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1.
Lasers Surg Med ; 54(8): 1060-1070, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transdermally delivered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) irradiated with near-infrared laser energy can create a photothermal effect within the sebaceous glands (SGs). Photothermal therapy (PTT) can be used clinically to reverse photoaging in SG-rich areas of the skin. Improvements in wrinkles and enlarged pores in Asian skin were assessed following AuNP-mediated PTT with a long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-arm, prospective trial was designed. Twenty Korean patients underwent three gold PTT interventions performed 4 weeks apart at laser hair-removal settings without cooling. At Week 20, changes in the wrinkle index (WI) and pore index (PI), size, and count were calculated using three-dimensional camera analyses. Overall improvements in wrinkles and pores (0-4 scale) were assessed by blinded investigators using standardized photographic comparisons. The subjects scored their satisfaction (0-10 scale) and treatment discomfort (0-10 scale). Safety data were also collected. RESULTS: There were significant reductions in the WI (8.3%, p < 0.01), pore size (23.1%, p = 0.035), and PI (19.9%, p = 0.034) in the periorbital areas at week 20 compared with baseline. The mean reductions in the size (22.5%, p = 0.027), count (16.5%, p = 0.048), and index (22.4%, p = 0.023) of the cheek pores were also significant. Investigators reported average scores of 3.2 ± 0.6 for improved wrinkle appearance, and 3.1 ± 0.7 for improvement in visible pores. Participants were moderately satisfied with the overall results (7.6 ± 1.8). Subjects felt moderate discomfort during treatment (4.7 ± 2.6). No serious or persistent adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: AuNP-mediated PTT showed noticeable efficacy and tolerability in treating wrinkles and pores in Asian skin over a 12 week-follow-up. Further studies with a longer follow-up are needed to confirm the reduction in SG activity at the parameters used.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Photothermal Therapy , Skin Aging , Gold/therapeutic use , Humans , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 218: 114761, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130158

ABSTRACT

Miniaturization of biosensors has become an imperative demand because of its great potential in in vivo biomarker detection and disease diagnostics as well as the point-of-care testing for coping with public health crisis, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Here, we present an ultraminiature optical fiber-tip biosensor based on the plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) directly printed upon the end face of a standard multimode optical fiber at visible light range. An in-situ precision photoreduction technology is developed to additively print the micropatterns of size-controlled AuNPs. The AuNPs reveal distinct localized surface plasmon resonance, whose peak wavelength provides an ideal spectral signal for label-free biodetection. The fabricated optical fiber-tip plasmonic biosensor can not only detect antibody, but also test SARS-CoV-2 mimetic DNA sequence at the concentration level of 0.8 pM. Such an ultraminiature fiber-tip plasmonic biosensor offers a cost-effective biodetection technology for a myriad of applications ranging from point-of-care testing to in vivo diagnosis of stubborn diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Optical Fibers , Gold , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Surface Plasmon Resonance
3.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(12): 472, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128681

ABSTRACT

A label-free and specific FRET-based interleukin-6 (IL-6) aptasensor was developed using a DNA aptamer modified with nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (NCDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a donor-quencher pair. The assayed target was capable of disrupting the donor-acceptor assemblies yielding a concentration-related fluorescence recovery of NCDs (λem = 445 nm and λex = 350 nm). By designing two different probes, the interaction of DNA aptamers with IL-6 protein was studied using FRET efficiency. It appeared that the sensing probes showed slightly different sensing profiles. One of the aptasensors showed a linear response of 1.5-5.9 pg/mL for IL-6 with a coefficient of determination of R2 ≥ 0.99 and the a detection limit of 0.82 pg/mL (at S/N = 3). The experimental results indicated that the biosensor can be applied to determine IL-6 in human serum (with recovery of 95.7-102.9%). Due to the high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, and simplicity of the procedure, this strategy represents a promising alternative for IL-6 sensing in clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Quantum Dots , Humans , Gold , Interleukin-6 , Carbon , Nitrogen , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Biomarkers
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19416, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119170

