis. The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein is a large type I membrane protein protruding from the surface of the virion, which facilitates attachment and entry into host cells. The IBV S protein is cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2, the latter of which has been identified as a determinant of cellular tropism. Recent studies expressing coronavirus S proteins in mammalian and insect cells have identified a high level of glycosylation on the protein's surface. Here we used IBV propagated in embryonated hens' eggs to explore the glycan profile of viruses derived from infection in cells of the natural host, chickens. We identified multiple glycan types on the surface of the protein and found a strain-specific dependence on complex glycans for recognition of the S2 subunit by a monoclonal antibody in vitro, with no effect on viral replication following the chemical inhibition of complex glycosylation. Virus neutralization by monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies was not affected. Following analysis of predicted glycosylation sites for the S protein of four IBV strains, we confirmed glycosylation at 18 sites by mass spectrometry for the pathogenic laboratory strain M41-CK. Further characterization revealed heterogeneity among the glycans present at six of these sites, indicating a difference in the glycan profile of individual S proteins on the IBV virion. These results demonstrate a non-specific role for complex glycans in IBV replication, with an indication of an involvement in antibody recognition but not neutralisation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/physiology , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Binding Sites , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, Liquid , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Glycosylation/drug effects , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Weight , Neutralization Tests , Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Poultry Diseases/virology , Protein Transport , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 46: 116356, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347508

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, periodic recurrence of viral infections, and the emergence of challenging variants has created an urgent need of alternative therapeutic approaches to combat the spread of viral infections, failing to which may pose a greater risk to mankind in future. Resilience against antiviral drugs or fast evolutionary rate of viruses is stressing the scientific community to identify new therapeutic approaches for timely control of disease. Host metabolic pathways are exquisite reservoir of energy to viruses and contribute a diverse array of functions for successful replication and pathogenesis of virus. Targeting the host factors rather than viral enzymes to cease viral infection, has emerged as an alternative antiviral strategy. This approach offers advantage in terms of increased threshold to viral resistance and can provide broad-spectrum antiviral action against different viruses. The article here provides substantial review of literature illuminating the host factors and molecular mechanisms involved in innate/adaptive responses to viral infection, hijacking of signalling pathways by viruses and the intracellular metabolic pathways required for viral replication. Host-targeted drugs acting on the pathways usurped by viruses are also addressed in this study. Host-directed antiviral therapeutics might prove to be a rewarding approach in controlling the unprecedented spread of viral infection, however the probability of cellular side effects or cytotoxicity on host cell should not be ignored at the time of clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/drug effects , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/physiology , Glycosylation/drug effects , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunity/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/physiology , Polyamines/metabolism , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitination/drug effects , Ubiquitination/physiology
9.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217120

ABSTRACT

Repurposing clinically available drugs to treat the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an urgent need in the course of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, as very few treatment options are available. The iminosugar Miglustat is a well-characterized drug for the treatment of rare genetic lysosome storage diseases, such as Gaucher and Niemann-Pick type C, and has also been described to be active against a variety of enveloped viruses. The activity of Miglustat is here demonstrated in the micromolar range for SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. The drug acts at the post-entry level and leads to a marked decrease of viral proteins and release of infectious viruses. The mechanism resides in the inhibitory activity toward α-glucosidases that are involved in the early stages of glycoprotein N-linked oligosaccharide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to a marked decrease of the viral Spike protein. Indeed, the antiviral potential of protein glycosylation inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 is further highlighted by the low-micromolar activity of the investigational drug Celgosivir. These data point to a relevant role of this approach for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
1-Deoxynojirimycin/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Indolizines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 1-Deoxynojirimycin/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glycosylation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Release/drug effects
10.
Mol Ther ; 29(6): 1984-2000, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093250

