Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22.486
Filter
1.
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2023-01-12. (OPS/NMH/MH/22-0039).
in French | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-56999

ABSTRACT

La mise en œuvre du contrôle de la commercialisation de l'alcool relève au moins en partie du secteur de la santé, mais elle doit être mise en œuvre afin de réduire l'abordabilité de l'alcool, entraînant un retard dans l'initiation des jeunes à la consommation d'alcool, un retard dans leur escalade vers des occasions de consommation excessive d'alcool, et une réduction de l'attrait pour la consommation d'alcool chez les gros buveurs et ceux qui ont choisi de s'abstenir. Les mesures d'autorégulation existantes sont insuffisantes et n'ont entraîné aucune réduction de la consommation d'alcool. Il est important d'accroître la compréhension du public et des décideurs politiques de la nécessité du contrôle du marketing, de sa valeur, afin que les lois connexes puissent être soutenues, adoptées et appliquées dans tous les pays. L'interdiction ou la réglementation de la commercialisation de l'alcool est l'une des principales politiques en matière d'alcool disponibles pour réduire l'usage nocif de l'alcool. Cette fiche d'information décrit les nombreuses formes de marketing de l'alcool, comment elles affectent la consommation et la consommation excessive, comment elles peuvent être efficacement réglementées et appliquées, et pourquoi elles doivent être mises en œuvre.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages , Alcohol Drinking , Marketing , Propaganda , Government Regulation
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2023-01-12. (OPS/NMH/MH/22-0039).
in Spanish | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-56998

ABSTRACT

La implementación del control de la comercialización del alcohol cae, al menos en parte, fuera del sector de la salud, pero debe implementarse para reducir la asequibilidad del alcohol, lo que lleva a un retraso en la iniciación de los jóvenes al consumo de alcohol, un retraso en su escalada a ocasiones de consumo excesivo de alcohol y una reducción en el atractivo de beber por parte de los bebedores empedernidos y aquellos que optaron por abstenerse. Las medidas de autorregulación existentes son insuficientes y no han conducido a ninguna reducción en el consumo de alcohol. Es importante aumentar la comprensión del público y de los encargados de formular políticas sobre la necesidad del control de la comercialización, su valor, para que las leyes relacionadas puedan apoyarse, adoptarse y aplicarse en todos los países. Prohibir o regular la comercialización del alcohol es una de las políticas clave sobre el alcohol disponibles para reducir el uso nocivo del alcohol. Esta hoja informativa describe las muchas formas de mercadeo del alcohol, cómo afectan el consumo y el consumo excesivo, cómo se pueden regular y hacer cumplir de manera efectiva y por qué es necesario implementarlas.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Marketing , Propaganda , Government Regulation
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2023-01-12. (OPAS/NMH/MH/22-0039).
in Portuguese | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-56997

ABSTRACT

A implementação do controle de marketing de álcool cai, pelo menos em parte, fora do setor de saúde. Sua implementação é importante, no entanto, para reduzir a acessibilidade do álcool, levando a um atraso na iniciação do consumo de álcool pelos jovens, atraso em sua escalada para ocasiões de consumo pesado e uma redução no apelo à bebida por bebedores pesados ​​e aqueles que optaram por se abster. As medidas de autorregulação existentes são insuficientes e não conduziram a qualquer redução do consumo de álcool. É importante aumentar a compreensão do público e dos formuladores de políticas sobre a necessidade de controle de marketing, seu valor, para que as leis relacionadas possam ser apoiadas, adotadas e aplicadas em todos os países. Proibir ou regulamentar o marketing de álcool é uma das principais políticas de álcool disponíveis para reduzir o uso nocivo de álcool. Esta ficha informativa descreve as várias formas de marketing de álcool, como elas afetam o consumo e o consumo pesado, como podem ser regulamentadas e aplicadas com eficácia e por que precisam ser implementadas.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Marketing , Government Regulation , Propaganda
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36612826

