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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 6, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) immunoassays for biomolecule sensing, which is primarily based on two conventional methods: absorption spectra analysis and colorimetry. The low figure of merit (FoM) of the LSPR and high-concentration AuNP requirement restrict their limit of detection (LOD), which is approximately ng to µg mL-1 in antibody detection if there is no other signal or analyte amplification. Improvements in sensitivity have been slow in recent for a long time, and pushing the boundary of the current LOD is a great challenge of current LSPR immunoassays in biosensing. RESULTS: In this work, we developed spectral image contrast-based flow digital nanoplasmon-metry (Flow DiNM) to push the LOD boundary. Comparing the scattering image brightness of AuNPs in two neighboring wavelength bands near the LSPR peak, the peak shift signal is strongly amplified and quickly detected. Introducing digital analysis, the Flow DiNM provides an ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio and has a lower sample volume requirement. Compared to the conventional analog LSPR immunoassay, Flow DiNM for anti-BSA detection in pure samples has an LOD as low as 1 pg mL-1 within only a 15-min detection time and 500 µL sample volume. Antibody assays against spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in artificial saliva that contained various proteins were also conducted to validate the detection of Flow DiNM in complicated samples. Flow DiNM shows significant discrimination in detection with an LOD of 10 pg mL-1 and a broad dynamic detection range of five orders of magnitude. CONCLUSION: Together with the quick readout time and simple operation, this work clearly demonstrated the high sensitivity and selectivity of the developed Flow DiNM in rapid antibody detection. Spectral image contrast and digital analysis further provide a new generation of LSPR immunoassay with AuNPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surface Plasmon Resonance/instrumentation
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 200: 113900, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588212

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the major shortcoming of healthcare systems globally in their inability to diagnose the disease rapidly and accurately. At present, the molecular approaches for diagnosing COVID-19 primarily use reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to create and amplify cDNA from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Although molecular tests are reported to be specific, false negatives are quite common. Furthermore, literally all these tests require a step involving RNA isolation which does not make them point-of-care (POC) in the true sense. Here, we report a lateral flow strip-based RNA extraction and amplification-free nucleic acid test (NAT) for rapid diagnosis of positive COVID-19 cases at POC. The assay uses highly specific 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) and biotin labeled antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) as probes those are designed to target N-gene sequence of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we utilized cysteamine capped gold-nanoparticles (Cyst-AuNPs) to augment the signal further for enhanced sensitivity. Without any large-stationary equipment and highly trained staffers, the entire sample-to-answer approach in our case would take less than 30 min from a patient swab sample collection to final diagnostic result. Moreover, when evaluated with 60 clinical samples and verified with an FDA-approved TaqPath RT-PCR kit for COVID-19 diagnosis, the assay obtained almost 99.99% accuracy and specificity. We anticipate that the newly established low-cost amplification-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA will aid in the development of a platform technology for rapid and POC diagnosis of COVID-19 and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Testing , Gold , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 200: 113922, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588209

ABSTRACT

Fast, affordable, portable, and sensitive technology to detect COVID-19 is critical to address the current outbreak. Here, we present a CRISPR/Cas12a-derived electrochemical aptasensor for cost-effective, fast, and ultrasensitive COVID-19 nucleocapsid protein (Np) detection. First, an electrochemical sensing interface was fabricated by immobilizing methylene blue labeled poly adenines DNA sequence (polyA-MB electrochemical reporter) on a gold electrode surface. Second, an arched probe was prepared via hybridization of Np aptamer and an activator strand. In the presence of COVID-19 Np, the activator strand could be released from the arched probe due to the specific interaction between the target and the aptamer, which then activated the trans-cleavage activity of the CRISPR/Cas12a system. Subsequently, the polyA-MB reporters were cleaved from the electrode surface, decreasing the current of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a potential of -0.27 V(vs. Ag/AgCl). The CRISPR/Cas12a-derived electrochemical aptasensor shows a highly efficient performance for COVID-19 Np detection in 50 pg mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 with a limit of detection (LOD) low to 16.5 pg mL-1. Notably, the whole process of one test can be completed within 30 min. Simultaneously, the aptasensor displays a high selectivity to other proteins. The further measurements demonstrate that the aptasensor is robust in a natural system for point-of-care testing, such as in tap water, milk, or serum. The aptasensor is universal and expandable and holds great potential in the COVID-19 early diagnosis, environmental surveillance, food security, and other aspects.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Gold , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 199: 113868, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561218

