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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 519, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are two very important diseases. However, relevant researches about how COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on the epidemiological trend of STDs are limited in China. This study aimed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on STDs in China and proposed relevant recommendations to be used in bettering health. METHODS: The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in China from 2008 to 2020 were collected. Grey Model (1,1) were established to predict the incidence of STDs with the incidence data of these three STDs from 2013 to 2018 considering the impact of policies in China, respectively. We then calculated the predictive incidence of each STD in 2019, 2020 and 2021 by the established Model. And we estimated the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the epidemiological changes of STDs by analyzing the difference between the absolute percentage error (APE) of the predictive incidence and actual rate in 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The incidence of HIV infection and syphilis showed a trend of increase from 2008 to 2019 in China, but that for gonorrhea was fluctuant. Of note, the incidence of these three STDs decreased significantly in 2020 compared with that in 2019. The APE of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in 2020 (20.54%, 15.45% and 60.88%) were about 7 times, 4 times and 2 times of that in 2019 (2.94%, 4.07% and 30.41%). The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea would be 5.77/100,000, 39.64/100,000 and 13.19/100,000 in 2021 based on our model. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological trend of STDs in China was significant influenced by COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to balance the control of COVID-19 and timely management of STDs during the COVID-19 epidemic to prevent or reduce the poor outcome among COVID-19 patients with STDs. New management strategies on STDs, such as leveraging social media, online medical care, rapid self-testing, timely diagnosis and treatment guarantee and balance of medical resources for STDs management should be adapted in the context of the long-term effects of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control
2.
AIDS ; 36(6): 829-838, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831560

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemics on the prevention and care for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections at a major reference centre providing preventive and clinical services in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN: We retrospectively compared anonymized clinical and laboratory data from March to December 2020 vs. 2019. METHODS: Monthly clinical data on HIV preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis users and on adults with HIV infection were retrieved from the administrative hospital database. Monthly tests for HIV, hepatitis B and C, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae,and Chlamydia trachomatis, and plasma lipids and glucose were recovered from the laboratory database. RESULTS: There were less (↓28%, P  = 0.003) but more advanced (mean CD4+ cells/µl 305 vs. 370, P  < 0.001) HIV infections and more gonorrhoea (↑39%, P  < 0.001) and chlamydia (↑37%, P  < 0.001) infections in 2020 vs. 2019. In people with HIV, rates of HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml remained stable (11 vs. 11%, P  = 0.147) despite less scheduled visits (↓25%, P  < 0.001). However, they had less antiretroviral prescription changes (↓10%, P  = 0.018), worse plasma lipids [mean total cholesterol 190 vs. 185 mg/dl, P  < 0.001;mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 114 vs. 110 mg/dl, P  < 0.001; mean triglycerides 136 vs. 125 mg/dl, P  < 0.001; mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol 47 vs. 48 mg/dl, P  = 006], and an excess of mortality (↑264%, P  = 0.006) due in great part not only to COVID-19 but also to other causes. CONCLUSION: In our setting, COVID-19 epidemics was associated with an increase in some prevalent sexually transmitted infections, with less but more advanced HIV infections, and with worse nonvirologic healthcare outcomes and higher mortality in people living with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Epidemics , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Cholesterol , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Lipids , Retrospective Studies , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
3.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(7): 490-496, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, disruptions were anticipated in the US health care system for routine preventive and other nonemergency care, including sexually transmitted infection care. METHODS: Using a large national laboratory data set, we assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the weekly numbers and percent positivity of chlamydia and gonorrhea tests ordered from the 5th week of 2019 to the 52nd week of 2020 in the United States. We compared weekly 2020 values for test volume, percent positive, and number of positives with the same week in 2019. We also examined the potential impact of stay-at-home orders for the month of April 2020. RESULTS: Immediately after the declaration of a national emergency for COVID-19 (week 11, 2020), the weekly number of gonorrhea and chlamydia tests steeply decreased. Tests then rebounded toward the 2019 pre-COVID-19 level beginning the 15th week of 2020. The weekly percent positive of chlamydia and gonorrhea remained consistently higher in 2020. In April 2020, the overall number of chlamydia tests was reduced by 53.0% (54.1% in states with stay-at-home orders vs. 45.5% in states without stay-at-home orders), whereas the percent positive of chlamydia and gonorrhea tests increased by 23.5% and 79.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To limit the impact of the pandemic on control of chlamydia and gonorrhea, public health officials and health care providers can assess measures put in place during the pandemic and develop new interventions to enable care for sexually transmitted infections to be delivered under pandemic and other emergency conditions. The assessment like this study is continuously needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/prevention & control , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052823, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its antimicrobial resistance is increasing in many countries. Antibacterial mouthwash may reduce gonorrhoea transmission without using antibiotics. We modelled the effect that antiseptic mouthwash may have on the incidence of gonorrhoea. DESIGN: We developed a mathematical model of the transmission of gonorrhoea between each anatomical site (oropharynx, urethra and anorectum) in men who have sex with men (MSM). We constructed four scenarios: (1) mouthwash had no effect; (2) mouthwash increased the susceptibility of the oropharynx; (3) mouthwash reduced the transmissibility from the oropharynx; (4) the combined effect of mouthwash from scenarios 2 and 3. SETTING: We used data at three anatomical sites from 4873 MSM attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2018 and 2019 to calibrate our models and data from the USA, Netherlands and Thailand for sensitivity analyses. PARTICIPANTS: Published available data on MSM with multisite infections of gonorrhoea. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of gonorrhoea. RESULTS: The overall incidence of gonorrhoea was 44 (95% CI 37 to 50)/100 person-years (PY) in scenario 1. Under scenario 2 (20%-80% mouthwash coverage), the total incidence increased (47-60/100 PY) and at all three anatomical sites by between 7.4% (5.9%-60.8%) and 136.6% (108.1%-177.5%). Under scenario 3, with the same coverage, the total incidence decreased (20-39/100 PY) and at all anatomical sites by between 11.6% (10.2%-13.5%) and 99.8% (99.2%-100%). Under scenario 4, changes in the incidence depended on the efficacy of mouthwash on the susceptibility or transmissibility. The effect on the total incidence varied (22-55/100 PY), and at all anatomical sites, there were increases of nearly 130% and large declines of almost 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mouthwash on gonorrhoea incidence is largely predictable depending on whether it increases susceptibility to or reduces the transmissibility of gonorrhoea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Gonorrhea , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Incidence , Male , Models, Theoretical , Mouthwashes , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
6.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(11): 998-1003, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259120