ABSTRACT

To clarify the factors influencing the green production behavior of peach farmers, this paper uses the survey data of 741 peach farmers in 19 provinces and cities in China, it uses a multiple ordered probit model to empirically analyze the impact of the government regulations on the green production behavior of peach farmers, from the perspective of the market structure. This paper also analyzes its intermediary role in this process, and it analyzes the possible heterogeneity at both the planting scale and the regional level. The results show the following: (1) Government regulation has a positive and significant impact on the green production behavior of peach farmers. Specifically, government supervision and inspection, alongside green subsidies, can positively promote the implementation of green production behavior by peach farmers, but government publicity and training have not played a good role. (2) The market structure plays a partial intermediary role, rather than a complete intermediary role, in the government regulation affecting the green production behavior of peach farmers. (3) The impact of the government regulation on the green production behavior of peach farmers is heterogeneous. Specifically, compared with small farmers, the impact on large-scale farmers is higher; however, the influence of the three methods of government regulation on the green production behavior of peach farmers varies from region to region. Therefore, in order to promote the implementation of green production, the government should introduce appropriate local policies, strongly support new agricultural business entities, draw clear guidelines for the market, and play the role of "night watchman".


Subject(s)
Farmers , Government Regulation , Humans , Agriculture , Surveys and Questionnaires , Government , China
6.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 52(6): 6-7, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537270

ABSTRACT

In Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, the Supreme Court eliminated the long-standing federal constitutional right to abortion. Discussions of Dobbs tend to emphasize the loss of protection for reproductive choice. But Dobbs also eroded protection for a related yet distinctly important interest that served under Roe v. Wade as a check on government regulation of reproduction: the preservation of health. This erasure has opened the door to increasingly restrictive and punitive abortion bans, which are causing providers to deny or delay care that is necessary to prevent harm to both pregnant and nonpregnant patients. Federal regulatory attempts to prevent these harms will have limited impact, partially due to Congress's own history of exceptionalizing abortion in ways that devalue health. Only federal legislation can ensure adequate and enduring protection for the health of women, trans men, and other patients targeted for reproductive control because of their capacity for pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Legal , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , United States , Reproduction , Supreme Court Decisions , Government Regulation
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498027

ABSTRACT

In environmental authoritarian countries, environmental pollution control relies on government environmental regulation. Theoretically, the certainty and severity of environmental regulation are the key factors in achieving its political goals. According to regulatory space theory, an effective regulatory system needs regulatory power and resources. However, the effectiveness of regulation may be decreased by the desperate need for resources, and the regulated enterprises can also affect environmental regulation through their information advantage and social networks. This paper focuses on how local environmental regulation can be achieved under these conditions. The analysis is conducted from two perspectives: the deterrence effect of punishment and the political connections maintained by enterprises. An empirical test was conducted by analyzing the research data from the 12th China Private Enterprise Survey in 2016. The study found that the severity of punishment is a mediator of environmental regulation in the promotion of enterprises' investment in pollution control, and that it is moderated by the political relationships of enterprise managers. Compared with counterparts that have a less substantial political network, enterprises with more political networks may feel more pressure from environmental regulation policies, which leads to higher pollution fines. However, the promotion effect of environmental fines on an enterprise's investment in pollution control is weakened due to its political relationships, thus weakening the effectiveness of the punishment. This paper clarifies the mechanism through which political connections weaken the effect of environmental regulation: political connections encourage firms to avoid real harm and do false good. Regulation is supposed to use fines as an incentive to improve the environment, but politically connected companies are more willing to pay fines (doing false good), than to invest in cleaning up pollution (avoiding real harm).


Subject(s)
Environmental Policy , Environmental Pollution , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Investments , Government Regulation , China
8.
Rev Panam Salud Publica;46, oct. 2022. Special Issue Tobacco Control
Monography in Spanish | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-56772

