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1.
Nurs Sci Q ; 35(1): 89-91, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582672

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in a new era for nurses and healthcare. King's conceptual framework continues to provide a practical theoretical underpinning for nurse-client interactions in virtual care spaces that are now a pervasive part of the interacting systems framework. The author in this article discusses the current applications and future opportunities for applications of King's work in practice, education, and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Goals , Humans , Nursing Theory , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 75(11): 982-983, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526747
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1495-1500, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498052

ABSTRACT

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2020, the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) strives to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases across the life course (1). This report, which updates a previous report (2), presents global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2020. Changes are described in vaccination coverage and the numbers of unvaccinated and undervaccinated children as measured by receipt of the first and third doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP) in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, compared with 2019. Global estimates of coverage with the third dose of DTP (DTP3) and a polio vaccine (Pol3) decreased from 86% in 2019 to 83% in 2020. Similarly, coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) dropped from 86% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. The last year that coverage estimates were at 2020 levels was 2009 for DTP3 and 2014 for both MCV1 and Pol3. Worldwide, 22.7 million children (17% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTP3 in 2020 compared with 19.0 million (14%) in 2019. Children who did not receive the first DTP dose (DTP1) by age 12 months (zero-dose children) accounted for 95% of the increased number. Among those who did not receive DTP3 in 2020, approximately 17.1 million (75%) were zero-dose children. Global coverage decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 estimates for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). Full recovery from COVID-19-associated disruptions will require targeted, context-specific strategies to identify and catch up zero-dose and undervaccinated children, introduce interventions to minimize missed vaccinations, monitor coverage, and respond to program setbacks (3).


Subject(s)
Global Health , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/administration & dosage , Goals , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , World Health Organization
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e29218, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has boosted the use of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) telemonitoring in pediatric asthma, but a consensus on its most efficient and effective implementation is still lacking. To find answers, it is important to study how such an intervention is perceived, experienced, and used by both patients and health care professionals (HCPs). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide perspectives on how FEV1 home monitoring should be used in pediatric asthma. METHODS: This is a qualitative, multicenter, prospective, observational study which included patients with asthma aged 6-16 and HCPs. Primary outcomes were results of 2 surveys that were sent to all participants at study start and after 3-4 months. Secondary outcomes consisted of FEV1 device usage during 4 months after receiving the FEV1 device. RESULTS: A total of 39 participants (26 patients and 13 HCPs) were included in this study. Survey response rates were 97% (38/39) at the start and 87% (34/39) at the end of the study. Both patients and HCPs were receptive toward online FEV1 home monitoring and found it contributive to asthma control, self-management, and disease perception. The main concerns were about reliability of the FEV1 device and validity of home-performed lung function maneuvers. FEV1 devices were used with a median frequency of 7.5 (IQR 3.3-25.5) during the 4-month study period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and HCPs are receptive toward online FEV1 home monitoring. Frequency of measurements varied largely among individuals, yet perceived benefits remained similar. This emphasizes that online FEV1 home monitoring strategies should be used as a means to reach individual goals, rather than being a goal on their own.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Goals , Child , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003831, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: UNAIDS has established new program targets for 2025 to achieve the goal of eliminating AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. This study reports on efforts to use mathematical models to estimate the impact of achieving those targets. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We simulated the impact of achieving the targets at country level using the Goals model, a mathematical simulation model of HIV epidemic dynamics that includes the impact of prevention and treatment interventions. For 77 high-burden countries, we fit the model to surveillance and survey data for 1970 to 2020 and then projected the impact of achieving the targets for the period 2019 to 2030. Results from these 77 countries were extrapolated to produce estimates for 96 others. Goals model results were checked by comparing against projections done with the Optima HIV model and the AIDS Epidemic Model (AEM) for selected countries. We included estimates of the impact of societal enablers (access to justice and law reform, stigma and discrimination elimination, and gender equality) and the impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results show that achieving the 2025 targets would reduce new annual infections by 83% (71% to 86% across regions) and AIDS-related deaths by 78% (67% to 81% across regions) by 2025 compared to 2010. Lack of progress on societal enablers could endanger these achievements and result in as many as 2.6 million (44%) cumulative additional new HIV infections and 440,000 (54%) more AIDS-related deaths between 2020 and 2030 compared to full achievement of all targets. COVID-19-related disruptions could increase new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 10% in the next 2 years, but targets could still be achieved by 2025. Study limitations include the reliance on self-reports for most data on behaviors, the use of intervention effect sizes from published studies that may overstate intervention impacts outside of controlled study settings, and the use of proxy countries to estimate the impact in countries with fewer than 4,000 annual HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: The new targets for 2025 build on the progress made since 2010 and represent ambitious short-term goals. Achieving these targets would bring us close to the goals of reducing new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% between 2010 and 2030. By 2025, global new infections and AIDS deaths would drop to 4.4 and 3.9 per 100,000 population, and the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) would be declining. There would be 32 million people on treatment, and they would need continuing support for their lifetime. Incidence for the total global population would be below 0.15% everywhere. The number of PLHIV would start declining by 2023.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health , Goals , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Models, Theoretical , Public Health , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Epidemics , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United Nations , Young Adult
11.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(11): 4, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411011

