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1.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(6): 1015-1019, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153397

ABSTRACT

Albendazole is a widely used anthelmintic drug that is labeled for the treatment of specific nematodes and flukes in ruminants. Albendazole is approved for the treatment of liver flukes in goats (10 mg/kg PO for a single dose), but is commonly used extra-label in situations in which parasite resistance is an issue. Albendazole toxicosis has been reported in pigeons, doves, alpacas, humans, dogs, and cats. Here we report an adverse event in a 6-mo-old goat associated with extra-label use of albendazole (35.7 mg/kg PO daily for 3 d). Clinicopathologic findings included severe diarrhea and death, with small intestinal crypt necrosis and dysplasia, and severe bone marrow hypoplasia. Microbial and molecular testing and transmission electron microscopy ruled out infectious organisms. The described pathologic changes are similar to those reported in other species that have experienced toxicosis associated with albendazole. To our knowledge, bone marrow and intestinal lesions associated with albendazole use in the goat have not been reported previously. Veterinarians should be aware of potential adverse events and toxicoses associated with anthelmintic drugs, especially as parasite resistance increases, and extra-label usage, and the use of such drugs without veterinary supervision, becomes more common.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics , Dog Diseases , Goat Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Albendazole/adverse effects , Goats , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Bone Marrow , Goat Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Feces/parasitology , Anthelmintics/adverse effects , Ruminants , Dog Diseases/drug therapy
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066133

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the commonest arthropod-borne viral diseases in Middle-East Europe and North Asia. The main reservoir of the virus is comprised of small rodents and domestic mammals with the common tick (Ixodes) being the usual vector. The clinical spectrum of TBE ranges from mild meningitis to severe meningoencephalomyelitis. This disease can lead to severe sequelae and has a mortality up to 2% in Europe. Even though the majority of cases are transmitted through bites of infected ticks, infections through ingestion of contaminated milk and dairy products from farms in endemic areas have been reported. We report a family outbreak of a febrile disease, initially suggestive of human-to-human infection, during the early summertime in Austria. Tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed following consumption of unpasteurised goat's milk and the virus was subsequently detected in frozen milk samples. Although this is a rare manifestation of TBE, this case series shows that TBE should be included in the differential diagnosis of an outbreak of febrile disease, and a careful clinical history with reference to unpasteurized dairy products is crucial in order to prevent further disease spread. The best preventive measure is active immunisation of people living in, or travelling to, endemic areas.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne , Ixodes , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/genetics , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/veterinary , Goats , Humans , Milk , RNA
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2326-2329, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054899

ABSTRACT

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was detected in 2 refugees living in a refugee settlement in Kikuube district, Uganda. Investigations revealed a CCHF IgG seroprevalence of 71.3% (37/52) in goats within the refugee settlement. This finding highlights the need for a multisectoral approach to controlling CCHF in humans and animals in Uganda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Refugees , Animals , Humans , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uganda/epidemiology , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Goats , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 297, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective transmission mode of Neospora caninum, with infection leading to reproductive failure in ruminants, is vertical transmission. The uterus is an important reproductive organ that forms the maternal-fetal interface. Neospora caninum can successfully invade and proliferate in the uterus, but the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that host long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in cellular molecular regulatory networks, with reports that these RNA molecules are closely related to the pathogenesis of apicomplexan parasites. However, the expression profiles of host lncRNAs during N. caninum infection has not been reported. METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to investigate the expression profiles of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and lncRNAs in caprine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ_24h) and 48 h (TZ_48 h), and the potential functions of differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs were predicted by using Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of their mRNA targets. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis identified 1280.15 M clean reads in 12 RNA samples, including six samples infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ1_24h-TZ3_24h) and 48 h (TZ1_48h-TZ3_48h), and six corresponding control samples (C1_24h-C3_24h and C1_48h-C3_48h). Within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, there were 934 (665 upregulated and 269 downregulated), 1238 (785 upregulated and 453 downregulated) and 489 (252 upregulated and 237 downregulated) DEmRNAs, respectively. GO enrichment and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEmRNAs were mainly involved in the regulation of host immune response (e.g. TNF signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway), signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). A total of 88 (59 upregulated and 29 downregulated), 129 (80 upregulated and 49 downregulated) and 32 (20 upregulated and 12 downregulated) DElncRNAs were found within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, respectively. Functional prediction indicated that these DElncRNAs would be involved in signal transduction (e.g. MAPK signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway), neural transmission (e.g. GABAergic synapse, serotonergic synapse, cholinergic synapse), metabolism processes (e.g. glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-lacto and neolacto series, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate/heparin) and signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation of global gene expression profiles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection. The results provide valuable information for further studies of the roles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis , Neospora , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Goats , Humans , Neospora/genetics , Neospora/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA
5.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033138