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To assess the adoption of tobacco packaging and labeling policies based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)’s Article 11 guidelines, in the WHO Region of the Americas (AMRO). Methods. We reviewed tobacco control laws in AMRO from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids’ Tobacco Control Laws database. We analyzed four sub-policy areas for smoked and smokeless tobacco products: 1) health warning labels (HWLs), 2) constituents and emissions (C&Es), 3) misleading tobacco packaging and labeling, and 4) standardized “plain” packaging. Results. Of 35 countries in AMRO, 31 have tobacco packaging and labeling laws. Twenty-six countries require pictorial HWLs, 24 require warnings printed on at least 50% of the front and back of the packs, and 24 rotate a single or multiple (from 2 to 16) warnings within a specified period (from 5 up to 24 months). Only 21 countries require descriptive messages on toxic C&Es information. Twenty-seven countries ban brand descriptors with references to implied harm reduction (e.g., “light”), 24 ban figures, colors, and other signs, but only 13 prohibit emission yields printed on the packs. Only Canada and Uruguay have adopted standardized tobacco pack- aging while Uruguay also requires a single presentation (one brand variant) per brand family. Conclusion. Many countries in AMRO have made good progress in adopting multiple, rotating, large picto- rial HWLs and banning misleading brand descriptors. However, there needs to be greater attention on other tobacco packaging and labeling provisions with a focus on implementing standardized tobacco packaging.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la adopción de las políticas de empaquetado y etiquetado de los productos de tabaco basadas en las Directrices del Artículo 11 del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT) de la Orga- nización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en la Región de las Américas de la OMS. Métodos. Se examinaron las leyes de control del tabaco en la Región de las Américas de la base de datos de legislación para el control del tabaco de la organización Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Se analiza- ron cuatro subáreas de políticas sobre los productos de tabaco para fumar y sin humo: 1) etiquetas de advertencia sanitaria; 2) componentes y emisiones; 3) empaquetado y etiquetado engañoso del tabaco, y 4) empaquetado "neutro" estandarizado. Resultados. De los 35 países de la Región, 31 disponen de leyes de empaquetado y etiquetado de los productos de tabaco. Veintiséis países requieren etiquetas de advertencia sanitaria con imágenes, 24 requi- eren advertencias impresas en al menos 50% de la parte frontal y posterior de los paquetes, y en 24 se rotan una o varias advertencias (entre 2 y 16) en un período específico (entre 5 y 24 meses). Solo 21 países requieren mensajes descriptivos sobre componentes y emisiones tóxicos. Veintisiete países prohíben los descriptores de marca con referencias a una supuesta reducción de daños (por ejemplo, "suaves"), 24 prohí- ben imágenes, colores y otros símbolos, aunque solo 13 prohíben que las cifras de emisiones figuren en los paquetes. Únicamente Canadá y Uruguay han adoptado un empaquetado estandarizado de los productos de tabaco, si bien en Uruguay también es obligatoria una presentación única (variante de marca) por familia de marca. Conclusión. Muchos países de la Región han logrado avances en la adopción de diferentes etiquetas rota- tivas de advertencia sanitaria con imágenes de gran tamaño y en la prohibición de descriptores de marca engañosos. Sin embargo, es necesario prestar mayor atención a otras disposiciones sobre el empaquetado y el etiquetado de los productos de tabaco destinadas a la aplicación de un empaquetado estandarizado de estos productos.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a adoção de políticas de embalagem e etiquetagem de produtos de tabaco com base nas diretrizes do Artigo 11 da Convenção-Quadro para o Controle do Tabaco (FCTC) da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), na Região das Américas da OMS. Métodos. As leis de controle do tabaco na AMR foram examinadas com base no banco de dados das Leis de Controle do Tabaco da Campanha para Crianças Livres do Tabaco. Foram analisadas quatro subáreas de política para produtos de tabaco queimados/combustíveis e não geradores de fumaça: 1) advertências sanitárias, 2) componentes e emissões (C&E), 3) embalagem e etiquetagem enganosa de produtos de tabaco e 4) embalagem padronizada. Resultados. Dos 35 países da AMR, 31 têm leis sobre a embalagem e etiquetagem de produtos de tabaco. Vinte e seis países exigem imagens de advertência, 24 exigem advertências impressas que ocupem pelo menos 50% da frente (face anterior) e do verso (face posterior) das embalagens e 24 realizam rodízio de uma ou várias (de 2 a 16) advertências dentro de um período especificado (de 5 a 24 meses). Apenas 21 países exigem mensagens descritivas sobre C&E tóxicos. Vinte e sete países proíbem os descritores que levem a uma falsa impressão de redução de danos (por exemplo, “light”) e 24 proíbem o uso de figuras, cores e outros indicadores, mas apenas 13 proíbem a impressão do teor de emissões nas embalagens. Somente o Canadá e o Uruguai adotaram embalagens padronizadas para produtos de tabaco, e o Uruguai também exige uma única apresentação (uma variante de marca) por família de produto. Conclusão. Muitos países na AMR têm avançado na adoção de advertências sanitárias pictóricas, múltiplas, grandes e com rotatividade, bem como na proibição de termos enganosos nas embalagens. Porém, é preciso dar mais atenção a outras disposições sobre a embalagem e a etiquetagem dos produtos de tabaco, com foco na implementação de embalagens padronizadas.