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required a shift to electronic devices for education and entertainment, with children more confined to home, which may affect eye growth and myopia. Our goal was to assess behaviors during COVID-19 in myopic and non-myopic children. Methods: Parents completed a questionnaire for their children (ages 8.3 ± 2.4 years, n = 53) regarding visual activity in summer 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as during school time and the summer before COVID-19. Children also wore an Actiwatch for 10 days in summer 2020 for objective measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Subjective measures showed that during COVID-19, children exhibited increased electronic device use and decreased activity and time outdoors (P < 0.05 for all), while time spent doing near work was not different than during a typical school or summer session before COVID-19 (P > 0.05). Objective measures during COVID-19 showed that myopic children exhibited lower daily light exposure (P = 0.04) and less activity (P = 0.04) than non-myopic children. Conclusions: Children demonstrated increased electronic device use and decreased activity and time outdoors during COVID-19, with myopic children exhibiting lower light exposure and activity than non-myopes. Long-term follow-up is needed to understand if these behavioral changes ultimately contribute to myopia progression. Translational Relevance: Children's behaviors changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have implications in eye growth and myopia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Child , Child, Preschool , Goals , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine (i.e., contextualize and visualize) the consequences of a laissez-faire strategy characterized by blinkers to fulfill established pandemic goals. The aim is to shed light on the implementation of pandemic measures based on post hoc (after-the-fact) reactions and actions instead of pre hoc ones (in advance). STUDY DESIGN: This study is based on weekly updates of pandemic variables (i.e., cases, tests, percentage of positive tests, hospitalizations, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions, deceased, and 7- and 14-day incidence) in Sweden from the start of the pandemic in March 2020 until March 2021. METHOD: This study reports the empirical findings based on Swedish pandemic variables during 52 consecutive weeks, related to the pandemic, all of which has been divided into three time periods to separate the 1st and 2nd waves of the pandemic, and considers them all together as one time period. RESULTS: The findings illustrate the implementation of pandemic measures and the subsequent consequences of a laissez-faire strategy characterized by blinkers. People become diseased and then deceased. This reveals strong associations between the assessed pandemic variables and its subsequent consequences on morbidity and mortality, based on post hoc reactions and actions. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a pandemic strategy should react and act pre hoc, and to take the safe with the unsafe. Governments and public health agencies should take into account the inevitable associations between pandemic variables. Intertwined pre hoc measures of prevention, enforcement, and monitoring should be implemented in society to avoid the implementation of a laissez-faire strategy based on post hoc reactions and actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Goals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(12): 427-430, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389866

ABSTRACT

Although tuberculosis (TB) is curable and preventable, in 2019, TB remained the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide and the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV infection (1). The World Health Organization's (WHO's) End TB Strategy set ambitious targets for 2020, including a 20% reduction in TB incidence and a 35% reduction in the number of TB deaths compared with 2015, as well as zero TB-affected households facing catastrophic costs (defined as costs exceeding 20% of annual household income) (2). In addition, during the 2018 United Nations High-Level Meeting on TB (UNHLM-TB), all member states committed to setting 2018-2022 targets that included provision of TB treatment to 40 million persons and TB preventive treatment (TPT) to 30 million persons, including 6 million persons living with HIV infection and 24 million household contacts of patients with confirmed TB (4 million aged <5 years and 20 million aged ≥5 years) (3,4). Annual data reported to WHO by 215 countries and territories, supplemented by surveys assessing TB prevalence and patient costs in some countries, were used to estimate TB incidence, the number of persons accessing TB curative and preventive treatment, and the percentage of TB-affected households facing catastrophic costs (1). Globally, TB illness developed in an estimated 10 million persons in 2019, representing a decline in incidence of 2.3% from 2018 and 9% since 2015. An estimated 1.4 million TB-related deaths occurred, a decline of 7% from 2018 and 14% since 2015. Although progress has been made, the world is not on track to achieve the 2020 End TB Strategy incidence and mortality targets (1). Efforts to expand access to TB curative and preventive treatment need to be substantially amplified for UNHLM-TB 2022 targets to be met.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Goals , Humans , Incidence , Tuberculosis/mortality , United Nations , World Health Organization
18.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(2): 344-354, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352940