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic outbreak poses a serious threat to public health, demonstrating the critical need for the development of effective and reproducible detection tests. Since the RT-qPCR primers are highly specific and can only be designed based on the known sequence, mutation sensitivity is its limitation. Moreover, the mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome ß-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) genome led to new highly transmissible variants such as Delta and Omicron variants. In the case of mutation, RT-qPCR primers cannot recognize and attach to the target sequence. This research presents an accurate dual-platform DNA biosensor based on the colorimetric assay of gold nanoparticles and the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique. It simultaneously targets four different regions of the viral genome for detection of SARS-CoV-2 and its new variants prior to any sequencing. Hence, in the case of mutation in one of the target sequences, the other three probes could detect the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The method is based on visible biosensor color shift and a locally enhanced electromagnetic field and significantly amplified SERS signal due to the proximity of Sulfo-Cyanine 3 (Cy3) and AuNPs intensity peak at 1468 cm-1. The dual-platform DNA/GO/AuNP biosensor exhibits high sensitivity toward the viral genome with a LOD of 0.16 ng/µL. This is a safe point-of-care, naked-eye, equipment-free, and rapid (10 min) detection biosensor for diagnosing COVID-19 cases at home using a nasopharyngeal sample.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Gold , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Genome, Viral/genetics , DNA , RNA, Viral/genetics
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(47): 16436-16442, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116713

ABSTRACT

Label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays (lf-ECLIA), based on biomarker-induced ECL signal changes, have attracted increasing attention due to the simple, rapid, and low-cost detection of biomarkers without secondary antibodies and complicated labeling procedures. However, the interaction rule and mechanism between analytical interfaces and biomarkers have rarely been explored. Herein, the interactions between biomarkers and analytical interfaces constructed by assembly of a nanoluminophore and antibody-functionalized gold nanoparticles on an indium tin oxide electrode were studied. The nanoluminophore was synthesized by mixing Cu2+/l-cysteine chelate and N-(4-Aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol-bifunctionalized gold nanoparticles with chitosan. It was found that positively charged biomarkers increased the ECL intensity, whereas negatively charged biomarkers decreased the ECL intensity. The assembly pH influenced the biomarker charges, which determined the ECL enhancement or inhibition. The detection pH only affected the ECL intensity but not the ECL changing trends. Based on the ECL signal changes, a charge-dependent lf-ECLIA was established, which exhibited inhibition responses to negatively charged human immunoglobulin G and copeptin and enhancement responses to positively charged cardiac troponin I, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, brain natriuretic peptide, and SARS-CoV-2 N protein. The linear range was 0.1-1000 pg/mL, and the detection limits were distributed in 0.024-0.091 pg/mL. Besides, a mechanism of the charge-dependent ECL enhancement and inhibition effects is proposed, which is very important for the development of new lf-ECLIA methodologies.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Gold , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoassay/methods , Biomarkers , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Limit of Detection
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116086

ABSTRACT

Background: The transmissible capacity and toxicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants are continually changing. We report here the follow-up study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from 2020 to 2022. It is known that the PCR diagnosis for hospitalized patients sometimes causes confusion because of the incompatibility between their diagnosis and symptoms. We applied our sugar chain-immobilized gold-nanoparticles for the extraction and partial purification of RNA from specimens for quantitative RT-PCR assay and evaluated whether the results correlate with patients' symptoms. Methods and Results: Saliva specimens were taken from hospitalized patients with mild or moderate symptoms every early morning. At the time of RT-PCR diagnosis, two methods for the extraction and partial purification of RNA from the specimen were performed: a commonly used Boom (Qiagen) method and our original sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticle (SGNP) method. For symptoms, body temperature and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of patients were monitored every 4 h. Conclusions: It was clear that patients infected with the Delta variant needed more time to recover than those with the Omicron variant, and that the SGNP method showed more realistic correlation with the symptoms of patients compared with the common Qiagen method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gold , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sugars , Follow-Up Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Carbohydrates
7.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109924

ABSTRACT

Gold compounds have a long tradition in medicine and offer many opportunities for new therapeutic applications. Herein, we evaluated the lead compound Auranofin and five related gold(I) complexes as possible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), a validated drug target for the COVID-19 disease. The investigational panel of gold compounds included Auranofin; three halido analogues, i.e., Au(PEt3)Cl, Au(PEt3)Br, and Au(PEt3)I; and two gold carbene complexes, i.e., Au(NHC)Cl and [Au(NHC)2]PF6. Notably, all these gold compounds, with the only exception of [Au(NHC)2]PF6, turned out to be potent inhibitors of the catalytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro: the measured Ki values were in the range 2.1-0.4 µM. The reactions of the various gold compounds with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were subsequently investigated through electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) upon a careful optimization of the experimental conditions; the ESI MS spectra provided clear evidence for the formation of tight metallodrug-protein adducts and for the coordination of well defined gold-containing fragments to the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, again with the only exception of [Au(NHC)2]PF6, The metal-protein stoichiometry was unambiguously determined for the resulting species. The crystal structures of the metallodrug- Mpro adducts were solved in the case of Au(PEt3)Br and Au(NHC)Cl. These crystal structures show that gold coordination occurs at the level of catalytic Cys 145 in the case of Au(NHC)Cl and at the level of both Cys 145 and Cys 156 for Au(PEt3)Br. Tight coordination of gold atoms to functionally relevant cysteine residues is believed to represent the true molecular basis of strong enzyme inhibition.