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the immediate need for the development of antiviral therapeutics targeting different stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. We developed a bioluminescence-based bioreporter to interrogate the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike (S) protein and its host entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The bioreporter assay is based on a nanoluciferase complementation reporter, composed of two subunits, large BiT and small BiT, fused to the S receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and ACE2 ectodomain, respectively. Using this bioreporter, we uncovered critical host and viral determinants of the interaction, including a role for glycosylation of asparagine residues within the RBD in mediating successful viral entry. We also demonstrate the importance of N-linked glycosylation to the RBD's antigenicity and immunogenicity. Our study demonstrates the versatility of our bioreporter in mapping key residues mediating viral entry as well as screening inhibitors of the ACE2-RBD interaction. Our findings point toward targeting RBD glycosylation for therapeutic and vaccine strategies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Lectins/pharmacology , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Asparagine/chemistry , Asparagine/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Genes, Reporter , Glycosylation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Luminescent Measurements , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
J Food Biochem ; 44(12): e13494, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066710

ABSTRACT

Bioactive peptides produced from natural sources are considered as strategic target for drug discovery. Hyperglycemia caused protein glycation alters the structure of many tissues that impairs their functions and lead complications diseases in human body. This study investigated the bioactive peptides produced from red and brown Lens culinaris that might inhibit protein glycation to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, red and brown Lens culinaris protein hydrolysates were prepared by tryptic digestion, using an enzyme/substrate ratio of 1:20 (g/g), at 37°C, 12 hr then peptide fractions <3 kDa were filtered by using ultrafiltration membranes. Protective ability against protein glycation, DPPH radical scavenging, and anti-proliferative activities (on HepG2, MCF-7, and PC3 cell lines) of peptide fractions were assayed in vitro. Results showed that glycation was inhibited by peptides from 28.1% to 68.3% in different test model. PC3 cell line was more sensitive to the peptides which showed strong anticancer activity with lower IC50 (0.96 mg/ml). Peptide fractions were sequenced by HPLC-MS-MS. Twenty eight novel peptides sequences was identified. In silico study, two peptides could be developed as a potential bioactive peptides exhibited antiglycation, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Peptides are becoming an emerging source of medications with the development of new technologies. We have selected Lens Culinaris as one of the rich sources of proteins to explore novel bioactive peptides encapsulated in its seeds. Peptides fractions demonstrated protective ability against protein glycation, strong antioxidant potential, and promising antiproliferative activity. We have identified 28 novel peptides and molecular docking study revealed that some peptides showed strong binding potential to insulin receptor and ACE. Thus, these peptides might be used to manage diabetes complication as well as COVID-19 disease due to their interaction with ACE. However, those peptides needs to be further studied as a potential new drug.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Lens Plant/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Glycosylation/drug effects , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/pharmacology , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Protein Hydrolysates/chemistry , Protein Hydrolysates/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry
12.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104586, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907907

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 remains a medical and economic challenge, due to the lack of a suitable drug or vaccine. The glycans in some proteins play a pivotal role in protein folding, oligomerization, quality control, sorting, and transport so the hindering of N-linked glycosylation of glycoproteins will prevent assembly of the virion. Tunicamycin an anticancer drug inhibit the N- linked glycans. Our study aimed to find out the mechanism action of tunicamycin on the viral glycoproteins. The growth of coronavirus in the presence inhibitor tunicamycin resulted in the production of spikeless, non-infectious virions which were devoid of S protein. We concluded that tunicamycin inhibits E2, S, and M glycoproteins of coronaviruses. Tunicamycin is also diminished glycosylation of PTMs such as HE, and 8 ab of SARS-CoV. Finally, we recommend using this drug to treat the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tunicamycin/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Glycosylation/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
13.
Elife ; 92020 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890664