ABSTRACT

A wide range of animal species are susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Natural and/or experimental infections have been reported in pet, zoo, farmed and wild animals. Interestingly, some SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as B.1.1.7/Alpha, B.1.351/Beta, and B.1.1.529/Omicron, were demonstrated to infect some animal species not susceptible to classical viral variants. The present study aimed to elucidate if goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) are susceptible to the B.1.351/Beta variant. First, an in silico approach was used to predict the affinity between the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351/Beta variant and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 from goats. Moreover, we performed an experimental inoculation with this variant in domestic goat and showed evidence of infection. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in nasal swabs and tissues by RT-qPCR and/or immunohistochemistry, and seroneutralisation was confirmed via ELISA and live virus neutralisation assays. However, the viral amount and tissue distribution suggest a low susceptibility of goats to the B.1.351/Beta variant. Therefore, although monitoring livestock is advisable, it is unlikely that goats play a role as SARS-CoV-2 reservoir species, and they are not useful surrogates to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Goats , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 33: 100753, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984223

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) pose an increased health and productivity risk to livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Information regarding TBPs infecting small ruminants in Kano metropolis is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens of economic importance from sheep and goats in Kano, Nigeria using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 346 blood DNA samples were collected from small ruminants and analyzed for TBPs using PCR and sequencing. Risk of infection was determined for age, sex, breed and animal species. Our results indicate the absence of piroplasmids (Babesia/Theileria) and Rickettsia spp. infections. The overall prevalence for Anaplasma spp. was 9.25% (32/346) with a higher prevalence in goats 13.59% (25/184) compared with sheep 4.32% (7/162). With respect to age of animals, goats >4 years had the highest prevalence of 32.45% (11/37) which differs significantly (P = 0.0059) compared with other age categories. Cross breed goats had a prevalence of 15.63% (5/32) compared with Kano brown breed 14.08 (20/142). Sex significant difference (P = 0.029) was observed in the goats with females having the highest prevalence 20.89% (14/67) compared with males 9.40% (11/117). Furthermore, with regards to sheep, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with respect to age and breed. Finally, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. due to Body condition score (BCS) in both sheep and goats. Conclusively, the occurrence of TBPs in small ruminants is low. Continuous efforts in tick control must be sustained to ensure high productive yield and reduced disease burden associated with TBPs of sheep and goats in Kano metropolis.


Subject(s)
Goat Diseases , Rickettsia Infections , Theileria , Ticks , Anaplasma/genetics , Animals , Female , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats/microbiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Risk Factors , Ruminants , Sheep , Theileria/genetics , Ticks/microbiology
7.
ILAR J ; 62(1-2): 133-168, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937673

ABSTRACT

Animal models provide a valuable tool and resource for biomedical researchers as they investigate biological processes, disease pathogenesis, novel therapies, and toxicologic studies. Interpretation of animal model data requires knowledge not only of the processes/diseases being studied but also awareness of spontaneous conditions and background lesions in the model that can influence or even confound the study results. Species, breed/stock, sex, age, anatomy, physiology, diseases (noninfectious and infectious), and neoplastic processes are model features that can impact the results as well as study interpretation. Here, we review these features in several common laboratory animal species, including ferret, dog (beagle), pig, sheep, and goats.