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination efficacy depends on serum levels of the neutralizing antibodies (NAs) specific to the receptor-binding domain of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Therefore, a high-throughput rapid assay capable of measuring the total SARS-CoV-2 NA level is urgently needed for COVID-19 serodiagnosis, convalescent plasma therapy, vaccine development, and assessment. Here, we developed a novel nanoplasmonic immunosorbent assay (NanoPISA) platform for one-step rapid quantification of SARS-CoV-2 NAs in clinical serum samples for high-throughput evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. The NanoPISA platform enhanced by the use of nanoporous hollow gold nanoparticle coupling was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 NAs with a limit of detection of 0.2 pM within 15 min without washing steps. The one-step NanoPISA for SARS-CoV-2 NA detection in clinical specimens yielded good results, comparable with those obtained in the gold-standard seroneutralization test and the surrogate virus-neutralizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Collectively, the one-step NanoPISA might be a rapid and high-throughput NA-quantification platform for evaluating the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Gold , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 197: 113735, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544823

ABSTRACT

In an aim of developing portable biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which facilitates the point-of-care aptasensing, a strategy using 10 µm gap-sized gold interdigitated electrode (AuIDE) is presented. The silane-modified AuIDE surface was deposited with ∼20 nm diamond and enhanced the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NCP). The characteristics of chemically modified diamond were evidenced by structural analyses, revealing the cubic crystalline nature at (220) and (111) planes as observed by XRD. XPS analysis denotes a strong interaction of carbon element, composed ∼95% as seen in EDS analysis. The C-C, CC, CO, CN functional groups were well-refuted from XPS spectra of carbon and oxygen elements in diamond. The interrelation between elements through FTIR analysis indicates major intrinsic bondings at 2687-2031 cm-1. The aptasensing was evaluated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, using NCP spiked human serum. With a good selectivity the lower detection limit was evidenced as 0.389 fM, at a linear detection range from 1 fM to 100 pM. The stability, and reusability of the aptasensor were demonstrated, showing ∼30% and ∼33% loss of active state, respectively, after ∼11 days. The detection of NCP was evaluated by comparing anti-NCP aptamer and antibody as the bioprobes. The determination coefficients of R2 = 0.9759 and R2 = 0.9772 were obtained for aptamer- and antibody-based sensing, respectively. Moreover, the genuine interaction of NCP aptamer and protein was validated by enzyme linked apta-sorbent assay. The aptasensing strategy proposed with AuIDE/diamond enhanced sensing platform is highly recommended for early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Nanodiamonds , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Gold , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 127923, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536650

ABSTRACT

The metallopeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the SARS-CoV-2 receptor required for viral entry based on its specific recognition of the spike protein receptor binding domain (S_RBD) on SARS-CoV-2. We constructed a human ACE2 (hACE2)-based peptide pair by ligating discontinuous key residues involved in the hACE2-S_RBD interaction. We firstly performed in silico simulations to identify a 12-mer and 15-mer peptide pair with capability to bind to the SARS-CoV-2 S_RBD via different binding sites. Then, the bio-layer interferometry validated the specific interactions between the peptides and S_RBD, with affinities at the nanomolar level. Lastly, we developed a colorimetric sandwich-type bioassay based on S_RBD-specific peptide-modified gold nanoparticles and found the colorimetric bioassay offered fast (<30 min), simple, and sensitive detection of S_RBD protein at levels as low as 0.01 nM (0.26 ng mL-1) in SARS-CoV-2. The linear signals ranging from 105 to 107 virus copies mL-1 were achieved in typical types of environmental waters spiked with lysed SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. The technology can serve as a beneficial supplement to the routine virus nucleic acid detection in environment media and wastewater treatment.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry , Metal Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biological Assay , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , Peptides , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512276