ABSTRACT

Cambodia has made impressive progress in reducing malaria trends and, in 2018, reported no malaria-related deaths for the first time. However, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic presents a potential challenge to the country's goal for malaria elimination by 2025. The path toward malaria elimination depends on sustained interventions to prevent rapid resurgence, which can quickly set back any gains achieved.Malaria Consortium supported mobile malaria workers (MMWs) to engage with target communities to build acceptance, trust, and resilience. At the start of the pandemic, Malaria Consortium conducted a COVID-19 risk assessment and quickly developed and implemented a mitigation plan to ensure MMWs were able to continue providing malaria services without putting themselves or their patients at risk. Changes in malaria intervention coverage and community uptake have been monitored to gauge the indirect effects of COVID-19. Comparisons have been made between output indicators reported in 2020 and from the same month-period of the previous year.In general, malaria service intervention coverage and utilization rates did not decline in 2020. Rather, the reported figures show there was a substantial increase in service utilization. Preliminary internal reviews and community meetings show that despite a heightened public risk perception toward COVID-19, malaria testing motivation has been well sustained throughout the pandemic. This may be attributable to proactive program planning and data monitoring and active engagement with the communities and the national authorities to circumvent the indirect effect of COVID-19 on intervention coverage in Cambodia during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Services , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Cambodia , Disease Eradication , Goals , Health Planning , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Residence Characteristics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346492

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify how the psychological characteristics of college students are reflected in understanding sustainable development goals (SDGs) by examining college students' psychological characteristics, including attitude, interests, motivations, and self-efficacy, through the Sustainable Development Goals Psychological Inventory (SDGPI). The relationships among SDGs attitude, SDGs interest, SDGs motivation, and SDGs self-efficacy were analyzed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. In addition, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance were used to explore the differences among the college student groups in terms of gender, grade, and major in relation to attitude and personal characteristics. Attitude scores based on regression analysis were used to predict college students' interest, motivation, and self-efficacy in relation to the SDGs. According to the results, (a) the college students considered the three most important SDGs to be good health and well-being (SDG 3) (49.72%), quality education (SDG 4) (41.39%), and no poverty (SDG 1) (32.22%), while the three least important SDGs were decent work and economic growth (SDG 8) (41.11%), partnerships for the goals (SDG 17) (38.06%), and response consumption and institutions (SDG 12) (30.83%); (b) the SDGPI had a high reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.942; (c) there was a significant positive correlation between attitude and the variables of interest, motivation, and self-efficacy; (d) differences in attitudes, interest, and motivation between men and women were distinct and women scored much higher in these three subscales than men; (e) attitude could explain significant variance in interest, motivation and self-efficacy. In addition, attitude, interest, and motivation could account for self-efficacy. This study supports the development of sustainability education (SE) at the college level by providing new insights into college students' psychological characteristics in relation to the SDGs.


Subject(s)
Goals , Sustainable Development , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Reproducibility of Results , Students
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255592, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346329

ABSTRACT

We predicted that people with compassionate goals to support others and not harm them practiced more COVID-19 health behaviors during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to protect both themselves and others from infection. Three studies (N = 1,143 American adults) supported these predictions and ruled out several alternative explanations. Compassionate goals unrelated to the health context predicted COVID-19 health behaviors better than the general motivation to be healthy (Studies 2 and 3). In contrast, general health motivation predicted general health behaviors better than did compassionate goals. Compassionate goals and political ideology each explained unique variance in COVID-19 health behaviors (Studies 1-3). Compassionate goals predict unique variance in COVID-19 health behaviors beyond empathic concern, communal orientation, and relational self-construal (Study 3), supporting the unique contribution of compassionate goals to understanding health behaviors. Our results suggest that ecosystem motivation is an important predictor of health behaviors, particularly in the context of a highly contagious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Empathy , Health Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Goals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation
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