Subject(s)
Auranofin , COVID-19 , Humans , Auranofin/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gold Compounds/pharmacology , Cysteine , Gold/pharmacology
8.
Nano Lett ; 22(22): 8932-8940, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106310

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic coupling via nanoparticle assembly is a popular signal-generation method in bioanalytical sensors. Here, we customized an all-peptide-based ligand that carries an anchoring group, polyproline spacer, biomolecular recognition, and zwitterionic domains for functionalizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a colorimetric enzyme sensor. Our results underscore the importance of the polyproline module, which enables the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) to recognize the peptidic ligand on nanosurfaces for subsequent plasmonic coupling via Coulombic interactions. AuNP aggregation is favored by the lowered surface potential due to enzymatic unveiling of the zwitterionic module. Therefore, this system provides a naked-eye measure for Mpro. No proteolysis occurs on AuNPs modified with a control ligand lacking a spacer domain. Overall, this all-peptide-based ligand does not require complex molecular conjugations and hence offers a simple and promising route for plasmonic sensing other proteases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Gold , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Ligands , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptides
9.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099352

ABSTRACT

Since the 2019-nCoV outbreak was first reported, hundreds of millions of people all over the world have been infected. There is no doubt that improving the cure rate of 2019-nCoV is one of the most effective means to deal with the current serious epidemic. At present, Remdesivir (RDV) has been clinically proven to be effective in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. However, the uncertain side effects make it important to reduce the use of drugs while ensuring the self-healing effect. We report an approach here with targeted therapy for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses illness. In this study, mesoporous silica was used as the carrier of RDV, the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) aptamer was hybridized with the complementary chain, and the double-stranded DNA was combined with gold nanoparticles as the gates of mesoporous silica pores. When the RDV-loaded mesoporous silica is incubated with the N protein, aptamer with gold nanoparticles dissociate from the complementary DNA oligonucleotide on the mesoporous silica surface and bind to the N protein. The releasing of RDV was determined by detecting the UV-vis absorption peak of RDV in the solution. These results show that the RDV delivery system designed in this work has potential clinical application for the treatment of 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Humans , Silicon Dioxide , SARS-CoV-2 , Gold , COVID-19/drug therapy
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18155, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096794

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) spreads an extremely infectious disease where there is no specific treatment. COVID-19 virus had a rapid and unexpected spread rate which resulted in critical difficulties for public health and unprecedented daily life disruption. Thus, accurate, rapid, and early diagnosis of COVID-19 virus is critical to maintain public health safety. A graphite oxide-based field-effect transistor (GO-FET) was fabricated and functionalized with COVID-19 antibody for the purpose of real-time detection of COVID-19 spike protein antigen. Thermal evaporation process was used to deposit the gold electrodes on the surface of the sensor substrate. Graphite oxide channel was placed between the gold electrodes. Bimetallic nanoparticles of platinum and palladium were generated via an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible system by sputtering and inert-gas condensation technique. The biosensor graphite oxide channel was immobilized with specific antibodies against the COVID-19 spike protein to achieve selectivity and specificity. This technique uses the attractive semiconductor characteristics of the graphite oxide-based materials resulting in highly specific and sensitive detection of COVID-19 spike protein. The GO-FET biosensor was decorated with bimetallic nanoparticles of platinum and palladium to investigate the improvement in the sensor sensitivity. The in-house developed biosensor limit of detection (LOD) is 1 fg/mL of COVID-19 spike antigen in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, magnetic labelled SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody were studied to investigate any enhancement in the sensor performance. The results indicate the successful fabrication of a promising field effect transistor biosensor for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Nanoparticles , Humans , Oxides , Platinum , Transistors, Electronic , Palladium , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold
11.
Biotechnol Lett ; 44(12): 1507-1517, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094663

