Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 178
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261858, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635428

ABSTRACT

As a first line of defense to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, people reduced social contacts to avoid pathogen exposure. Using a panel of countries, this research suggests that this was amplified in societies characterized by high social support and future orientation. People reacted more strongly in dense environments; government orders had more effect in high power distance societies. Conversely, a focus on accomplishments was associated with lower changes. Understanding people's actual behaviors in response to health threats across societies is of great importance for epidemiology, public health, international business, and for the functioning of humanity as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Government Regulation , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/psychology
3.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 116-123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591384

ABSTRACT

Arguing for the importance of robust public participation and meaningful Tribal consultation to address the cumulative impacts of federal projects, we bridge interdisciplinary perspectives across law, public health, and Indigenous studies. We focus on openings in existing federal law to involve Tribes and publics more meaningfully in resource management planning, while recognizing the limits of this involvement when only the federal government dictates the terms of participation and analysis. We first discuss challenges and opportunities for addressing cumulative impacts and environmental justice through 2 US federal statutes: the National Environmental Policy Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. Focusing on a major federal planning process involving fracking in the Greater Chaco region of northwestern New Mexico, we examine how the Department of the Interior attempted Tribal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also highlight local efforts to monitor Diné health and well-being. For Diné people, human health is inseparable from the health of the land. But in applying the primary legal tools for analyzing the effects of extraction across the Greater Chaco region, federal agencies fragment categories of impact that Diné people view holistically. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):116-123. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306562).


Subject(s)
Community Participation , Decision Making , Environmental Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Hydraulic Fracking/legislation & jurisprudence , Federal Government , Government Regulation , Humans , New Mexico/ethnology , Public Health
11.
Health Inf Manag ; 50(1-2): 26-34, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has tremendous potential to enhance communication among physicians, leading to improvements in service delivery. However, the protection of health information in digital/electronic format is an ongoing concern. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine guidance for the protection of health information when using ICT from all 10 of Canada's provincial regulatory colleges for physicians and to discuss the potential policy and service delivery implications. METHOD: A search of the regulatory college websites was conducted, followed by a document analysis (content and thematic). RESULTS: The college website search identified 522 documents; 12 of these documents (from 8 of the 10 colleges) met the study criteria. These documents were notable for the considerable variation in the scope and detail of guidance provided across the colleges. CONCLUSION: While the federal-provincial division of powers in Canada enables different jurisdictional approaches to health service delivery and, thus, opportunities for policy learning, this governing structure may also contribute to a lack of incentive for collaboration, leading to an absence of standardised guidance for health information protection when using ICT. This, in turn, may result in unequal and inequitable protection of health information across the provinces. Therefore, a macro-level approach to policy development in this area may hold the greatest promise for enhancing the protection of health information and doing so in a more standardised manner in countries with federal systems of governance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Computer Security , Government Regulation , Medical Informatics , Canada , Health Policy , Medical Informatics/legislation & jurisprudence , Physicians , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 226-232, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This survey article presents a literature review of relevant publications aiming to explore whether the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has held true during a time of crisis and the implications that arose during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD AND RESULTS: Based on the approach taken and the screening of the relevant articles, the results focus on three themes: a critique on GDPR; the ethics surrounding the use of digital health technologies, namely in the form of mobile applications; and the possibility of cross border transfers of said data outside of Europe. Within this context, the article reviews the arising themes, considers the use of data through mobile health applications, and discusses whether data protection may require a revision when balancing societal and personal interests. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, although it is clear that the GDPR has been applied through a mixed and complex experience with data handling during the pandemic, the COVID-19 pandemic has indeed shown that it was a test the GDPR was designed and prepared to undertake. The article suggests that further review and research is needed to first ensure that an understanding of the state of the art in data protection during the pandemic is maintained and second to subsequently explore and carefully create a specific framework for the ethical considerations involved. The paper echoes the literature reviewed and calls for the creation of a unified and harmonised network or database to enable the secure data sharing across borders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer Security/legislation & jurisprudence , Data Collection/ethics , Information Dissemination/ethics , Computer Security/ethics , Confidentiality , Data Collection/legislation & jurisprudence , European Union , Government Regulation , Humans , Information Dissemination/legislation & jurisprudence
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367877