ABSTRACT

Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs) labour under archaic working conditions and are exposed to high levels of silica dust. Exposure to silica dust has been associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and silicosis. ASMs are highly mobile and operate in remote areas with near absent access to health services. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis, silicosis and silico-tuberculosis among ASMs in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 October to 31 January 2021 on a convenient sample of 514 self-selected ASMs. We report the results from among those ASMs who attended an outreach medical facility and an occupational health clinic. Data were collected from clinical records using a precoded data proforma. Data variables included demographic (age, sex), clinical details (HIV status, GeneXpert results, outcomes of chest radiographs, history of tuberculosis) and perceived exposure to mine dust. Of the 464 miners screened for silicosis, 52 (11.2%) were diagnosed with silicosis, while 17 (4.0%) of 422 ASMs were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). Of the 373 ASMs tested for HIV, 90 (23.5%) were sero-positive. An HIV infection was associated with a diagnosis of silicosis. There is need for a comprehensive occupational health service package, including TB and silicosis surveillance, for ASMs in Zimbabwe. These are preliminary and limited findings, needing confirmation by more comprehensive studies.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Occupational Health , Silicosis , Tuberculosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gold , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Silicosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/etiology , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1188: 339207, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487555

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also known as 2019-nCov or COVID-19) outbreak has become a huge public health issue due to its rapid transmission making it a global pandemic. Here, we report fabricated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) complex coupled with in-house developed SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 antibody (SARS-CoV-2 Ab) to measure the response with Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). The biophysical characterisation of FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab was done via UV-Visible spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The fabricated FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab immunosensor was optimised for response time, antibody concentration, temperature, and pH. Under optimum conditions, the FTO/AuNPs/Ab based immunosensor displayed high sensitivity with limit of detection (LOD) up to 0.63 fM in standard buffer and 120 fM in spiked saliva samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 antigen (Ag) with negligible cross reactivity Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) spike protein. The proposed FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab based biosensor proved to be stable for up to 4 weeks and can be used as an alternative non-invasive diagnostic tool for the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Ag traces in clinical samples.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Electrodes , Fluorine , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tin Compounds
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 197: 113736, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487615

ABSTRACT

The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method has been adopted worldwide to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although this method has good sensitivity and specificity, there is a need to develop a more rapid diagnostic technology, given the virus's rapid spread. However, the RT-PCR method takes a long time to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 because of the required thermocycling steps. Therefore, we developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-PCR detection method using an AuNP-internalized Au nanodimple substrate (AuNDS) to shorten the diagnosis time by reducing the number of thermocycling steps needed to amplify the DNA. For the representative target markers, namely, the envelope protein (E) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes of SARS-CoV-2, 25 RT-PCR thermocycles are required to reach a detectable threshold value, while 15 cycles are needed for magnetic bead-based SERS-PCR when the initial DNA concentration was 1.00× 105 copies/µL. However, only 8 cycles are needed for the AuNDS-based SERS-PCR. The corresponding detectable target DNA concentrations were 3.36 × 1012, 3.28 × 109, and 2.56 × 107 copies/µL, respectively. Therefore, AuNDS-based SERS-PCR is seen as being a new molecular diagnostic platform that can shorten the time required for the thermocycling steps relative to the conventional RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2673-2676, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486742

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 caused by the Gamma variant of concern infected 24/44 (55%) employees of a gold mine in French Guiana (87% symptomatic, no severe forms). The attack rate was 60% (15/25) among fully vaccinated miners and 75% (3/4) among unvaccinated miners without a history of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , French Guiana/epidemiology , Gold , Humans
11.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 40(5): 210-218, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483363