Subject(s)
Goats , Swine Diseases , Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Ferrets , Sheep , Swine
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(13): e2203753119, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751831

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Goats
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(3): 1059-1060, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715910
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680

ABSTRACT

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
11.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(9): 692-706, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434350

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidiosis is an extensively contagious zoonotic waterborne disease caused by the genus Cryptosporidium and poses to be a danger to public health. Sheep and goats are an intermediate host of Cryptosporidium. Consequently, a first systematic review and meta-analysis are performed to assess the burden of the infection relative to the Cryptosporidium in sheep and goat flocks in China. Five databases were searched for relevant literature in accordance with the inclusion criteria until January 30, 2020. At last, a total of 33 qualified documents were included. We calculate the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium (4.9%) in sheep and goats in China with the random-effects model. The prevalence after 2014 (4.6%) was higher than that before or in 2014 (2.8%). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Northern China (12.3%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other regions. The infection rate of modified acid-fast staining (14.3%) was the highest among the detection methods. In age subgroups, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats in 3 months or before was the highest (20.8%). Goats had a higher infection rate (5.9%) in species. The prevalence of large-scale farms (2.8%) was lower than free-ranging farms (4.4%). The medium quality level (6.4%) was the highest. Besides, geographical factors (such as latitude, longitude, height, precipitation, humidity, mean temperature, etc.) were further analyzed as potential risk factors of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats. This meta-analysis indicates that the Cryptosporidium infection of Chinese sheep and goat flocks is general. Thus, it is necessary to further monitor the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, and the reasonable preventive strategy should be formulated on the basis of the geographical factors of different regions and the differences in sheep and goats' growth stages to reduce the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Goat Diseases , Sheep Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Feces , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Prevalence , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
12.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087033

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic represents a global threat, and the interaction between the virus and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the primary entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is a key determinant of the range of hosts that can be infected by the virus. However, the mechanisms underpinning ACE2-mediated viral entry across species remains unclear. Using infection assay, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 entry mediated by ACE2 of 11 different animal species. We discovered that ACE2 of Rhinolophus sinicus (Chinese rufous horseshoe bat), Felis catus (domestic cat), Canis lupus familiaris (dog), Sus scrofa (wild pig), Capra hircus (goat), and Manis javanica (Malayan pangolin) facilitated SARS-CoV-2 entry into nonsusceptible cells. Moreover, ACE2 of the pangolin also mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry, adding credence to the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated from pangolins. However, the ACE2 proteins of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (greater horseshoe bat), Gallus gallus (red junglefowl), Notechis scutatus (mainland tiger snake), or Mus musculus (house mouse) did not facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry. In addition, a natural isoform of the ACE2 protein of Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey) with the Y217N mutation was resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting the possible impact of this ACE2 mutation on SARS-CoV-2 studies in rhesus monkeys. We further demonstrated that the Y217 residue of ACE2 is a critical determinant for the ability of ACE2 to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. Overall, these results clarify that SARS-CoV-2 can use the ACE2 receptors of multiple animal species and show that tracking the natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 is complex.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cats , Chickens/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Dogs , Elapidae/virology , Eutheria/virology , Gene Expression , Goats/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Swine/virology , Virus Internalization
13.
Genomics ; 113(2): 463-473, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039591

ABSTRACT

In Yangtze River Delta white goat, hypermethylation of CMTM3 leads to a decreased expression level in high quality brush hair. However, the regulation of CMTM3 expression and its function in hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulation of CMTM3 expression, function, and molecular mechanism in HFSCs. The re-expression of CMTM3 significantly suppressed the proliferation of HFSCs by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis. Moreover, the downregulation of CMTM3 promoted HFSC proliferation. Treatment with sh_CMTM3 and incubation in a DHT culture medium had the most significant growth-promoting effect. It was hypothesized that transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in samples would enable the identification of unique protein-coding and non-coding genes that may help uncover the role of CMTM3. Multiple genes and pathways were involved in this process, including 168 common DEGs, such as CXCL8 and E-selectin, which is reportedly involved in multiple regulatory pathways. These results indicated that CMTM3 can function as HFSCs through the induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis by mediating crosstalk between several pathways and transcription factors. Our data is available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database with the accession number PRJNA657430.


