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1.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286870, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incorrect use of inhalers is a problem associated with poor patient outcomes. Despite improvement in the technique after verbal educations, this deteriorates over-time requiring re-enforcement through different educative strategies. This study aimed to assess the impact of a novel video-based teach-to-goal (TTG) educational intervention on: mastery of inhaler technique, disease control, medication adherence and disease-related quality of life (QoL) over-time among asthma and COPD patients. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT05664347. After baseline assessment participants received either a verbal (control group) or a video-based (intervention group) TTG strategy. After 3-month the intervention was assessed for impact on the intended outcomes. Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists, disease control using the Asthma control test and COPD assessment test respectively for asthma and COPD patients while adherence using the Morisky Green Levine scale. For QoL, the mini asthma quality of life questionnaire and the St. George respiratory questionnaire were used for asthmatic and COPD patients, respectively. Differences in outcomes between intervention-control groups were analyzed using either Chi-Square (X2)/Fisher Exact or Mann Whitney test. The impact of intervention on outcomes over-time was examined using either McNemar or Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: At baseline, intervention (n = 51) and control (n = 52) groups had comparable demographic/clinical characteristics. At follow-up, inhaler technique improved among intervention group compared to control group (93.4% vs 67%) and to baseline (93.4% to 49.5%), (P<0.05). Similarly, medication adherence ameliorated among the intervention group in comparison to control group (88.2% to 61.5%) and to baseline (88.2% to 66.7%), (P<0.05). In regards to disease control, results showed an amelioration among the intervention group compared to baseline (35.3% to 54.9%) (P<0.05). QoL scores improved significantly among asthma patients (intervention group) at follow-up vs baseline. Better scores were also observed for COPD patients compared to controls, (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Video-based (TTG) was effective in enhancing inhaler technique over time as well as improving disease control, medication adherence, and QoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05664347. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05664347.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Goals , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 716, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral medication coverage remains sub-optimal in much of the United States, particularly the Sothern region, and Non-Hispanic Black or African American persons (NHB) continue to be disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. The "Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S." (EHE) initiative seeks to reduce HIV incidence nationally by focusing resources towards the most highly impacted localities and populations. This study evaluates the impact of hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage to estimate the levels of coverage needed to achieve EHE goals in the South. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based network model of 500,000 individuals to simulate the HIV epidemic and hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage. RESULTS: New infections declined by 78.6% at 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 94.3% at 100%/50% ART/PrEP. Declines in annual incidence rates surpassed 75% by 2025 with 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 90% by 2030 with 100%/50% ART/PrEP coverage. Increased ART coverage among NHB MSM was associated with a linear decline in incidence among all MSM. Declines in incidence among Hispanic/Latino and White/Other MSM were similar regardless of which MSM race group increased their ART coverage, while the benefit to NHB MSM was greatest when their own ART coverage increased. The incidence rate among NHB women declined by over a third when either NHB heterosexual men or NHB MSM increased their ART use respectively. Increased use of PrEP was associated with a decline in incidence for the groups using PrEP. MSM experienced the largest absolute declines in incidence with increasing PrEP coverage, followed by NHB women. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reach EHE goals. The largest reductions in HIV incidence can be achieved by increasing ART coverage among MSM and all race groups benefit regardless of differences in ART initiation by race. Improving ART coverage to > 90% should be prioritized with a particular emphasis on reaching NHB MSM. Such a focus will reduce the largest number of incident cases, reduce racial HIV incidence disparities among both MSM and women, and reduce racial health disparities among persons with HIV. NHB women should also be prioritized for PrEP outreach.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Disease Eradication , HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Goals , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data
3.
Nurs Adm Q ; 47(3): 234-238, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232931

ABSTRACT

Addressing today's challenges in nursing requires a new mindset and a renewed commitment to improving the quality, safety, and equity of health care. Together, this approach can achieve truly transformational change in nursing that will last for generations. Setting visionary, future-oriented goals can draw upon key scholarship from the past as well as from fresh thinking on what is needed to improve health care at every level. Nurses are essential in this pursuit, given their central role in providing direct care and their leadership role in codesigning new models and systems of care.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Goals , Humans , Leadership
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1777-1788, 2023 Jun.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242966

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the connections between the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the principles of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) in the context of the public health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and its potential implications for population health. This qualitative, cross-sectional, exploratory study collected data from health professionals with experience in emergency and disaster risk management and treatment practices, which were then processed using the Iramuteq software for lexical analysis. The textual corpus was presented through a descending hierarchical classification that resulted in seven classes grouped into three categories: disaster response in the context of SUS; prevention of future disaster risks; and preparedness and recovery actions based on the Sendai Framework and the SDGs. The study highlighted aspects related to the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the challenges related to disaster risk reduction as advocated by the Sendai Framework, emphasizing the need to strengthen the culture of safety and sustainability within the SUS, which aligns with the ODS and social determinants of health.