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibits a strong human-to-human transmission infectivity and could cause acute respiratory infections. Therefore, simple and rapid serological testing is urgently needed to recognize positive cases. In this study, a point-of-care serological test based on lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed and its application for the simultaneous detection of IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated. The recombinant SARS-CoV-2 antigens were conjugated to the produced colloidal gold nanoparticles and used as the detection reagent. This test required only 10-15 minutes to achieve simultaneous qualitative detection of IgM/IgG antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 in 20 µL of serum or plasma samples. The clinical performance and reliability of the assay were evaluated by performing the test with 60 samples and comparing the results of these tests with those obtained via real-time polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivity and specificity of our assay were defined to be 90% and 96.6%, respectively. The presented LFIA was sufficiently sensitive and accurate to be used for the rapid diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 in laboratories or in patient care settings, particularly in emergency conditions, in which many samples require to be evaluated on time.


Subject(s)
Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Colloids/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Reagent Strips , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 196: 113729, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482463

ABSTRACT

Herein, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based electrochemical sensor for the determination of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2-RBD) has been developed. For this purpose, first, a macroporous gold screen-printed electrode (MP-Au-SPE) has been fabricated. The MIP was then synthesized on the surface of the MP-Au-SPE through the electro-polymerization of ortho-phenylenediamine in the presence of SARS-CoV-2-RBD molecules as matrix polymer, and template molecules, respectively. During the fabrication process, the SARS-CoV-2-RBD molecules were embedded in the polymer matrix. Subsequently, the template molecules were removed from the electrode by using alkaline ethanol. The template molecules removal was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR). The fabricated MIP film acted as an artificial recognition element for the measurement of SARS-CoV-2-RBD. The EIS technique was used for the measurement of the SARS-CoV-2-RBD in the saliva solution. The electron transfer resistance (Ret) of the MIP-based sensor in a ferri/ferrocyanide solution increased as the SARS-CoV-2-RBD concentration increased due to the occupation of the imprinted cavities by the SARS-CoV-2-RBD. The MIP-based sensor exhibited a good response to the SARS-CoV-2-RBD in the concentration range between 2.0 and 40.0 pg mL-1 with a limit of detection of 0.7 pg mL-1. The obtained results showed that the fabricated MIP sensor has high selectivity sensitivity, and stability.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Molecular Imprinting , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Gold , Humans , Limit of Detection , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480780

ABSTRACT

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has a known negative effect on the community's health; therefore, assessment to monitor community health is essential to detect any issues and enable early treatment. Because ASGM-related health issues are complex and cannot be addressed effectively with a traditional one-time health assessment alone, both long-term and regular health assessments using a transdisciplinary approach should be considered. In response to this need, we designed an online health assessment tool as a reference for a future long-term health assessment system. An online video interview was conducted with 54 respondents living in the ASGM area of Chaung Gyi Village, Thabeikkyin Township, Mandalay Region, Myanmar, via a social networking service application. The tool was used to evaluate community health during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic, including mercury intoxication symptoms, mining-related diseases, and other diseases. Results show that persons working in mining versus non-mining occupations had a greater prevalence of pulmonary diseases, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, silicosis, and bronchial asthma, in addition to malaria. Based on these findings, online health assessment using a transdisciplinary approach can be recommended as an effective tool for sustainable and long-term health assessment of ASGM-related disease and should be performed regularly following physical health surveys.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gold , Humans , Mining , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(42): 49754-49761, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475248