ABSTRACT

The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, its receptor-binding domain (RBD), and its primary receptor ACE2 are extensively glycosylated. The impact of this post-translational modification on viral entry is yet unestablished. We expressed different glycoforms of the Spike-protein and ACE2 in CRISPR-Cas9 glycoengineered cells, and developed corresponding SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. We observed that N- and O-glycans had only minor contribution to Spike-ACE2 binding. However, these carbohydrates played a major role in regulating viral entry. Blocking N-glycan biosynthesis at the oligomannose stage using both genetic approaches and the small molecule kifunensine dramatically reduced viral entry into ACE2 expressing HEK293T cells. Blocking O-glycan elaboration also partially blocked viral entry. Mechanistic studies suggest multiple roles for glycans during viral entry. Among them, inhibition of N-glycan biosynthesis enhanced Spike-protein proteolysis. This could reduce RBD presentation on virus, lowering binding to host ACE2 and decreasing viral entry. Overall, chemical inhibitors of glycosylation may be evaluated for COVID-19.


COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. To access the internal machinery necessary for its replication, the virus needs to latch onto and then enter host cells. Such processes rely on specific 'glycoproteins' that carry complex sugar molecules (or glycans), and can be found at the surface of both viruses and host cells. In particular, the viral 'Spike' glycoprotein can attach to human proteins called ACE2, which coat the cells that line the inside of the lungs, heart, kidney and brain. Yet the roles played by glycans in these processes remains unclear. To investigate the role of Spike and ACE-2 glycans, Yang et al. designed a form of SARS-CoV-2 that could be handled safely in the laboratory. How these viruses infect human kidney cells that carry ACE2 was then examined, upon modifying the structures of the sugars on the viral Spike protein as well as the host ACE2 receptor. In particular, the sugar structures displayed by the virus were modified either genetically or chemically, using a small molecule that disrupts the formation of the glycans. Similar methods were also applied to modify the glycans of ACE2. Together, these experiments showed that the sugars present on the Spike protein play a minor role in helping the virus stick to human cells.However, they were critical for the virus to fuse and enter the host cells. These findings highlight the important role of Spike protein sugars in SARS-CoV-2 infection, potentially offering new paths to treat COVID-19 and other coronavirus-related illnesses. In particular, molecules designed to interfere with Spike-proteins and the viral entrance into cells could be less specific to SARS-CoV-2 compared to vaccines, allowing treatments to be efficient even if the virus changes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Polysaccharides/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gene Knockout Techniques , Glycosylation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 48(3): 1287-1295, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592506

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has pushed the health systems of many countries to breaking point and precipitated social distancing measures that have crippled economic activities across the globe. A return to normality is unlikely until effective therapeutics and a vaccine are available. The immediacy of this problem suggests that drug strategies should focus on repurposing approved drugs or late-stage clinical candidates, as these have the shortest path to use in the clinic. Here, we review and discuss the role of host cell N-glycosylation pathways to virus replication and the drugs available to disrupt these pathways. In particular, we make a case for evaluation of the well-tolerated drugs miglitol, celgosivir and especially miglustat for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Repositioning/methods , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Calnexin/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glycosylation/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Folding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , alpha-Glucosidases/metabolism
15.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 770-775, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-145051

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection and its severity can be explained by the concentration of glycosylated severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral particles in the lung epithelium, the concentration of glycosylated angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) in the lung epithelium, and the degree and control of the pulmonary immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at approximately day 8 to 10 after symptom onset, which may be related to both. Binding of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 also suggests that prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycemia, and not just a history of diabetes mellitus, may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease. It is tempting to consider that the same mechanism acts in COVID-19 as in SARS, where an overactive macrophage M1 inflammatory response, as neutralizing antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein form at day 7 to 10, results in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in susceptible patients. It also allows consideration of agents, such as hydroxychloroquine, which may interfere with this overly brisk macrophage inflammatory response and perhaps influence the course of the disease, in particular, those that blunt but do not completely abrogate the M1 to M2 balance in macrophage polarization, as well as viral load, which in SARS appears to be temporally related to the onset of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/drug effects , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Glucose/immunology , Glucose/metabolism , Glycosylation/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Incidence , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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