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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 56, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled inflammation is a central problem for many respiratory diseases. The development of potent, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies to reduce lung inflammation and re-establish the homeostasis in the respiratory tract is still a challenge. Previously, we developed a unique anti-inflammatory nanodrug, P12 (made of hexapeptides and gold nanoparticles), which can attenuate Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages. However, the effect of the administration route on its therapeutic efficacy and tissue distribution remained to be defined. RESULTS: In this study, we systematically compared the effects of three different administration routes [the intratracheal (i.t.), intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.)] on the therapeutic activity, biodistribution and pulmonary cell targeting features of P12. Using the LPS-induced ALI mouse model, we found that the local administration route via i.t. instillation was superior in reducing lung inflammation than the other two routes even treated with a lower concentration of P12. Further studies on nanoparticle biodistribution showed that the i.t. administration led to more accumulation of P12 in the lungs but less in the liver and other organs; however, the i.v. and i.p. administration resulted in more nanoparticle accumulation in the liver and lymph nodes, respectively, but less in the lungs. Such a lung favorable distribution was also determined by the unique surface chemistry of P12. Furthermore, the inflammatory condition in the lung could decrease the accumulation of nanoparticles in the lung and liver, while increasing their distribution in the spleen and heart. Interestingly, the i.t. administration route helped the nanoparticles specifically target the lung macrophages, whereas the other two administration routes did not. CONCLUSION: The i.t. administration is better for treating ALI using nanodevices as it enhances the bioavailability and efficacy of the nanodrugs in the target cells of the lung and reduces the potential systematic side effects.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Gold/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/pathology , Tissue Distribution
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8692, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199310

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite, namely TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 inhibited six major clades of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and oseltamivir-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Gold/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Food Additives/pharmacology , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Particle Size , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
3.
Nanomedicine ; 34: 102372, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117330

ABSTRACT

The development of vaccines is a crucial response against the COVID-19 pandemic and innovative nanovaccines could increase the potential to address this remarkable challenge. In the present study a B cell epitope (S461-493) from the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was selected and its immunogenicity validated in sheep. This synthetic peptide was coupled to gold nanoparticles (AuNP) functionalized with SH-PEG-NH2 via glutaraldehyde-mediated coupling to obtain the AuNP-S461-493 candidate, which showed in s.c.-immunized mice a superior immunogenicity (IgG responses) when compared to soluble S461-493; and led to increased expression of relevant cytokines in splenocyte cultures. Interestingly, the response triggered by AuNP-S461-493 was similar in magnitude to that induced using a conventional strong adjuvant (Freund's adjuvant). This study provides a platform for the development of AuNP-based nanovaccines targeting specific SARS-CoV-2 epitopes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Gold , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Metal Nanoparticles , Peptides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/pharmacology , Gold/chemistry , Gold/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/pharmacology , Sheep , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology
4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(24): 10284-10289, 2020 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940876

ABSTRACT

In this research, through the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the ability of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized by different groups, such as 3-mercaptoethylsulfonate (Mes), undecanesulfonic acid (Mus), octanethiol (Ot), and a new peptide, to inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was investigated. According to the crystal structure of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which binds to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD), 15 amino acids of ACE2 have considerable interaction with RBD. Therefore, a new peptide based on these amino acids was designed as the functional group for AuNP. On the basis of the obtained results, functionalized AuNPs have remarkable effects on the RBD and strongly interact with this protein of SARS-CoV-2. Among the studied nanoparticles, the AuNP functionalized by new peptide forms a more stable complex with RBD in comparison with ACE2, which is the human receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Different analyses confirm that the designed AuNPs can be good candidates for antiviral agents against COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Models, Theoretical , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Gold/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding
5.
Bioconjug Chem ; 31(11): 2553-2563, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872629

ABSTRACT

As a large enveloped RNA virus, coronavirus is of considerable medical and veterinary significance, and anticoronavirus treatment is challenging due to its biodiversity and rapid variability. In this study, Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) were successfully synthesized by coating AuNRs with silver and were shown for the first time to have activity against the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Viral titer analysis demonstrated that Au@AgNRs could inhibit PEDV infection by 4 orders of magnitude at 12 h post-infection, which was verified by viral protein expression analysis. The potential mechanism of action showed that Au@AgNRs could inhibit the entry of PEDV and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that a large amount of virus proliferation can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species in cells, and the released Ag+ and exposed AuNRs by Au@AgNRs after the stimulation of reactive oxygen species has superior antiviral activity to ensure long-term inhibition of the PEDV replication cycle. The integrated results support that Au@AgNRs can serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the replication of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Gold/chemistry , Gold/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Silver/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gold/toxicity , Nanotubes/chemistry , Vero Cells
6.
Chemistry ; 26(66): 15140-15144, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754877

ABSTRACT

Gold complexes have a long tradition in medicine and for many examples antirheumatic, anticancer or anti-infective effects have been confirmed. Herein, we evaluated the lead compound Auranofin and five selected gold organometallics as inhibitors of two relevant drug targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV). The gold metallodrugs were effective inhibitors of the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor and might thus interfere with the viral entry process. The gold metallodrugs were also efficient inhibitors of the papain-like protease (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, which is a key enzyme in the viral replication. Regarding PLpro from SARS-CoV-2, the here reported inhibitors are among the very first experimentally confirmed examples with activity against this target enzyme. Importantly, the activity of the complexes against both PLpro enzymes correlated with the ability of the inhibitors to remove zinc ions from the labile zinc center of the enzyme. Taken together, the results of this pilot study suggest further evaluation of gold complexes as SARS-CoV antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Auranofin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Gold/chemistry , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Auranofin/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Gold/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Organometallic Compounds/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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