ABSTRACT

A reliable and sensitive detection approach for SARS-CoV 2 is essential for timely infection diagnosis and transmission prevention. Here, a two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF)-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor with high sensitivity and stability for SARS-CoV 2 spike glycoprotein (S protein) detection was developed. The PEC aptasensor was constructed by a plasmon-enhanced photoactive material (namely, Au NPs/Yb-TCPP) with a specific DNA aptamer against S protein. The Au NPs/Yb-TCPP fabricated by in situ growth of Au NPs on the surface of 2D Yb-TCPP nanosheets showed a high electron-hole (e-h) separation efficiency due to the enhancement effect of plasmon, resulting in excellent photoelectric performance. The modified DNA aptamer on the surface of Au NPs/Yb-TCPP can bind with S protein with high selectivity, thus decreasing the photocurrent of the system due to the high steric hindrance and low conductivity of the S protein. The established PEC aptasensor demonstrated a highly sensitive detection for S protein with a linear response range of 0.5-8 µg/mL with a detection limit of 72 ng/mL. This work presented a promising way for the detection of SARS-CoV 2, which may conduce to the impetus of clinic diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Base Sequence , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Gold/radiation effects , Humans , Immobilized Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Light , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/radiation effects , Pharynx/virology , Photochemical Processes , Porphyrins/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Ytterbium/chemistry
15.
ACS Sens ; 6(10): 3696-3705, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461965

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, and future pandemics, require diagnostic tools to track disease spread and guide the isolation of (a)symptomatic individuals. Lateral-flow diagnostics (LFDs) are rapid and of lower cost than molecular (genetic) tests, with current LFDs using antibodies as their recognition units. Herein, we develop a prototype flow-through device (related, but distinct to LFDs), utilizing N-acetyl neuraminic acid-functionalized, polymer-coated, gold nanoparticles as the detection/capture unit for SARS-COV-2, by targeting the sialic acid-binding site of the spike protein. The prototype device can give rapid results, with higher viral loads being faster than lower viral loads. The prototype's effectiveness is demonstrated using spike protein, lentiviral models, and a panel of heat-inactivated primary patient nasal swabs. The device was also shown to retain detection capability toward recombinant spike proteins from several variants (mutants) of concern. This study provides the proof of principle that glyco-lateral-flow devices could be developed to be used in the tracking monitoring of infectious agents, to complement, or as alternatives to antibody-based systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold , Humans , Pandemics , Polysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Anal Chem ; 93(42): 14238-14246, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461947

ABSTRACT

Direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 in biological specimens is often challenging due to the low abundance of viral components and lack of enough sensitivity. Herein, we developed a new type of chemiluminescent functionalized magnetic nanomaterial for sensitive detection of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen. First, HAuCl4 was reduced by N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) in the presence of amino magnetic beads (MB-NH2) to generate ABEI-AuNPs, which were directly assembled on the surface of MB-NH2. Then, Co2+ was modified onto the surface to form MB@ABEI-Au/Co2+ (MAA/Co2+). MAA/Co2+ exhibited good chemiluminescence (CL) and magnetic properties. It was also found that it was easy for the antibody to be connected with MAA/Co2+. Accordingly, MAA/Co2+ was used as a sensing interface to construct a label-free immunoassay for rapid detection of the N protein in SARS-CoV-2. The immunoassay showed a linear range from 0.1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 69 fg/mL, which was superior to previously reported methods for N protein detection. It also demonstrated good selectivity by virtue of magnetic separation, which effectively removed a sample matrix after immunoreactions. It was successfully applied for the detection of the N protein in spiked human serum and saliva samples. Furthermore, the immunoassay was integrated with an automatic CL analyzer with magnetic separation to detect the N protein in patient serums and rehabilitation patient serums with satisfactory results. Thus, the CL immunoassay without a complicated labeling procedure is sensitive, selective, fast, simple, and cost-effective, which may be used to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the CL quenching mechanism of the N protein in the immunoassay was also explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay , Limit of Detection , Luminescence , Luminescent Measurements , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Talanta ; 236: 122841, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458899