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 are being utilized at an exponential rate for surveillance programs. This enterprise was designed to develop and validate a qualitative immunochromatographic test, via the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA), for detection of immunoglobulins M and G (IgM and IgG) against both nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Both targeted proteins were cloned and expressed in baculovirus expression system utilizing insect cells Sf9. The recombinant RBD and N proteins were purified and conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to set up the coating antigens pad. Both anti-human IgG and IgM were dispensed on nitrocellulose membrane to capture human antibodies in serum samples. A home-made dispensing system was developed to draw identical test and control lines. The validity of the developed LFA was verified by testing serum samples from 103 convalescent COVID-19 patients who were PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 along with 28 control serum samples. The developed strips showed distinctive bands for IgM and IgG of both proteins (RBD and N) in positive samples. The sensitivity of RBD-based LFA was 70.9% and 39.8% for IgG and IgM, respectively, with a specificity of 100% for both. The N-based LFA exhibited a sensitivity of 73.8% and 35.9% for IgG and IgM, respectively, while its specificity was 75% and 100% for IgG and IgM, respectively. Our developed LFA could afford a tool for surveillance programs in low-resource countries. Moreover, it might be functional for rapid and inexpensive monitoring of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the sera of vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Gold , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Baculoviridae/genetics , Carrier Proteins , Nucleocapsid , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090210

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a threat to public health and a worldwide crisis. This raised the need for quick, effective, and sensitive detection tools to prevent the rapid transmission rate of the infection. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based aptasensor employing an interdigitated gold electrode (IDE) to detect SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) glycoprotein and viral particles. This allowed us to sensitively detect SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 pg/mL in a buffer solution and to obtain a linear increase for concentrations between 0.2 to 0.8 pg/mL with high specificity. The proposed aptasensor also showed a good sensitivity towards the heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 variants in a buffer solution, where the Delta, Wuhan, and Alpha variants were captured at a viral titer of 6.45 ± 0.16 × 103 TCID50/mL, 6.20 × 104 TCID50/mL, and 5.32 ± 0.13 × 102 TCID50/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 performed in a spiked human nasal fluid provided an LOD of 6.45 ± 0.16 × 103 TCID50/mL for the Delta variant in a 50 µL sample and a detection time of less than 25 min. Atomic force microscopy images complemented the EIS results in this study, revealing that the surface roughness of the IDE after each modification step increased, which indicates that the target was successfully captured. This label-free EIS-based aptasensor has promising potential for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 in complex clinical samples.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Limit of Detection , Gold/chemistry , Electrodes , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090000

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, several COVID-19 detection methods, both commercially available and in the lab, have been developed using different biomolecules as analytes and different detection and sampling methods with high analytical performance. Developing novel COVID-19 detection assays is an exciting research field, as rapid accurate diagnosis is a valuable tool to control the current pandemic, and also because the acquired knowledge can be deployed for facing future infectious outbreaks. We here developed a novel gold-nanoparticle-based nucleic acid lateral flow assay for the rapid, visual, and quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2. Our method was based on the use of a DNA internal standard (competitor) for quantification and involved RT-PCR, the hybridization of biotinylated PCR products to specific oligonucleotide probes, and detection with a dual lateral flow assay using gold nanoparticles conjugated to an anti-biotin antibody as reporters. The developed test allowed for rapid detection by the naked eye and the simultaneous quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swabs with high specificity, detectability, and repeatability. This novel molecular strip test for COVID-19 detection represents a simple, cost-effective, and accurate rapid test that is very promising to be used as a future diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Opt Express ; 30(22): 40277-40291, 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089309

ABSTRACT

We conceptualized and numerically investigated a photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for rapid detection and quantification of novel coronavirus. The plasmonic gold-based optical sensor permits three different ways to quantify the virus concentrations inside patient's body based on different ligand-analyte conjugate pairs. This photonic biosensor demonstrates viable detections of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding-domain (RBD), mutated viral single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) and human monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G (IgG). A marquise-shaped core is introduced to facilitate efficient light-tailoring. Analytes are dissolved in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and surfaced on the plasmonic metal layer for realizing detection. The 1-pyrene butyric acid n-hydroxy-succinimide ester is numerically used to immobilize the analytes on the sensing interface. Using the finite element method (FEM), the proposed sensor is studied critically and optimized for the refractive index (RI) range from 1.3348-1.3576, since the target analytes RIs fluctuate within this range depending on the severity of the viral infection. The polarization-dependent sensor exhibits dominant sensing attributes for x-polarized mode, where it shows the average wavelength sensitivities of 2,009 nm/RIU, 2,745 nm/RIU and 1,984 nm/RIU for analytes: spike RBD, extracted coronavirus RNA and antibody IgG, respectively. The corresponding median amplitude sensitivities are 135 RIU-1, 196 RIU-1 and 140 RIU-1, respectively. The maximum sensor resolution and figure of merit are found 2.53 × 10-5 RIU and 101 RIU-1, respectively for viral RNA detection. Also, a significant limit of detection (LOD) of 6.42 × 10-9 RIU2/nm is obtained. Considering modern bioassays, the proposed compact photonic sensor will be well-suited for rapid point-of-care COVID testing.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ligands , Butyric Acid , COVID-19 Testing , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G , Succinimides , Pyrenes , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Esters , Phosphates
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081983