O objetivo foi analisar os nexos entre o Marco de Sendai para a Redução do Risco de Desastres, os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) e os princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), no contexto da emergência de saúde pública da pandemia de COVID-19, e suas potenciais implicações para a saúde da população. O estudo é qualitativo, transversal, exploratório, com dados coletados junto a profissionais de saúde com experiência em práticas assistenciais e de gestão de risco de emergências e desastres, e tratados pelo software Iramuteq para análise lexical. O corpus textual foi apresentado através da classificação hierárquica descendente, que originou sete classes aglutinadas em três categorias denominadas: resposta a desastres no contexto do SUS; prevenção de futuros riscos de desastres; e ações de preparação e recuperação a partir do Marco de Sendai e dos ODS. Ressaltou-se aspectos sobre os efeitos diretos e indiretos da pandemia de COVID-19 e os desafios relacionados à redução do risco de desastres preconizados no Marco de Sendai, apontando a necessidade de fortalecer a cultura de segurança e sustentabilidade no âmbito do SUS, o que se coaduna com os ODS, bem como aos determinantes sociais da saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Goals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Reduction Behavior
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(5): 314, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Goals provide insight into what is important to an individual. We describe the development and application of a mixed methods approach to elicit goals and perceptions about goals in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: Patients receiving first-line treatment for advanced lung cancer participated in semi-structured interviews about their goals. Participants self-generated goals, then selected and ranked their three most important goals and provided Likert scale ratings of goal-related perceptions (e.g., attainability, locus of control). Independent raters coded goals into content domains. One month later, participants reported perceived progress toward goals and facilitators of and barriers to progress. RESULTS: Participants (N = 75, Mage = 64.5 years, 59% female) identified goals across eight domains: social/role/relationship, everyday/practical, leisure/pleasure, psychological/existential/spiritual, major life changes or achievements, cancer treatment response/disease outcomes, palliative outcomes, and behavioral health improvement. Of all goals identified (N = 352), 72% of patients had at least one social/role/relationship goal, 68% had a leisure/pleasure goal, and 29% had a cancer treatment response goal. On average, participants considered their goals to be attainable, perceived a high degree of control over reaching goals, anticipated making "some" progress in the short term, and perceived a high likelihood of reaching goals in the future. Facilitators of progress included mental fortitude, feeling physically well, and social support. Barriers included cancer-related side effects, practical challenges, and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of participant goals focused on meaningful engagement and living well. Goals were largely viewed as attainable and under participants' control. Cancer clinicians may consider how to support patients in working toward valued goals in conjunction with oncology care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Goals , Motivation , Emotions
6.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 129: 107184, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diversity in clinical trials (CTs) has the potential to improve health equity and close health disparities. Underrepresentation of historically underserved groups compromises the generalizability of trial findings to the target population, hinders innovation, and contributes to low accrual. The aim of this study was to establish a transparent and reproducible process for setting trial diversity enrollment goals informed by the disease epidemiology. METHOD: An advisory board of epidemiologists with expertise in health disparities, equity, diversity, and social determinants of health was convened to evaluate and strengthen the initial goal-setting framework. Data sources used were the epidemiologic literature, US Census, and real-world data (RWD); limitations were considered and addressed where appropriate. A framework was designed to safeguard against the underrepresentation of historically medically underserved groups. A stepwise approach was created with Y/N decisions based on empirical data. RESULTS: We compared race and ethnicity distributions in the RWD of six diseases from Pfizer's portfolio chosen to represent different therapeutic areas (multiple myeloma, fungal infections, Crohn's disease, Gaucher disease, COVID-19, and Lyme disease) to the distributions in the US Census and established trial enrollment goals. Enrollment goals for potential CTs were based on RWD for multiple myeloma, Gaucher disease, and COVID-19; enrollment goals were based on the Census for fungal infections, Crohn's disease, and Lyme disease. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a transparent and reproducible framework for setting CT diversity enrollment goals. We note how limitations due to data sources can be mitigated and consider several ethical decisions in setting equitable enrollment goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , Ethnicity , Goals , United States , Clinical Trials as Topic
7.
New Solut ; 33(1): 60-71, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291316