Subject(s)
Tobacco-Derived Products Labeling , Tobacco-Derived Products Packing , Government Regulation , Health Communication , Americas , Tobacco-Derived Products Labeling , Tobacco-Derived Products Packing , Government Regulation , Health Communication , Americas , Americas , Tobacco-Derived Products Labeling , Tobacco-Derived Products Packing , Government Regulation , Health Communication
9.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-11-23. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0034).
in French | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-56752

ABSTRACT

Cette fiche d’information fournit des renseignements sur l’alcool non enregistré. L’alcool non enregistré est de l’alcool qui n’est pas comptabilisé par les systèmes gouvernementaux officiels et qui est généralement produit, distribué et vendu en dehors des canaux officiels sous le contrôle du gouvernement. La fiche d’information décrit les types d’alcool non enregistrés et les dangers pour la santé associés à sa consommation. Il fournit également des recommandations aux consommateurs sur les produits alcoolisés non commerciaux et aux gouvernements sur la réglementation de l’alcool non enregistré.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholic Beverages , Government Regulation , Fermented Foods , Ethanol , Mouthwashes , Hand Sanitizers , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Methanol , Blindness , Death
10.
Nature ; 611(7937): 648-649, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385294
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360852

ABSTRACT

Can environmental regulation promote green innovation and the productivity of cities? The "Compliance Cost" (CC) perspective and the "Porter Hypothesis" (PH) offer contrasting views, whereas the existing empirical results are inconclusive. This paper aims to highlight the roles of multifaceted government interventions, including government-to-firm subsidies, tax levies on firms, and environmental infrastructure provisions, in moderating environmental regulation for realizing PH. Based on the fixed-effects models for Chinese prefecture cities from 2005-2013, we found that environmental regulation positively impacted green innovation but negatively affected productivity. The results of moderating effects suggest that environmental regulation can better promote green innovation if it is compounded with more government-to-firm subsidies, lower firm tax burdens, and increased environmental infrastructure provisions. We further decomposed the impacts of these interventions across seven fields of green innovation and found that subsidy and tax burden relief were especially effective in facilitating more GI in the sector of transportation and alternative energy production. This paper amplifies the theoretical framework of PH by accentuating the analytical lens of multifaceted government interventions but also provides insights into how local governments can effectively design "carrot-and-stick" policies to realize PH at the city level.


Subject(s)
Efficiency , Government , Cities , Local Government , Government Regulation , Financing, Government , China
12.
Science ; 378(6617): 242-245, 2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264794

ABSTRACT

The United States is moving to tighten oversight of studies that could make viruses more dangerous. But how far should it go?


Subject(s)
Government Regulation , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Monkeypox/virology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Monkeypox virus/pathogenicity , United States
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2234883, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197669
14.
JAMA ; 328(15): 1499-1500, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190715

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint explains how a recent Supreme Court decision clarifies rules for prescribing controlled substances so that patients are not denied appropriate care and physicians are not unjustly prosecuted.


Subject(s)
Controlled Substances , Drug Prescriptions , Government Regulation , Legislation, Drug , Supreme Court Decisions , Controlled Substances/administration & dosage , Jurisprudence , United States , Drug Prescriptions/standards , Federal Government , Legislation, Drug/standards
16.
JAMA ; 328(17): 1674-1676, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173620

ABSTRACT

This medical news feature discusses the challenges of treating pregnant patients diagnosed with cancer following the reversal of Roe v Wade.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Induced/legislation & jurisprudence , Abortion, Legal/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Regulation , Jurisprudence , Neoplasms/therapy , Pregnant Women , Supreme Court Decisions , United States , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/therapy
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, oct. 2022. Special Issue Tobacco Control
Article in English | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-56461

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Countries in the Region of the Americas have been slow to adopt standardized packaging of tobacco prod- ucts. The objectives of this analysis are to report on the progress made in adopting such packaging in countries in the Region, review known tobacco industry strategies for opposing these policies and discuss the resources available to academics, advocates and policy-makers who might be interested in advancing the use of standardized packaging in the Region. Of the 23 countries worldwide that have fully adopted stan- dardized packaging laws, only 2 are in the Region (Canada and Uruguay). Six other countries (Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Panama) have tried to introduce standardized packaging through draft bills, all of which have been delayed or withdrawn. There are indications that the tobacco industry has used its playbook of arguments to oppose the policy in those countries, including allegations that standardized pack- aging breaches national laws and international treaties protecting intellectual property, alongside threats of litigation. It is possible that these threats and allegations may have had a greater effect in the Region because of the lengthy (6 years) and costly (legal fees of US$ 10 million) international investment arbitration brought by Philip Morris International against Uruguay’s strong tobacco packaging laws. However, all of the industry’s arguments have been debunked, and national courts and international legal forums have upheld standard- ized packaging as a lawful policy. Governments in the Region of the Americas should follow the examples of Canada and Uruguay and reject the industry’s false arguments and litigation threats. This analysis discusses some of the financial and technical resources that can assist them.