ABSTRACT

A rapid detection test for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently required to monitor virus spread and containment. Here, we describe a test that uses nanoprobes, which are gold nanoparticles functionalized with an aptamer specific to the spike membrane protein of SARS-CoV-2. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirms aptamer binding with the spike protein on gold surfaces. Protein recognition occurs by adding a coagulant, where nanoprobes with no bound protein agglomerate while those with sufficient bound protein do not. Using plasmon absorbance spectra, the nanoprobes detect 16 nM and higher concentrations of spike protein in phosphate-buffered saline. The time-varying light absorbance is examined at 540 nm to determine the critical coagulant concentration required to agglomerates the nanoprobes, which depends on the protein concentration. This approach detects 3540 genome copies/µl of inactivated SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold , Humans , Oligonucleotides , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 301, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the past decades, different diseases and viruses, such as Ebola, MERS and COVID-19, impacted the human society and caused huge cost in different fields. With the increasing threat from the new or unknown diseases, the demand of rapid and sensitive assay method is more and more urgent. RESULTS: In this work, we developed a magneto-optical biochip based on the Cotton-Mouton effect of γ-Fe2O3@Au core/shell magnetic nanoparticles. We performed a proof-of-concept experiment for the detection of the spike glycoprotein S of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The assay was achieved by measuring the magneto-optical Cotton-Mouton effect of the biochip. This magneto-optical biochip can not only be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 but also can be easily modified for other diseases assay. CONCLUSION: The assay process is simple and the whole testing time takes only 50 min including 3 min for the CM rotation measurement. The detection limit of our method for the spike glycoprotein S of SARS-CoV-2 is estimated as low as 0.27 ng/mL (3.4 pM).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Ferric Compounds/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay , Limit of Detection , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1186: 339134, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446328

ABSTRACT

In recent years, single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) has become a powerful tool for biological quantitative analysis. Homogeneous analysis method requires no separation and washing steps, which is suited for the analysis of highly infectious pathogens, so as to reduce the risk of infection during the operation. SARS-CoV-2 spreads all over the world, and its early infection symptoms are similar to influenza, which brings inconvenience to triage. Therefore, developing novel analytical method for simultaneous detection of multiple viral nucleic acids is essential. Taking the advantages of SP-ICP-MS and homogeneous analysis strategy, a SP-ICP-MS homogeneous nucleic acid assay by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) probes was established for simultaneous sensitive analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A (H3N2). In the present of target SARS-CoV-2 or H3N2 nucleic acids, corresponding Au NPs or Ag NPs probes form larger aggregates, resulting in increased pulse signal intensity and reduced pulse signal frequency of the corresponding NPs in SP-ICP-MS measurement. In this assay, the reaction system of Au NPs and Ag NPs probes does not interfere with each other, and there was no separation and washing procedure, which facilitates operation, saves the analysis time, and improves the analysis efficiency. The linear range of this method is 5-1000 pmol L-1, with low-level limits of quantification of target nucleic acid. The developed SP-ICP-MS simultaneous homogeneous detection method has a good potential for detecting nucleic acid, protein, cell and other biological samples by changing different modification sequences on the NPs probes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Gold , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Mass Spectrometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 195: 113672, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439904

ABSTRACT

We present the first combination of a microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a gold nanoslit-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for detecting the DNA sequence of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). The PCR microchannel was produced through a laser scribing technique, and the SPR nanoslit chip was manufactured via hot-embossing nanoimprinting lithography. Afterward, the LMP1 DNA probe was adsorbed onto the SPR chip of the integrated device through electrostatic interactions for further detection. The device can complete the analytical procedure in around 36 min, while the traditional machine requires 105 min to achieve similar signals under the same PCR thermal cycles. The calibration curve with serially diluted LMP1 DNA exhibited the accuracy (R2 > 0.99) and sensitivity (limit of detection: ∼10-11 g/mL) of the device. Moreover, extracted DNA from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cells were directly detected through the integrated chip. In brief, this all-in-one chip can amplify gene fragments at the front-end and detect them at the back-end, decreasing the time required for the analysis without compromising accuracy or sensitivity. We believe this label-free, real-time, low-cost device has enormous potential for rapid detection of various viruses, such as EBV and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Gold , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Microfluidics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
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