ABSTRACT

This policy promotes decent work as a U.S. public health goal through a comprehensive approach that builds upon existing APHA policy statements and addresses statement gaps. The International Labour Organization defines decent work as work that is "productive, delivers a fair income, provides security in the workplace and social protection for workers and their families, offers prospects for personal development and encourages social interaction, gives people the freedom to express their concerns and organize and participate in the decisions affecting their lives and guarantees equal opportunities and equal treatment for all across the entire lifespan." The World Health Organization has emphasized that "health and employment are inextricably linked" and "health inequities attributable to employment can be reduced by promoting safe, healthy and secure work." Here evidence is presented linking decent work and health and action steps are proposed to help achieve decent work for all and, thus, improve public health. In the United States, inadequacies in labor laws, structural racism, failed immigration policies, ageism, and other factors have increased income inequality and stressful and hazardous working conditions and reduced opportunities for decent work, adversely affecting workers' health and ability to sustain themselves and their families. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted these failures through higher mortality rates among essential and low-wage workers, who were disproportionately people of color. This policy statement provides a strategic umbrella of tactics for just, equitable, and healthy economic development of decent work and proposes research partnerships to develop, implement, measure, and evaluate decent work in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , United States , Goals , Pandemics , Public Policy
10.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 59(1): 26-30, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281430

ABSTRACT

Among the objectives of the WHO Global Vaccination Action Plan 2020-2025, there is the establishment, in all countries, of a National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG), an independent body with the aim of supporting and harmonising vaccination policies. Italy firstly established a NITAG in 2017; it contributed to the nation's immunization policies but fell short of its goal of becoming a true reference group. The newly appointed NITAG, made up of 28 independent experts, has the ambitious goal to promote the new National Immunization Prevention Plan (PNPV), to harmonise the current vaccination schedule with the anti-COVID-19 campaign, and to recover the vaccination coverage decline that occurred during the pandemic. The contact with the ECDC EU/EEA, the WHO Global NITAG networks, and all the national stakeholders needs to be reinforced in order to accomplish these aims. This paper describes the structure, organisation, and strategy of the new Italian NITAG.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination , Advisory Committees/history , Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/ethics , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/standards , Immunization Programs/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Goals , Mass Vaccination/ethics , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Mass Vaccination/standards , Mass Vaccination/trends , Conflict of Interest , Humans
11.
J Palliat Med ; 26(7): 951-959, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271981

ABSTRACT

Background: Goals-of-care conversations (GoCCs) are essential for individualized end-of-life care. Shared decision-making (SDM) that elicits patients' goals and values to collaboratively make life sustaining treatment (LST) decisions is best practice. However, it is unknown how the COVID-19 pandemic onset and associated changes to care delivery, stress on providers, and clinical uncertainty affected SDM and recommendation-making during GoCCs. Aim: To assess providers' attitudes and behaviors related to GoCCs during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify factors associated with provision of LST recommendations. Design: Survey of United States Veterans Health Administration (VA) health care providers. Setting/Participants: Health care providers from 20 VA facilities with high COVID-19 caseloads early in the pandemic who had authority to place LST orders and practiced in select specialties (n = 3398). Results: We had 323 respondents (9.5% adjusted response rate). Most were age ≥50 years (51%), female (63%), non-Hispanic white (64%), and had ≥1 GoCC per week during peak-COVID-19 (78%). Compared with pre-COVID-19, providers believed it was less appropriate and felt less comfortable giving an LST recommendation during peak-COVID-19 (p < 0.001). One-third (32%) reported either "never" or "rarely" giving an LST recommendation during GoCCs at peak-COVID-19. In adjusted regression models, being a physician and discussing patients' goals and values were positively associated with giving an LST recommendation (B = 0.380, p = 0.031 and B = 0.400, p < 0.001, respectively) at peak-COVID-19. Conclusion: Providers who discuss patients' preferences and values are more likely to report giving a recommendation; both behaviors are markers of SDM during GoCCs. Our findings suggest potential areas for training in conducting patient-centered GoCCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Goals , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Making , Uncertainty , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233162

ABSTRACT

A major threat to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage continues to be malnutrition [...].


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Public Health , Global Health , Goals , Humans , Universal Health Insurance
15.
Nature ; 610(7933): 605-606, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227544
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225166

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to verify the influence of the relationship between risk perception of COVID-19 and the war-applied Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB) based on stimulus-organism-response (SOR) and potential travelers' behavioral intention. In addition, this study attempted to verify the relationship among uncertainty toward international travel, mental well-being toward international travel, and desire toward travelers' behavioral intention. Moreover, we examined the moderating effect of gender (female vs. male) among all variables for dependents. The survey was conducted on potential travelers in Korea. As for the survey period, a survey was conducted for one month beginning on 2 September 2022. Of the total 413 surveys, 361 surveys were used for the final analysis, and 52 unfaithful surveys were excluded. In addition, demographic, CFA, correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and moderation effect analysis were verified using SPSS and AMOS. For the data analysis, we used SPSS 18.0 and Amos 20.0 to perform factor analysis and SEM. Significant effects were found in support for Hypotheses 1-5. Further, when it comes to the difference of gender on the relationship between all the variables, while no significant effect was found for Hypotheses 6a,c,e,g, a significant effect was found for Hypotheses 6b,d,f. Thus, H6a,c,e were rejected and H6b,d,f were supported. It was found that females had a greater influence on mental health and desire for overseas travel than males, but it was found that there was no difference between females and males in the relationship between desire and behavioral intention. Therefore, it was possible to verify that the MGB desire is an important psychological variable for both females and males. Furthermore, these findings offer academic practical implications to travel and tourism companies by presenting basic data based on the results of empirical research analysis in the context of the current dangerous situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Goals , Travel/psychology , Perception
17.
Global Health ; 19(1): 5, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214607