[RESUMEN]. Los países de la Región de las Américas han tardado en adoptar el empaquetado estandarizado de los pro- ductos de tabaco. Los objetivos de este análisis son informar sobre el progreso realizado en la adopción de dicho empaquetado en los países de la Región, revisar las estrategias conocidas de la industria tabacalera para oponerse a estas políticas y abordar los recursos disponibles para la comunidad académica, los defen- sores de la causa y los responsables de formular las políticas que podrían estar interesados en fomentar el uso del empaquetado estandarizado en la Región. De los 23 países de todo el mundo que han adoptado plenamente leyes sobre el empaquetado estandarizado, solo dos se encuentran en la Región (Canadá y Uruguay). Otros seis países (Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México y Panamá) han tratado de introducir empaquetados estandarizados mediante proyectos de ley, los cuales han enfrentado demoras o han sido retirados. En esos países hay indicios de que la industria tabacalera ha recurrido a una cartilla de argumentos para oponerse a esta política, como acusaciones de que los empaquetados estandarizados violan las leyes nacionales y los tratados internacionales que protegen la propiedad intelectual, además de amenazas de litigios. Es posible que estas amenazas y alegatos hayan tenido un mayor efecto en la Región debido al largo (6 años) y costoso (costos legales de US$ 10 millones) arbitraje internacional en el ámbito de las inversiones presentado por Philip Morris International contra las fuertes leyes de empaquetado de tabaco de Uruguay. Sin embargo, todos los argumentos de la industria han sido desacreditados, y los tribunales nacionales y los foros jurídicos internacionales han defendido el empaquetado estandarizado como una política legal. Los gobiernos de la Región de las Américas deben seguir los ejemplos de Canadá y Uruguay y rechazar los argu- mentos falsos y las amenazas de litigio de la industria. En este análisis se examinan algunos de los recursos financieros y técnicos que pueden ayudarlos.


[RESUMO]. Os países da Região das Américas têm sido lentos em adotar embalagens padronizadas para produtos de tabaco. Os objetivos desta análise são: informar acerca do progresso feito na adoção de tais embalagens nos países da região; revisar as estratégias conhecidas da indústria do tabaco para se opor a essas políticas; e discutir os recursos disponíveis para acadêmicos, defensores e formuladores de políticas que possam estar interessados em avançar no uso de embalagens padronizadas na região. Dos 23 países do mundo que adotaram leis obrigando o uso de embalagens totalmente padronizadas, apenas 2 estão na região (Canadá e Uruguai). Seis outros países (Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Equador, México e Panamá) tentaram introduzir embalagens padronizadas por meio de projetos de lei, os quais foram todos adiados ou retirados. Há indícios de que a indústria do tabaco usou seus argumentos habituais – incluindo alegações de que embalagens padronizadas violam leis nacionais e tratados internacionais de proteção à propriedade intelectual, além de ameaças de litígio – para se opor às políticas nesses países. É possível que essas ameaças e alegações tenham tido um efeito maior na região devido ao longo (6 anos) e dispendioso (US$ 10 milhões em hon- orários advocatícios) processo de arbitragem internacional iniciado pela Philip Morris International contra as fortes leis de embalagem de produtos de tabaco do Uruguai. Porém, todos os argumentos da indústria foram desmascarados e tanto os tribunais nacionais como fóruns jurídicos internacionais decidiram em favor da embalagem padronizada como política legal. Os governos da Região das Américas deveriam seguir os exemplos do Canadá e do Uruguai e rejeitar os argumentos falsos e as ameaças de litígio da indústria. Esta análise discute alguns recursos financeiros e técnicos que podem ajudá-los.


Subject(s)
Americas , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Tobacco-Derived Products Packing , Government Regulation , Americas , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Tobacco-Derived Products Packing , Government Regulation , Americas , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Tobacco-Derived Products Packing , Government Regulation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL