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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 33: 100753, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984223

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) pose an increased health and productivity risk to livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Information regarding TBPs infecting small ruminants in Kano metropolis is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens of economic importance from sheep and goats in Kano, Nigeria using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 346 blood DNA samples were collected from small ruminants and analyzed for TBPs using PCR and sequencing. Risk of infection was determined for age, sex, breed and animal species. Our results indicate the absence of piroplasmids (Babesia/Theileria) and Rickettsia spp. infections. The overall prevalence for Anaplasma spp. was 9.25% (32/346) with a higher prevalence in goats 13.59% (25/184) compared with sheep 4.32% (7/162). With respect to age of animals, goats >4 years had the highest prevalence of 32.45% (11/37) which differs significantly (P = 0.0059) compared with other age categories. Cross breed goats had a prevalence of 15.63% (5/32) compared with Kano brown breed 14.08 (20/142). Sex significant difference (P = 0.029) was observed in the goats with females having the highest prevalence 20.89% (14/67) compared with males 9.40% (11/117). Furthermore, with regards to sheep, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with respect to age and breed. Finally, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. due to Body condition score (BCS) in both sheep and goats. Conclusively, the occurrence of TBPs in small ruminants is low. Continuous efforts in tick control must be sustained to ensure high productive yield and reduced disease burden associated with TBPs of sheep and goats in Kano metropolis.


Subject(s)
Goat Diseases , Rickettsia Infections , Theileria , Ticks , Anaplasma/genetics , Animals , Female , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats/microbiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Risk Factors , Ruminants , Sheep , Theileria/genetics , Ticks/microbiology
2.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(9): 692-706, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434350

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidiosis is an extensively contagious zoonotic waterborne disease caused by the genus Cryptosporidium and poses to be a danger to public health. Sheep and goats are an intermediate host of Cryptosporidium. Consequently, a first systematic review and meta-analysis are performed to assess the burden of the infection relative to the Cryptosporidium in sheep and goat flocks in China. Five databases were searched for relevant literature in accordance with the inclusion criteria until January 30, 2020. At last, a total of 33 qualified documents were included. We calculate the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium (4.9%) in sheep and goats in China with the random-effects model. The prevalence after 2014 (4.6%) was higher than that before or in 2014 (2.8%). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Northern China (12.3%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other regions. The infection rate of modified acid-fast staining (14.3%) was the highest among the detection methods. In age subgroups, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats in 3 months or before was the highest (20.8%). Goats had a higher infection rate (5.9%) in species. The prevalence of large-scale farms (2.8%) was lower than free-ranging farms (4.4%). The medium quality level (6.4%) was the highest. Besides, geographical factors (such as latitude, longitude, height, precipitation, humidity, mean temperature, etc.) were further analyzed as potential risk factors of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats. This meta-analysis indicates that the Cryptosporidium infection of Chinese sheep and goat flocks is general. Thus, it is necessary to further monitor the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, and the reasonable preventive strategy should be formulated on the basis of the geographical factors of different regions and the differences in sheep and goats' growth stages to reduce the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Goat Diseases , Sheep Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Feces , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Prevalence , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Goat Diseases/virology , Sheep Diseases/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Phylogeny , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 241: 108544, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823170

ABSTRACT

Cattle, goats and sheep are dominant livestock species in sub-Saharan Africa, with sometimes limited information on the prevalence of major infectious diseases. Restrictions due to notifiable epizootics complicate the exchange of samples in surveillance studies and suggest that laboratory capacities should be established domestically. Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) causes mainly enteric disease in cattle. Spillover to small ruminants is possible. Here we established BCoV serology based on a recombinant immunofluorescence assay for cattle, goats and sheep, and studied the seroprevalence of BCoV in these species in four different locations in the Greater Accra, Volta, Upper East, and Northern provinces of Ghana. The whole sampling and testing was organized and conducted by a veterinary school in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. Among sampled sheep (n = 102), goats (n = 66), and cattle (n = 1495), the seroprevalence rates were 25.8 %, 43.1 % and 55.8 %. For cattle, seroprevalence was significantly higher on larger farms (82.2 % vs 17.8 %, comparing farms with >50 or <50 animals; p = 0.027). Highest prevalence was seen in the Northern province with dry climate, but no significant trend following the north-south gradient of sampling sites was detected. Our study identifies a considerable seroprevalence for BCoV in Ghana and provides further support for the spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/immunology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/immunology , Goat Diseases/transmission , Goat Diseases/virology , Goats , Lactation , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Distribution , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep Diseases/transmission , Sheep Diseases/virology
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