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus that has caused a 'coronavirus disease 2019' (COVID-19) pandemic in multiple waves, which threatens human health and public safety. During this pandemic, some patients with COVID-19 acquired secondary infections, such as mucormycosis, also known as black fungus disease. Mucormycosis is a serious, acute, and deadly fungal infection caused by Mucorales-related fungal species, and it spreads rapidly. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to avoid high mortality and morbidity rates. Major risk factors for this disease include uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression that can also facilitate increases in mucormycosis infections. The extensive use of steroids to prevent the worsening of COVID-19 can lead to black fungus infection. Generally, antifungal agents dedicated to medical applications must be biocompatible, non-toxic, easily soluble, efficient, and hypoallergenic. They should also provide long-term protection against fungal growth. COVID-19-related black fungus infection causes a severe increase in fatalities. Therefore, there is a strong need for the development of novel and efficient antimicrobial agents. Recently, nanoparticle-containing products available in the market have been used as antimicrobial agents to prevent bacterial growth, but little is known about their efficacy with respect to preventing fungal growth, especially black fungus. The present review focuses on the effect of various types of metal nanoparticles, specifically those containing silver, zinc oxide, gold, copper, titanium, magnetic, iron, and carbon, on the growth of various types of fungi. We particularly focused on how these nanoparticles can impact the growth of black fungus. We also discussed black fungus co-infection in the context of the global COVID-19 outbreak, and management and guidelines to help control COVID-19-associated black fungus infection. Finally, this review aimed to elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Copper/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Iron/pharmacology , Gold/pharmacology , Carbon/pharmacology
16.
Anal Chem ; 94(43): 15155-15161, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076960

ABSTRACT

Large-scale, rapid, and inexpensive serological diagnoses of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of great interest in reducing virus transmission at the population level; however, their development is greatly plagued by the lack of available point-of-care methods, leading to low detection efficiency. Herein, an ultrasensitive smartphone-based electrochemical immunoassay is reported for rapid (less than 5 min), low-cost, easy-to-implement detection of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (SARS-CoV-2 N protein). Specifically, the electrochemical immunoassay was fabricated on a screen-printed carbon electrode coated with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles, followed by incubation of anti-N antibody (Ab) and bovine serum albumin as the working electrode. Accompanied by the antigen-antibody reaction between the SARS-CoV-2 N protein and the Ab, the electron transfer between the electroactive species [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- and the electrode surface is disturbed, resulting in reduced square-wave voltammetry currents at 0.075 V versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The proposed immunoassay provided a good linear range with SARS-CoV-2 N protein concentrations within the scope of 0.01-1000 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9992) and the limit of detection down to 2.6 pg/mL. Moreover, the detection data are wirelessly transmitted to the interface of the smartphone, and the corresponding SARS-CoV-2 N protein concentration value is calculated and displayed. Therefore, the proposed portable detection mode offers great potential for self-differential diagnosis of residents, which will greatly facilitate the effective control and large-scale screening of virus transmission in resource-limited areas.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Gold , Point-of-Care Systems , Smartphone , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5808-5826, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075068

ABSTRACT

Rapid detection of antibodies during infection and after vaccination is critical for the control of infectious outbreaks, understanding immune response, and evaluating vaccine efficacy. In this manuscript, we evaluate a simple ultrarapid test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19 patients, which gives quantitative results (i.e., antibody concentration) in 10-12 s using a previously reported nanomaterial-based three-dimensional (3D)-printed biosensing platform. This platform consists of a micropillar array electrode fabricated via 3D printing of aerosolized gold nanoparticles and coated with nanoflakes of graphene and specific SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including spike S1, S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N). The sensor works on the principle of electrochemical transduction, where the change of sensor impedance is realized by the interactions between the viral proteins attached to the sensor electrode surface and the antibodies. The three sensors were used to test samples from 17 COVID-19 patients and 3 patients without COVID-19. Unlike other serological tests, the 3D sensors quantitatively detected antibodies at a concentration as low as picomole within 10-12 s in human plasma samples. We found that the studied COVID-19 patients had higher concentrations of antibodies to spike proteins (RBD and S1) than to the N protein. These results demonstrate the enormous potential of the rapid antibody test platform for understanding patients' immunity, disease epidemiology and vaccine efficacy, and facilitating the control and prevention of infectious epidemics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Metal Nanoparticles , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071230