ABSTRACT

Background: During the first two waves of COVID-19, several physical restriction measurements were imposed in Belgium. Our aim was to explore the impact of these restriction measures on the number of tests and positivity rate of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) before, during, and after the two lockdowns in Belgium. Methods: Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae molecular data of a Belgian STI clinic were extracted for 2019 and 2020, and both years were divided into four periods (pre-lockdown 1, lockdown 1, after lockdown 1, and lockdown 2). Weekly testing rates and positivity rate for both STIs were estimated, and mixed-effects logistic regression was used to explore statistical significant changes between both years, and the different periods were compared with the corresponding time period in 2019. The same analysis was done for pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) users only. Results: No overall significant changes in positivity rate were found for either CT (8.0% in 2019 and 7.8% in 2020) or NG (4.5% in 2019 and 5.5% in 2020). Besides a significant drop in the number of CT/NG tests during lockdown 1 (decrease of 87%) and a subsequent increase in NG positivity rate (p > 0.05), no changes in CT/NG positivity rate were found in the other periods. The highest positivity rate for either CT or NG was found in lockdown 2 (15.1% vs 12.4% in 2019). The number of CT/NG tests in lockdown 2 was still 25% lower than 2019 levels. Subanalysis of only PrEP users revealed the same trend; however, the number of CT/NG tests in lockdown 2 was exactly the same as in 2019. Conclusion: Despite a significant decline in absolute CT or NG cases in lockdown 1, which was most likely a consequence of both physical distancing and reduced testing, CT/NG testing and positivity rates returned to pre-corona levels in lockdown 2, which may depict physical distancing fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Belgium/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/prevention & control , Chlamydia trachomatis , Communicable Disease Control , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Humans , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
7.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(8): 606-613, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As public health personnel and resources are redirected to COVID-19, sexually transmitted diseases (STD) programs have been unable to sustain pre-COVID-19 activities. METHODS: We used California (CA) surveillance data to describe trends in case reporting for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis of any stage in the pre- versus post-COVID-19 eras (January-June 2019 and January-June 2020). We also analyzed data from an electronic survey administered by the CA STD Control Branch to local health jurisdictions in April, June, and September of 2020, assessing the impact of COVID-19 on STD programs. RESULTS: There were sharp declines in cases of all reportable bacterial STDs occurring in conjunction with the March 19, 2020 CA stay-at-home order, most of which did not return to baseline by July. Comparing January-June 2020 to January-June of 2019, there were decreases in reported cases of chlamydia (31%), late syphilis (19%), primary/secondary syphilis (15%), early nonprimary nonsecondary syphilis (14%), and gonorrhea (13%). The largest percentage declines in STD case reporting were among Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Black persons. Seventy-eight percent of local health jurisdiction respondents indicated that half or more of their workforce had been redeployed to COVID-19 by September 2020. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 era, STD case reporting and programmatic functions have diminished throughout CA. Because this may contribute to decreases or delays in STD diagnosis and treatment-with resultant increases in STD transmission-providers and public health officials should prepare for potential increases in STD-related morbidity in the months and years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , California/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
8.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(1): e11-e14, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060814

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital provided HIV prevention patients with gonorrhea/chlamydia testing kits at home. This report describes the program implementation to provide other sexual health clinics with a roadmap in adapting to a "new normal" in providing comprehensive sexual health care virtually to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Self-Testing , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/prevention & control , Female , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/transmission , Specimen Handling , Young Adult
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