ABSTRACT

Society continues to be confronted with the deep inadequacies of the current global order. Rampant income inequality between and within countries, dramatic disparities in access to resources, as seen during the COVID pandemic, persistent degradation of the environment, and numerous other problems are tied to existing systems of economy and government. Current global economic systems are implicated in perpetuating these problems. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born out of the recognition that dramatic changes were needed to address these intersecting challenges. There is general recognition that transformation of global systems and the relationship between sectors is needed. We conduct a structured, theoretically-informed analysis of SDG documents produced by United Nations agencies with the aim of examining the framing of economic policy goals, a historically dominant domain of consideration in development policy, in relation to health, social and environmental goals. We apply a novel typology to categorize the framing of policy goals. This analysis identified that the formal discourse associated with the SDGs marks a notable change from the pre-SDG development discourse. The 'transformational' agenda issued in the SDG documents is in part situated in relation to a critique of previous and existing approaches to development that privilege economic goals over health, social and environmental goals, and position economic policy as the solution to societal concerns. At the same time, we find that there is tension between the aspiration of transformation and an overwhelming focus on economic goals. This work has implications for health governance, where we find that health goals are still often framed as a means to achieve economic policy goals. Health scholars and advocates can draw from our analysis to critically examine how health fits within the transformational development agenda and how sectoral policy goals can move beyond a crude emphasis on economic growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Humans , Global Health , Policy , Economic Development , Goals
19.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 57, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's (WHO) 25X25 goal aims for a 25% relative reduction in premature death due to four non-communicable diseases (NCD4)-cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes-by 2025 compared to 2010. This study aimed to quantify the premature mortality in the Australian population due to NCD4, quantify the variation in mortality rates by age and sex, predict the premature mortality due to NCD4 in 2025 and evaluate the progress towards the WHO 25X25 goal. METHODS: A population-based study using cause-specific mortality data of all deaths which occurred in Australia from 2010 to 2016 and registered up to 2017, for adults aged 30-69 years, was conducted. Age-specific and age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and probability of death for NCD4 were calculated for each year. ASMRs in 2016 were calculated for men and women. Deaths and the probability of death in 2025 were predicted using Poisson regression based on data from 2006 to 2016. To assess the progress against the WHO 25X25 goal, the relative reduction in the probability of death from NCD4 conditions in 2025 compared to 2010 was calculated. RESULTS: ASMRs for NCD4 decreased from 2010 to 2016, except for diabetes which increased on average by 2.5% per year. Across sociodemographic factors, ASMRs were highest in males and increased with age. The projected probability of premature death in 2025 was 7.36%, equivalent to a relative reduction of 25.16% compared to 2010 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Premature mortality due to cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and diabetes declined in Australia from 2010 to 2016. This trend is consistent across age groups and by sex, and higher mortality rates were observed in males and at older ages. Nationally, if the current trends continue, we estimate that Australia will achieve a 25.16% relative reduction in premature deaths due to NCD4 in 2025 compared to 2010, signifying substantial progress towards the WHO 25X25 goal. Concerted efforts will need to continue to meet the 25X25 goal, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Female , Goals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Mortality, Premature , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
20.
Parasitol Res ; 121(7): 1867-1885, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174153

ABSTRACT

Malaria control measures have been in use for years but have not completely curbed the spread of infection. Ultimately, global elimination is the goal. A major playmaker in the various approaches to reaching the goal is the issue of proper diagnosis. Various diagnostic techniques were adopted in different regions and geographical locations over the decades, and these have invariably produced diverse outcomes. In this review, we looked at the various approaches used in malaria diagnostics with a focus on methods favorably used during pre-elimination and elimination phases as well as in endemic regions. Microscopy, rapid diagnostic testing (RDT), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are common methods applied depending on prevailing factors, each with its strengths and limitations. As the drive toward the elimination goal intensifies, the search for ideal, simple, fast, and reliable point-of-care diagnostic tools is needed more than ever before to be used in conjunction with a functional surveillance system supported by the ideal vaccine.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Goals , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Microscopy/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
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