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic, and the spike protein has been reported to be an important drug target for anti-COVID-19 treatment. As such, in this study, we successfully developed a novel electrochemical receptor biosensor by immobilizing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and using AuNPs-HRP as an electrochemical signal amplification system. Moreover, the time-current method was used to quantify seven antiviral drug compounds, such as arbidol and chloroquine diphosphate. The results show that the spike protein and the drugs are linearly correlated within a certain concentration range and that the detection sensitivity of the sensor is extremely high. In the low concentration range of linear response, the kinetics of receptor-ligand interactions are similar to that of an enzymatic reaction. Among the investigated drug molecules, bromhexine exhibits the smallest Ka value, and thus, is most sensitively detected by the sensor. Hydroxychloroquine exhibits the largest Ka value. Molecular docking simulations of the spike protein with six small-molecule drugs show that residues of this protein, such as Asp, Trp, Asn, and Gln, form hydrogen bonds with the -OH or -NH2 groups on the branched chains of small-molecule drugs. The electrochemical receptor biosensor can directly quantify the interaction between the spike protein and drugs such as abidor and hydroxychloroquine and perform kinetic studies with a limit of detection 3.3 × 10-20 mol/L, which provides a new research method and idea for receptor-ligand interactions and pharmacodynamic evaluation.


Subject(s)
Bromhexine , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Kinetics , Ligands , Gold , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
19.
Analyst ; 147(22): 5028-5037, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069895

ABSTRACT

The continued uncertainty of emerging infectious viral diseases has led to an extraordinary urgency to develop advanced molecular diagnostic tests that are faster, more reliable, simpler to use, and readily available than traditional methods. This study presents a system that can accurately and rapidly trace viral nucleic acids by employing flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1)-assisted specific DNA cleavage reactions and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based analysis. The designed Raman tag-labeled 5'- and 3'-flap provider DNA yielded structurally defined DNA substrates on magnetic nanoparticle surfaces when a target was present. The FEN1 enzyme subsequently processes the substrates formed via an invasive cleavage reaction, producing 5'-flap DNA products. Magnetic separation allows efficient purification of flap products from reaction mixtures. The isolated solution was directly applied onto high aspect-ratio plasmonic silver nanopillars serving as SERS-active substrates to induce amplified SERS signals. We verified the developed SERS-based sensing system using a synthetic target complementary to an avian influenza A (H9N2) virus gene and examined the detection performance of the system using complementary DNA (cDNA) derived from H9N2 viral RNA. As a result, we could detect a synthetic target with a detection limit of 41.1 fM with a single base-pair discrimination ability and achieved multiplexed detection capability for two targets. Using cDNA samples from H9N2 viruses, we observed a high concordance of R2 = 0.917 between the data obtained from SERS and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We anticipate that this enzyme-assisted SERS sensor may provide insights into the development of high-performance molecular diagnostic tools that can respond rapidly to viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Animals , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Gold/chemistry , Flap Endonucleases , DNA, Complementary , DNA/analysis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry
20.
Opt Express ; 30(12): 22233-22246, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065093

ABSTRACT

We propose a measurement method for sensitive and label-free detections of virus-like particles (VLPs) using color images of nanoplasmonic sensing chips. The nanoplasmonic chip consists of 5×5 gold nanoslit arrays and the gold surface is modified with specific antibodies for spike protein. The resonant wavelength of the 430-nm-period gold nanoslit arrays underwater environment is about 570 nm which falls between the green and red bands of the color CCD. The captured VLPs by the specific antibodies shift the plasmonic resonance of the gold nanoslits. It results in an increased brightness of green pixels and decreased brightness of red pixels. The image contrast signals of (green - red) / (red + green) show good linearity with the surface particle density. The experimental tests show the image contrast method can detect 100-nm polystyrene particles with a surface density smaller than 2 particles/µm2. We demonstrate the application for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 VLPs using a simple scanner platform. A detection limit smaller than 1 pg/mL with a detection time less than 30 minutes can be achieved.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Antibodies , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , Polystyrenes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
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