ABSTRACT

Evidence for effective government policies to reduce exposure to alcohol's carcinogenic and hepatoxic effects has strengthened in recent decades. Policies with the strongest evidence involve reducing the affordability, availability and cultural acceptability of alcohol. However, policies that reduce population consumption compete with powerful commercial vested interests. This paper draws on the Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation (CAPE), a formal assessment of effective government action on alcohol across Canadian jurisdictions. It also draws on alcohol policy case studies elsewhere involving attempts to introduce minimum unit pricing and cancer warning labels on alcohol containers. Canadian governments collectively received a failing grade (F) for alcohol policy implementation during the most recent CAPE assessment in 2017. However, had the best practices observed in any one jurisdiction been implemented consistently, Canada would have received an A grade. Resistance to effective alcohol policies is due to (1) lack of public awareness of both need and effectiveness, (2) a lack of government regulatory mechanisms to implement effective policies, (3) alcohol industry lobbying, and (4) a failure from the public health community to promote specific and feasible actions as opposed to general principles, e.g., 'increased prices' or 'reduced affordability'. There is enormous untapped potential in most countries for the implementation of proven strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. While alcohol policies have weakened in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, societies may now also be more accepting of public health-inspired policies with proven effectiveness and potential economic benefits.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/legislation & jurisprudence , Alcoholic Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy , Public Health , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcoholic Beverages/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Commerce/economics , Commerce/standards , Costs and Cost Analysis , Government Programs , Government Regulation , Humans , Pandemics , Product Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 291-326, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361585

ABSTRACT

The FDA already subjects most medical devices to much less stringent approval requirements than drugs and biologics, and attempts to speed up rollout during the COVID crisis have been problematic. Agency decisions, including to allow antibody test marketing without emergency use authorization or review, and the back-and-forth guidance on laboratory-developed tests, have met harsh criticism and unreliable results. Though the long-term results of these decisions are unclear, the FDA's credibility, reliability, and commitment to safety are threatened by even further lessening medical device regulatory oversight during the coronavirus pandemic. The relaxed and fix-it-later approach to many of the FDA's public health emergency decisions regarding medical devices reflect the ongoing criticisms of medical device regulation in general, specifically the 510(k) process and laboratory developed test regulation, offering a point of reflection towards reform. Adaptive legislation and a risk-based and evidentiary approach to premarket and postmarket review can begin to address these issues both generally and in an emergency context.


Subject(s)
Device Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Regulation , Medical Device Legislation/standards , United States Food and Drug Administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , United States
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255873, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) in January 2020. Various physical distancing interventions were introduced to flatten the epidemic curve and reduce the disease burden. We evaluated the impacts of policy stringency and residents' compliance on time-varying reproduction number in 17 countries. METHODS: Data were from WHO reports of local transmission (February 28 to April 8, 2020) in Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, the UK, US and Vietnam. Earlier local transmission data where available from press releases were added for Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan starting January 28, 2020. COVID-19 policy responses were from the Oxford Covid-19 Government Response Tracker with 17 indicators. Changes in people's behaviors were from Google's COVID-19 community mobility reports and Apple Maps' mobility trends reports. We estimated the daily time-varying reproduction number (Rt) by country. 0-, 7- and 14-day lagged effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions and changes in human mobility on Rt were estimated by linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Rt initially surged rapidly, then declined gradually depending on policy stringency. The highest mean policy stringency scores were for Italy (69.97) and South Korea (61.00). Variations in stringency scores were higher in Europe, the US and Australia than in Asia. The human mobility reduction was greater in countries with strict policies (median stringency score > = 50). In terms of immediate (0-day lag) effects, Rt reductions were found for workplace-closure, limited-gathering, and stay-at-home policies. At a 7-day lag, Rt reductions were found for workplace closure, restrictions on gatherings, stay-at-home requirements, international travel controls, contact tracing and reducing walking around. At a 14-day lag, Rt reductions were found for restrictions on gatherings, less visiting and staying in parks, and reduced walking around. CONCLUSION: The findings show physical distancing policies and residents' compliance can slow transmission, with the lag-to-effect time varying by policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Contact Tracing , Government Regulation , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 115: 135-136, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303588
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...