Subject(s)
Androgens/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Chemokines/genetics , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Hair Follicle/cytology , MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins/genetics , Stem Cells/metabolism , Adult , Animals , Apoptosis , Cells, Cultured , Goats , Hair Follicle/drug effects , Hair Follicle/metabolism , Humans , Stem Cells/drug effects , Transcriptome
14.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 24(10): 1769-1783, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. It was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and despite the tremendous efforts to control the disease, it has now spread almost all over the world. The interaction of SARSCoV- 2spike protein and its acceptor protein ACE2 is an important issue in determining viral host range and cross-species infection, while the binding capacity of spike protein to ACE2 of different species is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The present study has been conducted to determine the susceptibility of livestock, poultry and pets to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We evaluated the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s from various species by sequence alignment, phylogenetic clustering and protein-ligand interaction studies with the currently known ACE2s utilized by SARS-CoV-2. RESULT: In-silico study predicted that SARS-CoV-2 tends to utilize ACE2s of various animal species with varied possible interactions. The probability of the receptor utilization will be greater in horse and poor in chicken, followed by ruminants. CONCLUSION: Present study predicted that SARS-CoV-2 tends to utilize ACE2s of various livestock and poultry species with greater probability in equine and poor in chicken. The study may provide important insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID- 19 control.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/classification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Buffaloes , COVID-19/transmission , Camelus , Cats , Cattle , Chickens , Chiroptera , Dogs , Gene Expression , Goats , Horses , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/classification , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sheep , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Goat Diseases/virology , Sheep Diseases/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Phylogeny , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
16.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 46(10): 1416-1421, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878781

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To quantify the atomization of liquid over the cornea during flap creation using microkeratome using high-speed shadowgraphy. SETTING: Laboratory study. DESIGN: Laboratory investigational study. METHOD: In an experimental setup, flap creation was performed on enucleated goat's eyes (n = 8) mounted on a stand using One Use-Plus SBK Moria microkeratome (Moria SA) to assess the spread of aerosols and droplets using high-speed shadowgraphy. Two conditions were computed. A constant airflow assumed uniform air velocity throughout the room. A decaying jet assumed that local air velocity at the site of measurements was smaller than the exit velocity from the air duct. RESULTS: With the advancement of the microkeratome across the wet corneal surface, the atomization of a balanced salt solution was recorded on shadowgraphy. The minimum droplet size was ∼90 µm. The maximum distance traversed was ∼1.8 m and ∼1.3 m assuming a constant airflow (setting of refractive surgery theater) and decaying jet condition (setting of an operating theater with air-handling unit), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The microkeratome-assisted LASIK flap creation seemed to cause spread of droplets. The droplet diameters and velocities did not permit the formation of aerosols. Therefore, the risk of transmission of the virus to the surgeon and surgical personnel due to the microkeratome procedure seemed to be low.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/methods , Lasers, Excimer/therapeutic use , Myopia/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Corneal Stroma/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Goats , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Flaps
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 241: 108544, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823170

ABSTRACT

Cattle, goats and sheep are dominant livestock species in sub-Saharan Africa, with sometimes limited information on the prevalence of major infectious diseases. Restrictions due to notifiable epizootics complicate the exchange of samples in surveillance studies and suggest that laboratory capacities should be established domestically. Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) causes mainly enteric disease in cattle. Spillover to small ruminants is possible. Here we established BCoV serology based on a recombinant immunofluorescence assay for cattle, goats and sheep, and studied the seroprevalence of BCoV in these species in four different locations in the Greater Accra, Volta, Upper East, and Northern provinces of Ghana. The whole sampling and testing was organized and conducted by a veterinary school in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. Among sampled sheep (n = 102), goats (n = 66), and cattle (n = 1495), the seroprevalence rates were 25.8 %, 43.1 % and 55.8 %. For cattle, seroprevalence was significantly higher on larger farms (82.2 % vs 17.8 %, comparing farms with >50 or <50 animals; p = 0.027). Highest prevalence was seen in the Northern province with dry climate, but no significant trend following the north-south gradient of sampling sites was detected. Our study identifies a considerable seroprevalence for BCoV in Ghana and provides further support for the spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/immunology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/immunology , Goat Diseases/transmission , Goat Diseases/virology , Goats , Lactation , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Distribution , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep Diseases/transmission , Sheep Diseases/virology
18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(10): 2103-2106, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate fluid droplet spray generation during phacoemulsification (PE), pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), and fragmatome lensectomy (FL) and assess factors affecting these. METHODS: This is an experimental study. PE through 2.2 and 2.8 mm incisions was performed in six goat eyes and four simulator eyes using both continuous and interrupted ultrasound (U/S). PPV and FL were performed in three goat eyes. Generation of visible fluid droplet spray was analyzed from video recordings through the microscope camera and an external digital camera. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was applied over the incision site during PE and FL. RESULTS: When PE was performed through both incision sizes, there was no visible fluid droplet spray if the phaco tip was centered in the incision, without sleeve compression. When there was phaco tip movement with the phaco sleeve sandwiched between the tip and the incision wall, there was visible fluid droplet spray generation. It was more difficult to induce fluid droplet spray with 2.8 mm incision, and spray was lesser with interrupted U/S. During PPV, there was no droplet spray. During FL, fluid droplet spray was only seen when U/S was delivered with the fragmatome tip close to the sclerotomy. HPMC impeded droplet spray. CONCLUSION: Fluid droplet generation during PE can be minimized to a large extent by keeping the phaco tip centered within the incision, avoiding sleeve compression. Smaller incision and continuous U/S were more prone to droplet generation. FL should be performed away from sclerotomy. HPMC over incision is recommended.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Intraoperative Complications , Microbubbles , Phacoemulsification/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vitrectomy/instrumentation , Animal Experimentation , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Goats , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photography , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Video Recording
19.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 46(9): 1297-1301, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780510

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study propensity of aerosol and droplet generation during phacoemulsification using high-speed shadowgraphy and quantify its spread amid COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Aerosol and droplet quantification laboratory. DESIGN: Laboratory study. METHODS: In an experimental set-up, phacoemulsification was performed on enucleated goat eyes and cadaveric human corneoscleral rims mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. Standard settings for sculpt and quadrant removal mode were used on Visalis 100 (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG). Microincision and standard phacoemulsification were performed using titanium straight tips (2.2 mm and 2.8 mm in diameter). The main wound incisions were titrated equal to and larger than the sleeve size. High-speed shadowgraphy technique was used to detect the possible generation of any droplets and aerosols. The visualization and quantification of size of the aerosols and droplets along with calculation of their spread were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: In longitudinal phacoemulsification using a peristaltic pump device with a straight tip, no aerosol generation was seen in a closed chamber. In larger wounds, there was a slow leak at the main wound. The atomization of balanced salt solution was observed only when the phacoemulsification tip was completely exposed next to the ocular surface. Under this condition, the nominal size of the droplet was approximately 50 µm, and the maximum calculated spread was 1.3 m. CONCLUSIONS: There was no visible aerosol generation during microincision or standard phacoemulsification. Phacoemulsification is safe to perform in the COVID-19 era by taking adequate precautions against other modes of transmission.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/chemistry , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Microbubbles , Phacoemulsification/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Goats , Models, Animal , Ophthalmologists , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Vet Rec ; 187(1): 33-34, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732170
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